Article

Mindfulness-Based Positive Behavior Support (MBPBS) for Mothers of Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Effects on Adolescents’ Behavior and Parental Stress

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Abstract

Some parents have to deal with the challenging behaviors of their children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), including aggressive and destructive behaviors. While pharmacological and behavioral interventions have been the treatments of choice, sometimes the pharmacological treatments are not very effective or the behavioral interventions are so labor intensive that parents fail to implement them consistently, thus leading to treatment failure and parental stress. In this proof-of-concept study, we assessed the effects of providing mindfulness-based positive behavior support (MBPBS) training to three mothers on the challenging and compliance behaviors of their adolescents with ASD. The MBPBS program included a series of meditations aimed at personal transformation during an 8-week program. The training in mindfulness-based practices was paired with applications to their interactions with their adolescent children using a positive behavior support model, whereby the mothers learned how to apply behavioral contingencies with intuitive awareness. Results showed that the adolescents’ challenging behaviors decreased and compliance behaviors increased commensurate with the mothers’ training in MBPBS. In addition, statistically significant reductions in the mothers’ stress levels were correlated with the MBPBS training. These findings provide initial support for MBPBS in assisting parents to effectively manage the challenging behaviors of their children with ASD and in increasing their positive social interactions with them, but without raising their own stress levels.

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... Since parental stress interferes with the effectiveness of treatment for the child, improvement in children's outcomes is to be expected. In this line of thinking, some pioneering studies have demonstrated how mindfulness training in mothers of children with ASD leads to an improvement in the behavior of the children [21][22][23]. ...
... Results from many studies have shown that first generation MBI are effective in promoting benefits for parents of children with ASD, as well as for the children themselves [20,23,37,38]. A recent review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs), reported large positive effects on the parents distress and general health [19,[39][40][41]. ...
... These preliminary findings suggest that CBCT holds promise as a practical approach to promote mental health and well-being in parents of children with ASD. In line with previous research 23 we also found an improvement in the children's symptoms by working only with parents. Recent research has suggested that mindfulness and compassion may constitute a neural training to strengthen the neural pathways underlying effective social engagement [65,66]. ...
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Background: Parents of children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) face unique challenges in caregiving that threaten their ability to take optimal care of themselves and their children. Numerous studies have investigated the stress experienced by parents of children with ASD, but fewer have aimed to enable parents to better cope with the challenges involved in raising a child with ASD. While there is strong rationale for implementing second-generation mindfulness-based interventions (SG-MBIs) for ASD, to the best of our knowledge no study to date has investigated the effects of these standardized programs in this population. Method: We aimed to assess feasibility of CBCT® (Cognitively- Based Compassion Training) in parents of children with ASD (n=15). CBCT® is a SG-MBI of proven benefit for persons in several situations involving psychological stress. Participants completed measures of perceived stress –PSS–, children ́s behavior –ABC–, acceptance of their child’s condition –AAQ–, empathy and compassion –IRI–, parent-child relationship –PSOC– and executive functions –BRIEF-A– at pre-and post- intervention, and two-month follow-up. Results: CBCT participants demonstrated significant improvements in acceptance of their child’s condition, empathetic concern, parent-child relationship and cognitive flexibility. We also found a significant decrease in child’s symptoms and parenting stress. Overall results indicated that CBCT meets several criteria of feasibility for introduction into a clinical setting. Conclusions: The current study extends the literature exploring the applications of mindfulness for ASD. These preliminary findings suggest that CBCT holds promise as a practical approach to promoting mental health and well-being in parents of children with ASD. Further clinical investigation into the role of SG-MBI for ASD is warranted.
... Some studies have included qualitative analyses in their investigation of MBPs for children with ASD or their parents. In a series of single-case studies of a mindfulness-based positive behavior support (MBPBS) training for three mothers of adolescents with ASD, Singh et al. (2014) included a qualitative analysis of informal interviews. Mothers indicated that their stress decreased, and challenging behaviors of the children decreased and their compliance increased. ...
... These results give a first impression of the experiences of children with ASD and their parents following an MBP. However, these qualitative studies included either a small sample size only focusing on the mothers (Kennedy 2017;Singh et al. 2014), or a structured questionnaire with written answers instead of in-depth interviewing (Ridderinkhof et al. 2018a). ...
... In addition, some children appeared to be more open and responsive to feelings of others. Previous studies of MBPs for children with ASD or their parents also reported improved family relationships (Kennedy 2017;Ridderinkhof et al. 2018a;Singh et al. 2014) and social responsiveness (De Bruin et al. 2015;Ridderinkhof et al. 2018a). The change process attuning to others seemed closely related to the change process being aware. ...
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Objectives Mindfulness-based programs could support children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and their parents to cope with autism spectrum symptoms and reduce comorbid mental health problems. In this study, we aimed to explore which change processes are involved in a mindfulness-based program for children with ASD and their parents (MYmind), according to a qualitative analysis of the families’ experiences. Method Fourteen children aged 9–17 years and 31 parents (18 mothers, 11 fathers, 2 caring relatives) participated in an interview 2 to 5 months after the 9-week MYmind training, about their experiences with the training, experienced changes, and how mindfulness works for them. We used constructivist grounded theory methodology to develop a theory of the key change processes and their relations. Results Eight main change processes resulted from the analysis, namely connecting with peers, pausing, being aware, being in the here and now, letting be, determining a strategy, being and responding calm, and attuning to others. We proposed a model reflecting the interdependency and direction of these change processes. Conclusion The findings deepen our understanding of how multiple change processes are involved in the MYmind program for children with ASD and their parents. Theoretical and research implications are discussed.
... The pooled sample comprised 224 individuals: 131 caregivers and 93 individuals (81 children, 12 adults) with ASD. Two studies sourced participants based on diagnosis or referral from a clinician [49,50], two conducted confirmatory testing of ASD, [2,29] with the remainder recruiting participants from a registered disability agency [41,42,[51][52][53][54] or clinician/agency referral [27]. There was a higher proportion of female caregivers (n ¼ 97; mother, grandmother, aunt), children (5-17 years; n ¼ 81) and males (child or adult; n ¼ 76) with higher functioning ASD (i.e., exclusions of those with IQ below 70-80; [2,29,50]. ...
... Studies typically excluded children with a diagnosis of psychotic disorder, behavioural or suicide risk, as well as participants undergoing concurrent psychological treatment. Not all studies reported participants' education or work status [27,[51][52][53][54]. Where these data were available, they indicated that caregivers completed primary (n ¼ 2, 1.5%) or secondary school (n ¼ 22, 17%), with the majority having a post-secondary education (n ¼ 83, 63%)including trade, business or university qualification. ...
... Most studies had been published within the last five years and were based in high income countries (Table 1). These included four qualitative [29,49,51,52], a single mixed-methods [27] and five quantitative studies [2,41,42,50,53,54]. Semi-structured or informal interviews were the most common data collection method, used by eight studies [27,29,41,42,49,[51][52][53][54], followed by post-intervention surveys with open-ended questions [2,50]. ...
Article
Purpose: Third-wave psychological therapies can benefit individuals and families living with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). To date, little is known about individuals’ perceptions and experiences of therapy. This meta-synthesis aimed to capture participants’ own reflections of mindfulness and acceptance-based therapies, including potential barriers and facilitators to therapy engagement. Materials and methods: Database searches identified 10 independent studies targeting caregivers (Nstudies = 3), dyadic parent-child interventions (Nstudies= 6), or adults with ASD (Nstudies=1). Studies were subject to quality assessment and thematically analysed. Results: Caregivers highlighted a need to adapt the length and frequency of daily mindfulness practice around their busy lifestyles. Adults with ASD also identified therapy barriers, although these data were less robust. Children with ASD focused on therapy benefits. Conclusions: All three participant groups commented on the importance of mindfulness as a method to enhance self-awareness, self-regulation and self-care. Peer support provided in group-based therapy was also seen as beneficial. Future research should examine the application of mindfulness therapies to adults with ASD, with little currently known about this cohort’s therapy experiences. Whether traditional mindfulness approaches can be effectively modified to accommodate ongoing, cumulative daily demands these families experience also requires investigation.
... We examined 30 studies that evaluated the effects of components of ACTraining on a wide range of behavioral targets with individuals with ASD/DDs, their parents, and their staff. Overall, according to a PND analysis, ACTraining components that were found to be minimally effective and above for improving target behaviors included present moment attention/mindfulness (e.g., Brazeau et al., 2017;Chancey et al., 2019;Raulston et al., 2019;Singh et al., 2003;Singh et al., 2004;Singh, Lancioni, Winton, Curtis, et al., 2006;Singh, Lancioni, Winton, Adkins, et al., 2007;Singh, Lancioni, Manikam, et al., 2011;Singh, Lancioni, Singh, et al., 2011b;Singh, Lancioni, Singh, et al., 2011c;Singh et al., 2014;Singh et al., 2015;Singh et al., 2017;Singh et al., 2018) and intervention packages that used multiple components of ACTraining (e.g., Castro et al., 2016;Gould et al., 2017;Little et al., 2020;Pingo et al., 2019;Singh, Lancioni, Winton, et al., 2011d;Singh et al., 2013;Szabo, 2019). It should be noted that the PND analysis compared baseline with intervention data only and did not include generalization and maintenance data because not all studies measured generalization and maintenance. ...
... It should be noted that the PND analysis compared baseline with intervention data only and did not include generalization and maintenance data because not all studies measured generalization and maintenance. However, some studies found improvements in target behaviors to be maintained at follow-up sessions (e.g., Eilers & Hayes, 2015, Experiment 1;Singh, Lancioni, Winton, Fisher, et al., 2006;Singh, Lancioni, Winton, Adkins, et al., 2007;Singh et al., 2014), yet they did not meet the criterion for being minimally effective as defined by the PND analysis. Our review suggests that ACTraining components of the hexaflex used in combination and mindfulness used in isolation can be efficacious for improving target behaviors. ...
... A variety of intervention delivery formats, including individual (e.g., Brazeau et al., 2017;Gould et al., 2017;Little et al., 2020;Singh et al., 2003;Singh et al., 2004;Singh et al., 2018;Singh, Lancioni, Winton, Adkins, et al., 2007;Singh, Lancioni, Winton, et al., 2011d;Szabo, 2019), group (e.g., Castro et al., 2016;Chancey et al., 2019;Pingo et al., 2019;Singh, Lancioni, Winton, Curtis, et al., 2006;Singh et al., 2013;Singh et al., 2015), pyramidal (e.g., Singh et al., 2014;Singh et al., 2017;Singh, Lancioni, Manikam, et al., 2011;Singh, Lancioni, Singh, et al., 2011b;Singh, Lancioni, Singh, et al., 2011c), and telehealth (e.g., Singh et al., 2017;Singh, Lancioni, Singh, et al., 2011c), was also found to be efficacious; thus, clinicians have o p t i o n s f o r h o w t o i m p l e m e n t c o m p o n e n t s o f ACTraining. Variables to consider when choosing such formats include the contextual variables associated with the individuals needing to be trained, as there are advantages and disadvantages of each. ...
Article
Acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) is a contemporary approach to dealing with unhelpful private events and improving psychological flexibility (Hayes et al., 2006) that is often used in psychotherapy (Szabo, 2019). Nonpsychotherapeutic uses of ACT have been referred to as acceptance and commitment training (ACTraining; Moran, 2011, 2015; Szabo, 2019), which refers to the use of one or more of six processes—present moment attention or mindfulness, values clarification, committed action, self-as-context, defusion, and acceptance (Hayes et al., 2006)—implemented outside of psychotherapeutic settings. There has been a recent increase in interest in ACTraining within the behavior-analytic community, which has led behavior analysts to question whether ACTraining is useful to the field of applied behavior analysis (ABA) and whether it is within the scope of practice of behavior analysts. Tarbox et al. (2020) proposed that the use of ACTraining is within the scope of practice of behavior analysts and aligns with the seven dimensions of ABA as outlined by Baer et al. (1968). The purpose of the current study was to provide a systematic review of single-case research designs that measure the behavioral effects of ACTraining components conducted with individuals with autism spectrum disorder or developmental disorders, their parents, and their staff, and to inform clinicians and researchers about what variables have been evaluated and what gaps still exist.
... tices; however, many places throughout the world do not count on such support, leaving parents to deal with stress on their own. Parent stress levels have been associated with an increase in maladaptive behaviors displayed by both typical children and those with some form of disability (Hastings, 2002;Neece, Green, & Baker, 2012;Ó Donnchadha, 2018;N. N. Singh et al., 2014). In addition, behavioral problems tend to be more severe among children with autism spectrum disorder (Beer, Ward, & Moar, 2013). Parents experienced not only added stress (Cassidy, McConkey, Truesdale-Kennedy, & Slevin, 2008;Lewis et al., 2006) but also levels of distress associated with depressive and anxiety symptoms (Beer et al., 20 ...
... terature within the field of behavior analysis that has more recently looked at the effects of mindfulness as an intervention to make socially significant changes across diverse populations and behaviors, including those of parents and their children (N. Singh, Lancioni, Winton, Curtis, et al., 2006;N. Singh, Lancioni, Winton, Fisher, et al., 2006;N. N. Singh et al., 2014;. This concept adds value to the idea that mindfulness can help parents focus on what matters, the now, and how being present in a child's life is incredibly valuable-more so during these times of uncertainty in our world. Research has also shown that direct care staff and parents who have undergone training in mindfulness, as a result, ...
... Mindful parenting has also been successful in decreasing the overall stress levels reported by mothers (N. N. Singh et al., 2014). These studies further support that training parents to engage in mindfulness can help effectively manage some of the challenging behaviors displayed by their children while making a significant impact on their own stress levels and well-being. ...
Article
Parents often suffer from conditions such as stress and depression due to the high demands of parenting. In particular, parenting children with some form of developmental disability may bring about increased maladaptive behaviors that may increase daily parenting stressors. The fast-spreading repercussions of the COVID-19 pandemic have left millions of parents across the globe to deal with various stressors in isolation. Recent studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of mindfulness as an intervention for targeting individuals’ behaviors such as aggression, self-injurious behavior, and noncompliance while increasing overall well-being and happiness levels. Significant decreases in target behaviors are noted across studies, as well as increases in parent satisfaction and well-being. This study reviews the use of mindfulness within the scope of behavior analysis as a tool that can be quickly implemented to support parents not only through this crisis but also throughout parenthood in general.
... Five studies were conducted in the USA, three in Canada, and one each in Spain, Italy, Australia, Korea, and China. Although all studies in this review were required to meet or exceed the 50% threshold of transition-aged children with ASD, only three studies (Singh et al., 2014;Siracusano et al., 2021;Smith et al., 2018) met this criterion at 100% by specifically targeting this age group (Table 2). Sample sizes in the study ranged from 3 to 77. ...
... However, anxiety, mood, and stress were improved only when each pre-post session was evaluated independently versus any statistically significant change over the intervention period. Singh et al. (2014) undertook a proof-of-concept study with three mothers of transition-aged children with ASD. The intervention "Mindfulness-Based Positive Behavior Support" (MBPBS) combined one-on-one mindfulnessbased training with knowledge on how to integrate positive behavior support (PBS). ...
... Singh et al. (2019) conducted a larger-scale MBPBS intervention study using two groups: 47 mothers of adolescents with ASD and 45 mothers of adolescents with intellectual disability (ID). Both groups participated in the MBPBS intervention similar to the previous study (Singh et al., 2014) where mothers in both groups observed their child's daily aggressive and disruptive behaviors and assessed compliance. These were found to be statistically improved among both ASD and ID groups. ...
Article
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The period between adolescence to young adulthood can be stressful for parents of transition-aged children (14 to 22 years old) with autism spectrum disorder. A systematic review was undertaken to examine if existing interventions address the unique parental stressors of this phase and if the scales used to measure parental stress and anxiety are suitable for this group. Of the 9813 studies screened, only 13 studies met the inclusion criteria. Findings indicated that interventions focused on mindfulness, social functioning, or multiple components, of which only two addressed the transition period and only three specifically targeted parents of this age group. Moreover, of the six scales which assessed stress or anxiety, none were designed for these parents. Findings highlight the urgent need for more suitable scales and targeted interventions.
... Alors que l'approche laïque initiale MBSR/MBCT avait prudemment écarté toute dimension spirituelle, très récemment plusieurs auteurs ont proposé le développement d'une seconde génération des MBIs (Second Generation Mindfulness-Based Interventions, SG-MBIs) intégrant une part de l'ouverture spirituelle du bouddhisme traditionnel, qu'ils distinguent du standard classique MBSR/MBCT qu'ils qualifient de First Generation Mindfunless-Based Interventions (FG-MBIs) [66][67][68][69]. Dans cette perspective la méditation ne vise plus seulement l'obtention de bénéfices de santé et de bien-être mais la transformation personnelle du pratiquant [66]. ...
... Alors que l'approche laïque initiale MBSR/MBCT avait prudemment écarté toute dimension spirituelle, très récemment plusieurs auteurs ont proposé le développement d'une seconde génération des MBIs (Second Generation Mindfulness-Based Interventions, SG-MBIs) intégrant une part de l'ouverture spirituelle du bouddhisme traditionnel, qu'ils distinguent du standard classique MBSR/MBCT qu'ils qualifient de First Generation Mindfunless-Based Interventions (FG-MBIs) [66][67][68][69]. Dans cette perspective la méditation ne vise plus seulement l'obtention de bénéfices de santé et de bien-être mais la transformation personnelle du pratiquant [66]. Considérant l'acceptation sans-jugement du moment présent comme relativement passive (MBSR/MBCT), avec la SG-MBIs ils insistent sur l'engagement actif dans le moment présent, tout en ajoutant la dimension spirituelle (conduite éthique, impermanence, vacuité, non-self, amour-compassion…) [67,69]. ...
Article
Résumé Cette étude pilote examine la faisabilité et les bénéfices d’un programme de 18 h de pleine conscience (mindfulness) MBSR/MBCT proposé à 79 enseignants français d’écoles primaires, de collèges et de lycées, dont 52 en groupe expérimental, 27 en groupe témoin, organisé sur six ou sept semaines à l’École supérieure du professorat et de l’éducation (ESPE) de l’université de Limoges. Un protocole quasi expérimental, contrôlé mais non randomisé, avec groupe témoin en liste d’attente. Les bénéfices ont été évalués trois fois (pré-/post-traitement, suivi à deux mois) sur huit échelles explorant les difficultés de santé mentale et la santé mentale positive : questionnaire général de santé (GHQ-28), échelle de stress perçu (PSS-14), double échelle HAD anxiété-dépression, échelle d’auto-efficacité, échelle de satisfaction de vie (SWLS), échelle de bien-être (WBQ-12), questionnaire de mindfulness (FMI-14). Les résultats montrent des bénéfices significatifs pré-/post-traitement sur les huit échelles, qui se maintiennent dans le suivi à deux mois. La recherche d’éventuelles corrélations entre le temps de pratique personnelle de pleine conscience effectué à domicile et les bénéfices recueillis n’a donné de résultats que sur l’échelle FMI-14. Enfin, des corrélations sont observées entre l’augmentation pré-/post-intervention des progrès en mindfulness (FMI-14) et les bénéfices acquis sur les sept autres échelles.
... MBIs might be able to address the limitations of the approaches described above. Empirical studies indicate that adding MBI to the contingency management techniques used in behavioural approaches was effective in reducing challenging behaviour displayed in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and stress level in their parents (Singh et al., 2014). Promising results were found in experimental studies where mindfulness based strategies have been implemented with children with ASD and co-morbid ADHD, learning disabilities, and their parents (Benn et al., 2014;Blackledge & Hayes, 2006;Dykens et al, 2012;Hwang et al., 2015;Singh et al., 2006). ...
... Promising results were found in experimental studies where mindfulness based strategies have been implemented with children with ASD and co-morbid ADHD, learning disabilities, and their parents (Benn et al., 2014;Blackledge & Hayes, 2006;Dykens et al, 2012;Hwang et al., 2015;Singh et al., 2006). In accordance with Singh et al. (2014), these studies have confirmed that ...
Article
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Objective Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most prevalent disorders in childhood, which may pose risks in later life such as academic underachievement and anti-social behaviour. It has been suggested that mindfulness-based interventions (MBI) may contribute to positive outcomes with child and adult populations. In this article, we aim to systematically review the literature regarding the effectiveness of MBI on both children with ADHD and their parents. Method Seven databases were searched using the PRISMA criteria and included peer-reviewed journals and grey literature. Results Ten studies met the inclusion criteria. Findings suggested that MBI had positive results in addressing attention deficits in children with ADHD, but in terms of hyperactivity, the evidence was conflicting. MBI interventions also appear to effectively address parental stress and family functioning. However, the rating from the quality assessment showed several methodological limitations. Discussion The current evidence on the impact of MBI on ADHD symptoms is non-conclusive. However, promising data indicated the potential for MBI in addressing parental stress and family functioning. Further research is recommended to overcome the current methodological limitations.
... In a proof-of-concept study, mothers of adolescents with ASD were taught an 8-week MBPBS program and the effects of the program were assessed on the mothers and on their adolescent children (Singh et al. 2014). No training was provided to the adolescents. ...
... Extant research indicates that parents, professional caregivers, and teachers can effectively use MBPBS for selfcare, and to produce small mind-shifts in individuals with IDD and ASD such that they can produce large gains in the quality of their lives (Singh et al. 2019). Training in MBPBS produces positive changes in parents, professional caregivers, and teachers on a large number of variables, including stress, burnout, compassion satisfaction, secondary traumatic stress, and job turnover, with collateral positive changes in individuals in their care, including physical and verbal aggression, disruptive behavior, self-injury, social behavior, responsiveness to requests, staff injuries, peer injuries, use of physical restraints, need for emergency medication, and 1-to-1 staffing for behavior problems (e.g., Singh et al. 2013Singh et al. , 2014Singh et al. , 2015Singh et al. , 2016aSingh et al. , 2016bSingh et al. , 2020b. ...
Article
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Objectives Mindfulness-Based Positive Behavior Support (MBPBS) has been shown to be effective in reducing stress and burnout in parents and professional caregivers of children and adolescents with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The aim of this study was to assess the comparative effects of the mindfulness (MB) and positive behavior support (PBS) components against the MBPBS program for mindful parenting.Methods The study utilized a three-arm randomized controlled trial design, with a 10-week pre-treatment control condition, 30 weeks of intervention, and 3 years of post-intervention follow-up. Mothers of children with ASD were randomly assigned to the MB, PBS, and MBPBS conditions and provided 3 days of training specific to each condition. The effects of these programs were assessed on the mothers (i.e., training attendance, meditation time, perceived psychological stress) and spillover effects were assessed on their children with ASD (i.e., aggression, disruptive behavior, compliance with mothers’ requests).ResultsMothers in the MBPBS condition reported greater reductions in perceived psychological stress, followed by those in the MB condition, and with no significant changes reported by those in the PBS condition. Reduction in the children’s aggression and disruptive behavior followed a similar pattern, with most to least significant reductions being in MBPBS, MB, and PBS condition, respectively. Significant increases in compliance (i.e., responsiveness to mothers’ requests) were largest in the MBPBS condition, followed by MB, and then PBS. Changes across all variables for both mothers and their children were maintained for 3 years post-intervention. After time and training type were controlled for, meditation time was a significant predictor in reducing aggressive and disruptive behaviors, and in enhancing compliance of the children with mothers’ requests.Conclusions Positive outcomes for mothers and their children with ASD were significantly greater in the MBPBS condition, followed by the MB condition, and least in the PBS condition. MBPBS appears to be an effective mindful parenting program on the assessed variables.
... These studies represent a new line of research that is emerging in the mindfulness field, suggesting that only one mindfulness session can be associated with decreased anxiety, stress and negative psychological outcomes for participants [6][7][8]. More specifically, an extensive amount of research has been conducted on the effectiveness of mindfulness on informal caregivers which suggests that informal caregiver can enhance their self-management of psychological stress by practicing mindfulness [2,4,6,7,9,10]. ...
... To design a successful intervention, it is important to know the theoretical determinants of behavior that enhance participants' experience of the intervention and improve the likelihood of participants' sustainable behavior change. Hence, this study addresses the gap of understanding the utility, perceived feasibility and expected outcomes of mindfulness that are perceived by beginners of mindfulness through qualitative methodology in their natural setting through a natural inquiry lens [10]. ...
Article
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Background Evidence suggests that informal caregivers who are providing care for seniors with dementia experience daily stressors due to their demanding caregiving roles. Current research recognizes the positive impact of mindfulness on caregivers’ well-being. However, there is an existing gap in the current literature about informal caregivers’ own perceptions and understanding of mindfulness intervention.Objective To address this gap, this pilot study aims to explore informal caregivers’ experience of a single mindfulness session and the feasibility of mindfulness to be integrated into their daily lives.Methods Six informal caregivers who are providing care for seniors living with dementia participated in this qualitative descriptive study. Thematic analysis was used to derive themes to understand the participants’ experience of a brief mindfulness session.ResultsThe findings of the study generated five major themes: (1) Comparison of mindfulness with other relaxation techniques; (2) Single mindfulness session as a social learning opportunity; (3) Positive impact of practicing mindfulness; (4) Perception about barriers to practicing mindfulness; and (5) Perception of self-efficacy to practice mindfulness in the future.DiscussionThe study participants perceived mindfulness to be beneficial for their overall well-being. In addition, as participants were beginners of mindfulness, they considered mindfulness technique to be easy to learn through single practice session and feasible to be integrated into their daily lives.Conclusion This qualitative study highlights that as little as brief 15 min of mindfulness session is perceived positively by informal caregivers. There is a need for further research on the long-term outcomes of practicing mindfulness among informal caregivers of seniors.
... These are the ways which allow such children to develop better and be healthier. The integral parts of social rehabilitation of children with intellectual development disorders and their families are: inclusion of such children into physical training exercises which are able to correct and compensate for the psychological and physiological disorders that they have (Austin & Lee, 2013;Tsai & Fing, 2009); formation of responsible parenting practices which decrease the level of aggressive behavior in children and increase the level of parental satisfaction with the process of education and interaction with children (Cassidy, 2005;Singh et al., 2014). ...
... We have to take into account the fact that society has already accumulated considerable sociocultural experience in adapting people with Down Syndrome to a productive life in the community. This includes the functioning of inclusive sports and recreational facilities, which are backed by the state in many countries (Austin & Lee, 2013) and combat stigma (Singh et al., 2014). ...
Article
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Based on a survey of clients and interviews with experts, the study evaluates rehabilitation services for children with Down Syndrome provided through the out-of-school center "Socium". It is the only non-governmental organization in Kyiv (Ukraine) which is fully engaged in physical health and sport rehabilitation of disabled children. The findings demonstrate the positive effects of sport education on the social functioning and health of children and their families. The research reveals the need for the professional support of social workers of families with children who have mental retardation, and suggests steps for improving the services and inclusiveness at the centre.
... Further scrutiny of the evidence underpinning guideline recommendations indicates that there is particularly strong evidence of positive benefits of well-defined socially focussed ASD parent mediated interventions for children under 7 years (Oono, Honey, & McConachie, 2013;Pickles et al., 2015). Although a lifelong model of parent training is an aspiration (Matson, Mahan, & Matson, 2009), there is limited evidence about optimal parent interventions for older children (Chiang, 2014;Kuhaneck, Madonna, Novak, & Pearson, 2015;Solomon, Ono, Timmer, & Goodlin-Jones, 2008) and even less evidence in relation to adults (Clifford & Minnes, 2013a;Imms et al., 2016;National Institute for Health & Clinical Excellence (NICE), 2012, 2014. The ideal content, focus and delivery of parent intervention is likely to change over the lifespan and approaches for younger children may not be directly applicable at all ages, therefore in this study we have opted to review evidence available in relation to parent focussed interventions for older children and adults. ...
... 'Children'(n = 550) were aged between 3 and 23 years, with 3 studies including parents of young adults (Benn et al., 2012;de Bruin et al., 2015;Singh et al., 2014). No studies involved parents of adults over 24 years. ...
Article
A R T I C L E I N F O Number of reviews completed is 2 Keywords: Autism spectrum disorder Wellbeing Quality of life Parent stress Intervention A B S T R A C T Background: There is a need for better evidence in relation to parent-focussed interventions for older children (over 7 years) and adults, which are recommended in clinical guidelines. Method: We conducted a systematic review of studies published between 2006 and 2016 investigating wellbeing outcomes of ASD parent focussed interventions via a search of electronic databases including MEDLINE, PsychINFO, CINAHL and the Cochrane database. Results: We screened 9605 titles, 57 full text articles and abstracts were read. Two were systematic reviews and 22 experimental intervention studies were included for review. Of these, five were Randomised Controlled Trials, three Controlled Trials and 14 Cohort studies. Interventions were: Parent education and training (n = 12); Mindfulness or relaxation training (n = 6), Parent support groups (n = 2) and Multicomponent interventions (n = 2). Studies reported five wellbeing outcomes: quality of life, parent stress, self-efficacy, parenting style and satisfaction. Separate meta-analyses compared each outcome, to test and estimate the summary effect shared by studies reporting each intervention. Statistically significant outcomes were obtained for reducing parent stress via mindfulness training and for improving parent style and satisfaction, through parent education. Conclusions: Analyses of a small number of studies indicate that parent focussed interventions could be effective in improving parent wellbeing, however further research is needed to determine optimal parent intervention models.
... Similar mindfulness-based trainings, including in the form of joint mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) and cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) programs, have been shown to reduce anxiety, depression, and aggression in individuals with ASD (Cachia 2017;Sizoo and Kuiper 2017), while programs for individuals with ASD, directly focused on enhancing and directing attention, increasing awareness of bodily sensations, feelings and thoughts, and increasing self-control, improve social communication and emotional and behavioral functioning (Ridderinkhof et al. 2018). In addition to patient-centric interventions, similar mindfulnessbased interventions may benefit individuals with ASD by training their social environment as well to be more mindful (Singh et al. 2014). ...
... Children with ASD whose parents have high levels of mindfulness experience lower levels of behavior problems, stress, and depressive symptoms (Beer et al. 2013). Following a mindful parenting training, ASD children had fewer episodes of aggressions, non-compliance, and self-injury; the training also improved parent-children interactions and parents' satisfaction with their parenting skills (Singh et al. 2006(Singh et al. , 2014. Similar mindfulness training of relatives and caretakers, having been shown to slow disease progression and improve psychological well-being in response to a broad range of neurological challenges, is far-reaching (Haller et al. 2017;Pagnini et al. 2015). ...
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Objectives An important complement to molecular treatments, psychological interventions for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are efficient and sustainable. The Western-influenced mindfulness concept is one such particularly powerful psychological construct with widespread benefits spanning health, education, and business spheres. By alleviating the difficulties inherent to certain rigid patterns of cognition and behavior, cognitively fluidifying mindfulness-based interventions anchored in training one’s attention to variability have emerged as promising for improving the well-being of individuals with ASD. The purpose of this paper is to review the evidence supporting these benefits and point to their potential underlying mechanisms.Methods In this conceptual paper, we first review the broad evidence of the benefits of a range of Western-influenced mindfulness interventions for individuals with ASD, after which we deconstruct their underlying intra-individual processes and effects, and, finally, frame these psychological mechanisms in light of current core cognitive theories of ASD.ResultsThis paper highlights the established importance and continued promise of Western-influenced mindfulness training in understanding and improving the psychological health and overall well-being of individuals with ASD. As such, we hope to lay the foundation for avenues of future research on mindfulness-inspired interventions aimed at non-invasively improving the lives of individuals and families affected by ASD.Conclusions This work provides a brief overview bridging Western-influenced mindfulness and cognitive theories of ASD. In so doing, it sheds light on this ripe intersection highly amenable to therapeutic intervention.
... Evidence to support the effectiveness of mindfulness interventions targeted to families affected by ASD is promising, albeit preliminary (Cachia et al. 2016a). Mindfulness interventions have been successful in reducing aggressive and non-compliant behavior, and improving social communication in children and adolescents with high functioning ASD (Singh et al. 2006(Singh et al. , 2011(Singh et al. , 2014. Mindfulness interventions have also shown promise in the management of psychological distress in adults with high functioning ASD (Sizoo and Kuiper 2017;Spek et al. 2013), even assisting emotional regulation over time (Conner and White 2018;Kiep et al. 2015). ...
... However, this same group also experienced large SWB gains at follow-up. This may be due to the indirect effects of mindful parenting, with research identifying reductions in child aggressive and self-injurious behaviors in addition to modest improvements in child attention span when parents practice mindfulness (Neece 2014;Singh et al. 2006Singh et al. , 2007Singh et al. , 2014. The inclusion of one or both parents in the child's therapy may, therefore, change the child's responsiveness to a psychological intervention such as mindfulness. ...
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Mindfulness-based therapies are rising in popularity. However, evidence for their effectiveness in reducing psychological distress and enhancing wellbeing for families living with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is limited. A systematic search identified 10 independent studies, involving a pooled sample of 233 children and adults with ASD and 241 caregivers. Hedges’ g effect sizes with associated 95% confidence intervals, in addition to heterogeneity, were calculated using a random-effects model. Caregivers, children and adults who received mindfulness all reported significant gains in subjective wellbeing immediately post-intervention. Available data indicated intervention effects were maintained at 3-month follow-up. Mindfulness presents a promising intervention strategy in ASD populations, however more controlled research is required to determine its precise efficacy for affected families and subgroups.
... MBIs might be able to address the limitations of the approaches described above. Empirical studies indicate that adding MBI to the contingency management techniques used in behavioural approaches was effective in reducing challenging behaviour displayed in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and stress level in their parents (Singh et al., 2014). Promising results were found in experimental studies where mindfulness based strategies have been implemented with children with ASD and co-morbid ADHD, learning disabilities, and their parents (Benn et al., 2014;Blackledge & Hayes, 2006;Dykens et al, 2012;Hwang et al., 2015;Singh et al., 2006). ...
... Promising results were found in experimental studies where mindfulness based strategies have been implemented with children with ASD and co-morbid ADHD, learning disabilities, and their parents (Benn et al., 2014;Blackledge & Hayes, 2006;Dykens et al, 2012;Hwang et al., 2015;Singh et al., 2006). In accordance with Singh et al. (2014), these studies have confirmed that ...
... Interventions that focus on training caregivers to implement both PBS and mindfulness, notably Mindfulness Based PBS (e.g., Singh et al., 2014), are emerging. Singh et al. (2014) employed a single-case multiple baseline across three mother-adolescent dyads in which mothers were trained for eight weeks. ...
... Interventions that focus on training caregivers to implement both PBS and mindfulness, notably Mindfulness Based PBS (e.g., Singh et al., 2014), are emerging. Singh et al. (2014) employed a single-case multiple baseline across three mother-adolescent dyads in which mothers were trained for eight weeks. Decreases in aggression and increases in compliance occurred for the adolescents across all three tiers, and mothers' self-reported stress decreased. ...
Article
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A concurrent randomized multiple baseline across three mother-child dyads single-case design was employed to evaluate the effects of a brief mindfulness-infused behavioral parent training program. The program included strategies embedded within the context of natural family routines. Three mothers and their children with autism spectrum disorder participated. At the individual tier level, visual analysis revealed moderately positive results for two mother-child dyads and contraindicated results for maternal self-reported stress in one dyad. At the study level, standardized mean difference analyses yielded a medium effect for increases in behavioral strategy use and small-moderate effects for decreases in parent stress and child challenging behavior. Implications for continued research and applications of the program for families of children with ASD are discussed.
... Thus, it is often crucial with special populations to engage both the parents and children in treatment; in this case offering yoga to both. Indeed, the parents' benefits from yoga interventions create an indirect effect on the behaviors of their children, even if their children were not provided with any direct interventions (Singh et al., 2014). ...
Chapter
Consistent with increased research support for the benefits of yoga, there has been considerable growth in yoga's popularity among school-aged children in the United States. This chapter examines school-based yoga with a specific focus on its effects on stress and anxiety. It summarizes research on the benefits of yoga from the standpoint of positive psychology and ecological systems theory. From this theoretical base, the chapter presents yoga as an intervention that fits within a three-tiered system of service delivery that could work efficiently in contemporary schools. Finally, the chapter gives examples of promising practices and special considerations for school-based yoga designed to address problems related to stress and anxiety for the general population of students, as well as special populations. There is good theoretical and empirical support for the mind–body benefits of yoga for managing stress, reducing anxiety, and improving well-being.
... Nowadays, many different programs and interventions are available to help parents and families in their caregiving roles. Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) training is one such program that has been effectively used with parents and caregivers of individuals with developmental disabilities in order to reduce parent stress and depression, improve life satisfaction and happiness and decrease behaviour problems in children (Neece, 2014;Singh et al., 2014;Bazzano et al., 2013;Singh et al., 2010;Singh et al., 2007;Singh et al., 2006). ...
Chapter
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People with intellectual disabilities are prone to various challenges in relation to self-care, emotional regulation, and decision making. Sometimes due to their cognitive and adaptive skill limitations, they display challenging behavior that further impacts on their quality of life. This chapter presents the concept of applied behavior analysis (ABA) and a discussion on the principles of applied behavior analysis (ABA) in prevention and treatment of challenging behaviors of individuals with intellectual disability. Functional behavior analysis (FBA) and its stages are described with examples for the future practitioners. As ABA has a major contribution in the treatment of challenging behaviors in individuals with intellectual disability, research supported treatment strategies are presented. This chapter also explained strategies for improving the adaptive behaviors of individuals with intellectual disability.
... More specifically, SG-MBIs differ from FG-MBIs because they (i) are overtly psycho-spiritual (but still secular) in nature, (ii) explicitly teach ethics as a component of mindfulness practice, (iii) employ an active rather than non-judgemental form of mindful awareness, (iv) teach mindfulness in conjunction with other meditative practices and principles (e.g., loving-kindness, compassion meditation, investigative/emptiness meditation), and (v) acknowledge the importance of support from, and harmonious practice with, other mindfulness practitioners (sometimes referred to as a "Sangha" of practitioners in traditional meditation texts) (for a detailed overview of SG-MBIs, see Van Gordon et al. 2015a). Some examples of SG-MBIs include the eight-week Meditation Awareness Training intervention ) as well as Mindfulness-Based Positive Behavior Support (Singh et al. 2014). ...
Article
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Objectives While there is a growing understanding of the relationship between mindfulness and compassion, this largely relates to the form of mindfulness employed in first-generation mindfulness-based interventions such as Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction. Consequently, there is limited knowledge of the relationship between mindfulness and compassion in respect of the type of mindfulness employed in second-generation mindfulness-based interventions (SG-MBIs), including those that employ the principle of working harmoniously as a “secular sangha.” Understanding this relationship is important because research indicates that perceived emotional synchrony (PES) and shared flow—that often arise during participation in harmonized group contemplative activities—can enhance outcomes relating to compassion, subjective well-being, and group identity fusion. This pilot study analyzed the effects of participation in a mindful-dancing SG-MBI on compassion and investigated the mediating role of shared flow and PES. Methods A total of 130 participants were enrolled into the study that followed a quasi-experimental design with an intervention and control group. Results Results confirmed the salutary effect of participating in a collective mindful-dancing program, and demonstrated that shared flow and PES fully meditated the effects of collective mindfulness on the kindness and common humanity dimensions of compassion. Conclusions Further research is warranted to explore whether collective mindfulness approaches, such as mindful dancing, may be a means of enhancing compassion and subjective well-being outcomes due to the mediating role of PES and shared flow.
... These strategies included training parents to stay calm to reduce further escalation of problem behavior and minimizing the potential negative reinforcement effects of prolonged problem behaviors. For instance, parents who were taught mindfulness skills, along with positive behavior support interventions, demonstrated a reduction in both the children's problematic behaviors as well as parental reporting of stress (Singh et al., 2014). Stocco and Thompson (2015) also provided ideas on training parents using other children, video models, or video-based child interaction simulators as a means to increase learning trials for parents while avoiding the need to contact the child's problem behavior in order for parents to practice correct responding. ...
Article
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Equivalence-based instructional (EBI) technology has been shown to be highly effective in teaching relations among varying arbitrary stimuli (Sidman, 1994). One of the primary benefits of EBI is that instruction can occur without a live instructor, which allows participants who may not have regular access to live instruction the opportunity to learn. This is a significant need among parents and caregivers of children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder or other developmental disabilities due to the lack of availability of qualified staff to provide training. The present study examined the use of EBI to train caregivers in a five-relation stimulus class consisting of the following elements: a) labels of social functions of behavior, b) descriptions of antecedent events, c) descriptions of consequence events, d) vignettes with both antecedent and consequence events, and e) function-based responses (Albright, Schnell, Reeve, & Sidener, 2016; Fienup, Covey, & Crithchfield, 2010). The study provides preliminary evidence that an EBI sequence can condition relations by showing improvement from baseline responding to posttest responding across the untrained relations, written topography-based tests, and video equivalence tests. The evidence of the training itself being responsible for the change is not strong, as the participants engaged in few training sessions and they scored highly on the trained relations without significant exposure. Since baseline to posttest responding does show improvement; there is evidence that exposure to the EBI sequence and MTS style training can teach relations about problem behaviors and the environmental events surrounding them. Further exploration of EBI training within this population is warranted, but the current experiment extended the stimulus equivalence literature base by incorporating caregivers of children with ASD as participants and utilizing video probes as a measure of equivalence.
... Stress may interfere with parents' ability to fully or consistently implement behaviour support plans (Singh et al, 2014). There has been increased attention in the literature evaluating approaches to ameliorate stress for parents of children with ASD. ...
Article
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Background: Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) commonly experience significant behavioural challenges that interfere with their ability to participate in valued family routines. Behavioural interventions, including parent training, have been demonstrated to be effective in building children's skills and resolving difficult behaviour. These interventions, however, have been plagued by inaccessibility, high attrition, and parental non-adherence. Recent approaches engage parents as active problem-solvers and provide more flexible ways to participate via technology.
... Дедалі поширенішою у суспільстві є поява дітей із розладами спектру аутизму (далі в тексті -РСА) [66]. Такі розлади характеризуються низькою соціальною компетентністю, низьким рівнем комунікації і особливостями поведінки та мислення [44]. Тому особи з РСА -в силу свого стану -мають проблеми із соціалізацією. ...
... Singh and his colleagues were among the early clinical researchers to test the mutual impact of mindful parenting training on mothers of psychiatry-referred children, including children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders (Singh et al., 2006(Singh et al., , 2014, developmental disabilities (Singh et al., 2007), and ADHD (Singh et al., 2010). Their research showed that mothers receiving mindful parenting training reported characteristics of improved psychological wellbeing, including decreased parenting stress and increased satisfaction in their interactions with children. ...
Article
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Objectives Mindful parenting interventions have shown to be positively associated with mental health of both parents and children in clinical settings. However, there is limited research on the links between mindful parenting and parents’ and children’s social-emotional well-being in community samples. The current study aimed to explore the mutual role of mindful parenting on parents’ subjective well-being and children’s emotional regulation in a community sample. We also sought to further examine the mediating role of perceived parenting daily hassles to explain these relationships in a sample of parents with healthy preschoolers.Methods Four hundred and ninety-four parents of preschool children (58.3% boys; the mean age = 5.08, SD = 1.15) completed questionnaires assessing mindful parenting, parenting daily hassles, overall life satisfaction, positive and negative feelings, and their children’s emotional regulation.ResultsWe found that mindful parenting was related to higher levels of parents’ overall subjective well-being and children’s emotional regulation and lower levels of perceived parenting daily hassles. A decrease in perceived parenting daily hassles may serve as an explanation for the associations between mindful parenting and parents’ subjective well-being and children’s emotional regulation.Conclusions This research helped us better understand the associations of mindful parenting with parents’ subjective well-being and children’s emotional regulation through perceived parenting daily hassles among community samples.
... Fifthly, the MYmind program involves mindfulness training for parents. It allows parents to establish a positive parenting style by being thoughtful and empathic, which in turn decreases their children's problem behaviours (Singh et al. 2006(Singh et al. , 2014. Also, previous studies have shown parents of children with ASD experience higher levels of stress, rumination, and poorer well-being than parents of children with typical development (Bonis 2016;Carpita et al. 2019;Giallo et al. 2013;Lai et al. 2015;Wang et al. 2013). ...
Article
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This study investigated the feasibility and preliminary effectiveness of a concurrent mindfulness program (MYmind) on Chinese adolescents with autism spectrum disorder and their parents in Hong Kong, China using a randomized controlled trial with a waitlist control group. Results showed the study had 80% compliance rate, 0% dropout rate, and 89% response rate. Between-group comparisons showed mindfulness had trend effects on parent’s rumination ( g = 1.16), mindful parenting ( d = 0.6), parenting style ( d = 0.59), and parenting stress ( d = 0.5). The study demonstrated the feasibility of the MYmind program in the Chinese context. A larger trial with longer follow-up period is suggested to better examine the effect of mindfulness on adolescents with ASD and their parents.
... The results of the intervention program presented here prove a post-treatment decrease in self-reported values of anxiety, stress and depression in parents that might generate positive changes in the psychological well-being and quality of life of families, as evidenced in the literature [45,53,91,92]. It is worth noting that it is not a widespread practice in ECCs in Spain to apply therapies both to ASD children and to their parents to achieve better well-being in the family, since it is seen as a complex and unitary system. ...
Article
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This study aims to develop a clinical trial to test the efficacy of a mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) and self-compassion (SC) program on self-reported values of anxiety, depression, and stress in parents of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in primary school, in order to assess their integration into the framework of community intervention programs in Spain. Methods: A brief 8-week training program using mindfulness-based intervention (MBSR) and self-compassion (SC) has been applied to twelve Valencian ASD parents, ten of whom completed the program. Participants were assigned to two groups; both groups received the same treatment but at two different measurement moments. Depression, anxiety, stress, satisfaction with life and mindful attention awareness measurements were performed, in all participants, in three testing stages. Results: Analysis of variance results suggested that MBSR and SC training reduces stress and anxiety and increases mindful attention awareness. No significant changes were found in life satisfaction measurements. Conclusions: The small number of participants prevents us from generalizing the results found. More MBSR and SC clinical trials are needed in parents of ASD with results on anxiety, depression and stress in order to demonstrate the relevance of the inclusion of these programs in community-based early intervention services.
... Notably, existing intervention for parents with adolescents and adults with ASD was not developed to enhance PSE. For instance, some targeted at enhancing children's social skills (Schultz et al., 2012), parents' overall emotional well-being (Singh et al., 2014) or family communication (Golan et al., 2018). Intervention targeting PSE are scarce. ...
Article
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Previous studies on parenting adult children with ASD were scarce, and their intervention protocols mainly were derived from established work with children. Development of an applicable adult-oriented protocol and demonstration of its effectiveness is warranted. The present study outlined the development and evaluation of Core Autism Parenting Skills (CAPS), which targets to enhance parenting self-efficacy (PSE) intervention for adult children with ASD by addressing two intervention goals in parallel: acquisition of parenting skills and cultivating positive attributes. In CAPS, PSE is operationalised into four parent roles: to observe, reinforce, empathise, and accompany, each with requisite attributes, skills, and prescribed training. Twenty-seven parents with adult children with ASD (aged 16–37) were recruited. They completed measures assessing their PSE, competence in the four parent roles, and emotional well-being at pre-training, post-training and 2-month follow-up. The intervention was well-received by the participants and reported significant improvements in PSE, parent role competence at post-training and 2-month follow-up. The applicability of PSE and parent role competence in constructing effective parenting intervention for adult children with ASD was supported.
... For instance, parents of children with ADHD, hearing impairment, Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), epilepsy experience a high level of stress, depression, and anxiety due to their children's behavioral, communication problems, academic performance, and mental issues. Parenting psychological and health issues found to be associated with the type and severity of the problem, child's age and lack of social support (Muñoz-Silva, Lago-Urbano, Sanchez-Garcia, & Carroll, 2017;Park & Yoon, 2018;Singh, Lancioni, Winton, Karazsia, Myers, Latham, & Singh, 2014). Particularly, looking after a child with severe or multi-disabilities can cause not only psychological issues but also physical problems, e.g., headache, back issues which impact their health and wellbeing (Arim, Miller, Kohen, Guèvremont, Lach, & Brehaut, 2019;Yagmurlu, Yavuz, & Sen, 2015). ...
Article
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Blogs are online published materials or journals where different community members can express, communicate, and share their news and experiences through posting photos, videos, and audios. This article investigates website blogs that were authored by parents of children with special needs (SN), from the last five years (2014-2019) and analyzes the challenges parents encounter which are related to social life experiences and the way they feel when facing these challenges. The collected data were processed with the WebQDA software and analyzed by Content Analysis. We could see that all parents, regardless of their kids' special needs, face challenges related to accessibility, child's characteristics, people's reactions, and child with SN behaviors, and experience a lot of positive and negative feelings when they're dealing with these challenges.
... Higher levels of mindfulness have been found to be associated with lower levels of recurring depressive symptoms (Parent et al., 2010). Mindfulness training has been successfully applied to samples of caregivers of children with developmental disabilities, including ASD, resulting in increases in life satisfaction and decreases in parental stress and child problem behavior (Bazzano et al., 2015;Cachiaet al., 2016;Coatsworth et al., 2015;Neece, 2014;Singh et al., 2014). ...
Article
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Children with autism may display an externalizing problem behavior, which are associated with increased parenting stress and depression in caregivers. Mindful parenting is defined as having a non-judgmental moment-to-moment awareness during caregiver-child interactions. The extant literature is mixed, with some reporting that associations between child problem behavior and parenting stress and depression vary by level of mindful parenting, while others have not found these relations. We sought to extend these explorations. Participants who were caregivers of 75 children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) ages 5–10, in the Pacific Northwestern region of the United States. Child conduct problems, parenting stress and caregiver depression, and mindful parenting were measured using caregiver-reported measures. Child conduct problems, parenting stress, and caregiver depression, and mindful parenting were all significantly correlated. The association between child conduct problems and parenting stress was significant for caregivers with high and low levels of mindful parenting. In contrast, the association between child conduct problems and caregiver depression was significant only for caregivers with low levels of mindful parenting. Our results suggest that mindful parenting may be a promising protective factor for the well-being of caregivers of children with autism. Implications are discussed.
... The results intervention program presented here prove a post-treatment decrease in self-reported values in anxiety, stress, and depression of parents that might generate positive changes in the psychological well-being and quality of life of families as evidence in the literature [53,45,96,97]. It is worth noting that it is not a widespread practice in ECCs in Spain to apply therapies both to ASD children and to their parents to achieve a better well-being state in the family, since it is seen as a complex and unitary system. ...
Preprint
This study aims to develop a clinical trial to test the efficacy of a Mindfulness Based Stress Re-duction (MBSR) and Self Compassion (SC) Program on self-reported values of anxiety, depres-sion, and stress in parents of children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) in primary school, in order to assess their integration into the framework of community intervention programs in Spain. Methods: A brief 8-week training program using Mindfulness based intervention (MBSR) and self-compassion (SC) has been applied to ten parents from the Valencian ASD parents’. Partici-pants were assigned to two groups, both groups received the same treatment but at two different measurement moments. Depression, Anxiety, Stress, Satisfaction with Life and Mindful Atten-tion Awareness measurements were assessed, in all participants, in three testing moments. Results: Analysis of Variance results suggested that MBSR and SC training reduces stress and anxiety and increases Mindful Attention Awareness. No significant changes were found in Life Satisfaction measurements. Conclusions: The small number of participants prevents us from generalising the results found. More MBSR and SC clinical trials are needed in parents of ASD with results on anxiety, depression and stress in order to demonstrate the relevance of the inclusion of these programmes in community-based early intervention services.
... Therefore, it is clear that family members of ASD children face three distinct challenges: understanding their children's autism, managing their behavior, and reducing the stress caused by the behaviors themselves and social stigma [14]. Indeed, working indirectly to increase and capitalize parental resources is considered an important mediating factor in ASD intervention and may reduce maladaptive behaviors in children and increase the well-being of the whole family [15,16]. ...
Article
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Background: Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) has been demonstrated as effective in improving psychological well-being in several clinical domains, but there is no evidence regarding the parents of children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Methods: In this randomized controlled trial, we evaluated the efficacy of the ACT matrix behavioral protocol in comparison to the Parent Training (PT) program, measuring several primary and secondary outcomes prior to and following treatments. Twelve parents were randomly and equally assigned to two demographically matched groups wherein individuals underwent 24 weekly meetings of ACT protocol (experimental group) or conventional PT (control group). Results: Parents enrolled in the ACT protocol demonstrated significant improvement in psychological flexibility, awareness states, personal values in everyday life, and parental stress, whereas reduced scores were elicited in parents' perceptions of their child's disruptive behaviors. Conclusions: The results of this randomized controlled trial, if repeated with a large number of subjects, could open the way to include ACT protocols in daily practice to support the development of new parenting skills.
... On one hand, it has been argued that MBIs provide a shortterm approach that establishes the basis for deeper practice that includes compassion, while arguments have also been advanced that ethics and compassion are likely to develop naturally even in the absence of specific instructions (Krägeloh 2016). However, to recognize the trend for a larger variety of mindfulness programs with specific themes and orientations, Singh et al. (2014) introduced the distinction between first-and second-generation MBIs. While the former includes the secular programs such as mindfulness-based stress reduction (Kabat-Zinn 1990), which were designed to address specific psychological issues (e.g., chronic pain), the latter includes more long-term lifestyle interventions as well as MBIs that have a specific focus. ...
Article
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Objectives Mindfulness, positive affect, and compassion may protect against psychological distress but there is lack of understanding about the ways in which these factors are linked to mental health. Network analysis is a statistical method used to investigate complex associations among constructs in a single network and is particularly suitable for this purpose. The aim of this study was to explore how mindfulness facets, affect, and compassion were linked to psychological distress using network analysis. Methods The sample (n = 400) included equal numbers from general and student populations who completed measures of five mindfulness facets, compassion, positive and negative affect, depression, anxiety, and stress. Network analysis was used to explore the direct associations between these variables. Results Compassion was directly related to positive affect, which in turn was strongly and inversely related to depression and positively related to the observing and describing facets of mindfulness. The non-judgment facet of mindfulness was strongly and inversely related to negative affect, anxiety, and depression, while non-reactivity and acting with awareness were inversely associated with stress and anxiety, respectively. Strong associations were found between all distress variables. Conclusions The present network analysis highlights the strong link between compassion and positive affect and suggests that observing and describing the world through the lens of compassion may enhance resilience to depression. Taking a non-judging and non-reacting stance toward internal experience while acting with awareness may protect against psychological distress. Applicability of these findings can be examined in experimental studies aiming to prevent distress and enhance psychological well-being.
... Therefore, some new MBIs integrating more Buddhist components were developed and further conceptualized as second-generation mindfulness-based interventions (SG-MBIs;Van Gordon et al., 2015). SG-MBIs adopted more Buddhist meditations, such as four immeasurable meditations (FIMs) and emptiness meditations, than earlier or "first generation" MBIs and often discussed a wide range of Buddhist ideas, such as emptiness and the three poisons (e.g., Singh et al., 2014;Van Gordon et al., 2014). With these meditations and discussions, SG-MBIs explicitly promote Buddhist ethics, and some SG-MBIs further emphasize that the interventions are intended to cultivate a lifestyle rather than mental skills alone (Van Gordon et al., 2015;Van Gordon & Shonin, 2020). ...
Article
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Objectives Second-generation mindfulness-based interventions (SG-MBIs) have emphasized the cultivation of ethics. However, some ethics and values that are emphasized in SG-MBIs are criticized by Confucianism, one of the most influential traditions in China. The current study developed a new SG-MBI called mindfulness-based positive psychology (MBPP) that emphasized value clarification and integrated Confucian values. The acceptability and effects of this intervention were evaluated among Chinese people in mainland China.MethodsA total of 138 healthy Chinese adults from universities and communities were randomly assigned to the MBPP or waitlist condition. Consistent with the “relief,” “promotion,” and “transcendence” modules in MBPP, variables representing negative symptoms (depression, anxiety, and stress), positive traits (gratitude and appreciative joy), and spirituality (meaning of life) were measured before and after the 6-week intervention and 3 months after the intervention. The amount of meditation practice and ratings for MBPP and different themes were also measured.ResultsCompared to the waitlist condition, MBPP significantly reduced anxiety and stress with low to medium effect sizes but not other measures. The amount of meditation practice during the intervention was significantly associated with changes in appreciative joy and gratitude. Participants rated the MBPP and themes highly, and themes in the “transcendence” module received significantly lower ratings than other themes.ConclusionsMBPP is a feasible and promising SG-MBI for promoting mental health among Chinese. Future studies should further evaluate the acceptability and effects of the new components of SG-MBIs and develop suitable measurements for those idealistic mentalities proposed by Buddhism and other traditions.
... Training in acceptance in the form of an ACT intervention could help the parents of children with ASD cope with their children's diagnosis (Da Paz et al. 2018;Sheeran et al. 1997). Mindfulness-based interventions have also been shown to hold promise in reducing stress and improving the wellbeing of parents of children with ASD (Cachia et al. 2016;Singh et al. 2014). These findings open up the way for interventions promoting the feeling of acceptance among the parents of children with ASD (Da Paz et al. 2018;Jones et al. 2014). ...
Article
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This systematic review investigated the effectiveness of acceptance and commitment therapy for the parents of children with autism spectrum disorder. PsychInfo, CINAHL, PubMed, Science Direct, and Psychology and Behavioral Sciences Collection were searched using the terms “acceptance and commitment”, “autism” and “parent”. A total of eight articles met the eligibility criteria. One study was a randomized controlled trial, one was quasi-experimental, and the other six were exploratory. Study outcomes concerned ACT processes, mental health, and quality of life. These studies showed that ACT interventions can be helpful for the parents of children with autism spectrum disorder. Nevertheless, as this field of research is relatively new, future research would benefit from creating a standard procedure and larger randomized controlled trials .
Article
Objective Taking care of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), as of children with other developmental disorders, is associated with greater parental stress. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and impact of integrative and co-morbid ASD-related symptoms on parental stress levels during the COVID-19 pandemic at four time points. Testing was performed during significant changes related to the state of the COVID-19 pandemic in Serbia. Methods The research sample included 67 parents of children with ASD 4 to 7 years and 6 months of age. The Autism Parenting Stress Index, Gilliam Autism Rating Scale - Third Edition, diagnostic criteria for ASD from DSM-5 and Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence - Fourth Edition were used to assess the tested abilities. Results Core behavior (problems of social development and communication skills) as well as co-morbid behaviors related to ASD (tantrums, aggressive behavior, self-injurious behavior and difficulties with transitions) caused the highest degree of parental stress. Post hoc tests that used Bonferroni correction found that parental stress caused by basic and co-morbid behaviors gradually decreased from first to fourth measurement, respectively. Sleep and toilet training problems, as well as co-morbid physical problems, caused the greatest degree of parental stress during the first measurement. Measuring total parental stress caused by integrative and co-morbid symptoms related to ASD showed that it was at the highest level during the first measurement, decreased during the second measurement and remained unchanged during the third and fourth measurements. Conclusion Time, as a repeating factor, during the COVID-19 pandemic has an effect on lowering the levels of parental stress caused by all examined ASD-related domains. These results may be useful in creating individual programs to support parents of children with ASD during the COVID-19 pandemic.
Article
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Autistic individuals are at elevated risk for difficulties with emotion regulation (ER) that emerge early in life and are associated with a range of internalizing and externalizing disorders. Existing interventions that support ER have focused on school-age autistic children and adolescents as well as adults. Proactive approaches to improving ER in early childhood are thus needed, as is understanding the approaches by which ER skills can be feasibly supported in this young population. This review summarizes how ER has been measured within parent-mediated interventions for children at or under the age of 6 years and the extent to which ER is measured concurrently with or distinctly from observable behaviors that have been referenced in existing literature as externalizing or challenging behavior. Using PsycInfo, EBSCOhost, and PubMed databases, we searched for peer-reviewed journal articles published through August 2021, that focused on the use of parent-mediated interventions targeting ER and/or challenging behavior. The systematic search resulted in 4,738 publications; following multi-stage screening, the search yielded 20 studies. Eighteen of 20 studies were designed to target challenging behavior using manualized curricula or behavior analytic methodologies and assessed child outcomes through validated caregiver rating scales and/or direct behavioral observation. One study measured changes in ER as secondary to the social communication skills that were targeted in the intervention. Only one study specifically supported ER skill development and measured changes in ER as the primary intervention outcome. Findings highlight the need for better assessment of ER outcomes within the context of parent-mediated interventions for toddlers and young autistic children.
Article
Background Behavior problems of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) bring many difficulties and stress to their parents, thus increasing their risk of depression. Recent studies have shown that the mindfulness and perceived social support may play significant roles in improving the depression of these parents as well as relieve their boundary of stress. However, related research conducted under the context of Mainland China is still limited, and no studies have yet explored the mediating effect of mindfulness and perceived social support on the relationship between behavior of children with ASD and depressive symptoms of parents in Mainland China. Objective The present study aimed to examine the relationship between behavior problems of children with ASD and parents’ depressive symptoms in Mainland China and focused on whether mindfulness and perceived social support may act as mediators in the association between child behavior problems and parents’ depressive symptoms. Method Participants were 286 Chinese parents of children with ASD. The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), the Center for Epidemiological Studies–Depression Scale (CES-D), the Cognitive and Affective Mindfulness Scale-Revised (CAMS-R), and the Interpersonal Support Evaluation List-12 (ISEL-12) were adopted to assess: child behavior problems, parental depressive symptoms, individual differences in mindfulness and perceived social support. Results The direct effects of child behavior problems on parental depressive symptoms was statistically significant (direct effect = 0.137, SE = 0.043, p = .002). Child behavior problems also showed a significant indirect effect on parental depressive symptoms through mindfulness (indirect effect = 0.097, SE = 0.025, p < .001) and perceived social support (indirect effect = 0.088, SE = 0.023, p < .001). Conclusions Two variables, mindfulness and perceived social support both played a mediating role in the influence of child behavior problems on parents’ depressive symptoms. Parental depressive symptoms were significantly related to child behavior problems. Consistent with previous studies across diverse cultural backgrounds, the results of this study showed that the relationship between child behavior problems and parents’ depressive symptoms was, in part, mediated by mindfulness and perceived social support of parents. Mindfulness interventions and effective social support for parents of children with ASD may be needed to help parents raise their children and relieve depressive symptoms.
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Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) often exhibit challenging behaviors. Existing behavioral parent trainings (BPT) address ASD symptomology, but are lengthy and associated with significant attrition. In the current pilot study, a longitudinal randomized controlled trial was used to evaluate a novel brief BPT targeting caregivers of children with ASD ages 5–9. The 6-session BPT, delivered in a group format, focused on high-frequency challenging behaviors (e.g., problem behaviors, feeding and sleep issues). Caregivers who received BPT (n = 29), relative to an active control (psychoeducation/supportive therapy; n = 9), reported higher treatment satisfaction and acceptability. Challenging behaviors were reduced in the BPT and active control groups. The novel BPT was a feasible and acceptable intervention to target challenging behaviors in youth with ASD.
Chapter
In recent years, mindfulness-based programs and practices have been recognized as effective treatment and training approaches congruent with Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) principles and applications. In this chapter, we introduce definitions of mindfulness and possible mechanisms of its actions as used in the context of anger and aggression management. We then briefly discuss research on mindfulness-based programs and practices taught to (a) parents and caregivers with the expectation that the effects of their own mindfulness practice will cascade and spillover to those they care for who engage in aggressive behavior, and (b) to individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD). Finally, we conclude this chapter with a few thoughts on how behavior analysts may incorporate mindfulness-based programs and practices in their professional operations for the provision of clinical services that are more responsive to the holistic and complex needs of their clients.
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Second-generation mindfulness-based interventions (SG-MBIs) align well with positive psychology philosophy and practices, but trials of SG-MBIs have largely focused on ill-being. This study developed a mindfulness-based positive psychology (MBPP) intervention integrating positive psychology with an SG-MBI to enhance well-being. A randomized control trial was performed to compare MBPP with a waitlist condition among 138 Chinese participants. The results showed that MBPP significantly reduced negative emotions for subjective well-being and significantly improved environmental mastery for psychological well-being. Improvements in self-compassion and negative attitudes but not avoidance, mediated changes in well-being. Changes in positive emotions, positive relations, and awareness were associated with the amount of meditation practice. These findings showed that MBPP is promising for improving well-being and that the positive psychology components play important roles. Broadly, the study illustrated that positive psychology and SG-MBIs can be effectively integrated, and it supported the further application of SG-MBIs from the positive psychology perspective. Supplementary information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s10902-022-00525-2.
Article
This study aimed to explore the experiences of mothers and efforts in implementing home education for children with autism, during the COVID-19 pandemic in Indonesia. Five mothers were recruited as participants and interviewed online, as the data obtained were examined through the use of thematic analysis. Also, three main themes were shown, (1) Mothers' experience in implementing home education, as regards adaptability and burden of caregiving, (2) The constraints in home education implementation, as regards maladaptive behaviours of ASD and emerging negative emotions, (3) The efforts to alleviate barriers, as regards problem-focused and religious copings. Also, the implementation of home education during the pandemic was less than optimal, due to the increase in maladaptive behaviours of the autistic children, low adaptability, the burden of caregiving, and emerging negative emotions. Appropriate coping strategies were also observed to help mothers in alleviating the constraints to implementing home education and parenting stress.
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Objectives Equanimity is a non-reactive attitude that is increasingly recognized as a central component of mindfulness practice and a key mechanism of mindfulness-based interventions that is currently lacking means of measurement. The present study aimed to develop a self-report measure of equanimity, explore its underlying factor structure, validity and reliability. Methods An initial pool of 42 items was selected from existing mindfulness questionnaires and measures of related constructs, and subsequently reviewed by researchers and selected based on majority agreement on their construct validity. The Qualtrics online platform was used to administer these items and other questionnaires used to assess validity and collect demographic information in 223 adults from the general community (66.8% females and 33.2% males, age range = 18–75). Questionnaires were then re-administered to assess test-retest reliability. Results In agreement with past research, exploratory factor analysis revealed two underlying factors, Experiential Acceptance and Non-reactivity. A final 16-item measure showed good internal consistency (⍺ = .88), test-retest reliability (n = 73; r = .87, p < .001) over 2–6 weeks and convergent and divergent validity, illustrated by significant correlations in the expected direction with the Nonattachment Scale, Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale, Satisfaction with Life Scale and Distress Tolerance Scale. Conclusions Based on this initial study, the Equanimity Scale-16 appears to be a valid and reliable self-report measure to assess trait equanimity, and may be further explored in future studies as a tool to assess progress during mindfulness-based interventions, and to assist in the investigation of their underlying mechanisms.
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The benefits of mindfulness are widely recognized, and it has received increasing research attention. Recently, researchers have extended the concept and practice of mindfulness to the parent–child relationship and proposed the construct of mindful parenting, that is, parenting with mindfulness. However, mindful parenting is a relatively new concept in the field of family studies, and the contents, psychometrically robust measures, outcomes, and cultivation methods of mindful parenting warrant in-depth exploration. This article presents a systematic review of mindful parenting. We first conceptualized mindful parenting by consolidating the existence of this construct. Then, we summarized various measurements to assess this construct, and reviewed theoretical models and empirical research on the roles of mindful parenting. We also illustrated the ways to enhance mindful parenting and provided current evidence regarding these methods. Further, we discussed the limitations in this field and proposed future research directions.
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Implementation science deals with the translation of evidence-based knowledge into practice in the real world. Mindfulness-based programs for people with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) emerged about 20 years ago. Efficacy and effectiveness studies provide the evidence-base for these programs and the field of IDD is moving towards large scale implementation of these programs. This article presents a model for implementing mindfulness-based programs in community settings, including family and group homes, schools, vocational settings, and congregate care facilities. The model is based on the 3-tier positive behavior support (PBS) system commonly used in school, family, and agency settings. Specific mindfulness-based programs can be linked to each of the three tiers to improve the quality of life of people with IDD.
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Introduction Residency is a stressful phase associated with high prevalence of mental distress. Besides impaired personal health, mental distress in residents has an impact on the quality of patient care and produces economic costs. Therefore, there is demand for interventions that improve resident physicians’ mental health. The aim of the present study is to examine the effects of a mindfulness-based intervention that has been tailored to residents’ needs. Specifically, mindfulness has been supplemented by a focus on the concept of Muße. Methods and analysis This study applies a randomised controlled multimethod design. Residents assigned to the intervention group will participate in an 8-week mindfulness course followed by a 4-month maintenance phase, whereas residents assigned to the control group will read text-based information about mindfulness on a weekly basis for the duration of 8 weeks. The intervention is focussed on a transfer of learnt techniques into the daily routine and is targeted to promote residents’ self-care as well as on building empathic relationships. Participants will be assessed before, directly after the intervention, after the maintenance phase as well as at follow-up 6 months after the intervention group completes the intervention. Assessments will consist of self-report measures, physiological data, qualitative interviews, third-party reports as well as implicit and projective measures and will focus on both psychopathology and salutogenesis. The primary outcome will be burnout. Data will be analysed using linear mixed modelling. Ethics and dissemination The study was approved by the ethics committee of the Medical Center - University of Freiburg and is funded by the German Research Foundation as part of the interdisciplinary Collaborative Research Center ‘SFB Muße 1015’. The results of this study will be published in scientific journals and disseminated through the study’s website, and conferences. Trial registration number DRKS00014015.
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We measured the effects of preschool teachers attending an 8-week mindfulness course on the behavior of the students in their classroom. Results showed that decreases in the students’ challenging behaviors and increases in their compliance with teacher requests began during mindfulness training for the teachers and continued to change following the training. While the students did not show a change in positive social interactions with peers, they did show a decrease in negative social interactions and an increase in isolate play. Our results indicate that mindfulness training for teachers was effective in changing teacher-student interactions in desirable ways.
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Mindfulness has been practiced in the Eastern world for over twenty-five centuries but has only recently become popular in the West. Today, interventions such as “Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy” are used within the Western health setting and have proven to be successful techniques for reducing psychological distress. However, a limitation of such interventions is that they tend to apply the practices of mindfulness in an “out of context” manner. To overcome this, a newly formed Meditation Awareness Training (MAT) program focusses on the establishment of solid meditative foundations and integrates various support practices that are traditionally assumed to effectuate a more sustainable quality of well-being. The aim of this pilot study was to assess the feasibility and effectiveness of MAT for improving psychological well-being in a sub-clinical sample of higher education students with issues of stress, anxiety, and low mood. Utilizing a controlled design, participants of the study (n=14) undertook an 8-week MAT program and comparisons were made with a control group (n=11) on measures of self-assessed psychological well-being (emotional distress, positive affect, and negative affect) and dispositional mindfulness. Participants who received MAT showed significant improvements in psychological well-being and dispositional mindfulness over controls. MAT may increase emotion regulation ability in higher education students with issues of stress, anxiety, and low mood. Individuals receiving training in mindfulness meditation may benefit by engendering a broader, more ethically informed, and compassionate intention for their mindfulness practice.
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Vipassana, Insight, and Intuition are words derived from cultures separated in timeand space, but share the very same etymological meaning and refer to the actual possibility for human mind of a deep, penetrative, non conceptual, immediate seeing into the nature of reality: "things as they are." Both Buddhist and Western classical views recognize this intuitive knowing, which is primarily concerned with being able to acknowledge what manifests in our moment-by-moment experience. The actuality of a higher form of intuition is familiar and cultivated in Buddhist teachings and practices, as well as in most contemplative traditions. However, in modern mainstream Western thought it is viewed as unreal, illusory and pre-scientific. Psychology has been reluctant to acknowledge intuition as a radically different form of knowledge, conceiving it instead as the product of unconscious bottom-up processes, an outcome of implicit learning that becomes explicit. The idea of intellectual intuition is viewed as irrational and promoting illogical thinking. This is ironic because intuition is at the foundation of logic and mathematics and, therefore, at the base of rigorous rational thinking. It is quite interesting to note that mathematics is the perhaps the only discipline in contemporary Western science where intuition or insight is acknowledged and cultivated by specific practices. The nature of intuition in insight (mindfulness) meditation and in mathematics is the very same. One operates in the domain of universal abstract mathematical objects and the other in the domain comprising our whole experience, internal and external. Can Buddhist Psychology contribute to re-orient contemporary western thought to acknowledge the existence of a higher form of insight? Thanks to the popularity of mindfulness meditation, in the last two decades a huge number of researchers, scientists, psychotherapists, clinicians, and educated minds could experience some introductory taste of this intuitive knowing, preparing the conditions that might allow this reorientation.
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The present study was a multisite randomized clinical trial assessing the effects of adding a cognitive-behavioral intervention to positive behavior support (PBS). Fifty-four families who met the criteria of (a) having a child with a developmental disability, (b) whose child displayed serious challenging behavior (e.g., aggression, self-injury, tantrums), and (c) who scored high on a measure of parental pessimism were randomly assigned to either PBS intervention or a combination of PBS and optimism training for parents (positive family intervention [PFI]). A manualized approach to both interventions was used for eight weekly individual sessions. Both groups improved in scores of parental pessimism as well as on standardized measures and direct observations of child challenging behavior. The PFI intervention resulted in significantly improved scores on the General Maladaptive Index of the Scales of Independent Behavior–Revised when compared with the PBS alone group. No differences in attrition were observed across the two different approaches. Importantly, significant improvements in child behavior at home were achieved through a clinic-based approach. Implications for working with families who may be less likely to benefit from parent training are discussed.
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Parent—child transactions provide an important social context for the development of adaptive and problem behaviors in young children with autism.Teaching parents to develop alternative transactional pathways often leads to positive behavioral patterns in their children.We taught three parents the philosophy and practice of mindfulness in a 12-week course and assessed the outcome of the training on their children's behavior. In addition, the mothers rated satisfaction with their parenting skills and interactions with their children. Results showed that the mothers' mindful parenting decreased their children's aggression, noncompliance, and self-injury and increased the mothers' satisfaction with their parenting skills and interactions with their children.We speculated on the possible reasons for the efficacy of mindful parenting in decreasing the children's problem behaviors without the application of specific, programmed contingencies for the children's behavior.
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Mindfulness has been practiced in the Eastern world for over twenty-five centuries but has only recently become popular in the West. Today, interventions such as “Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy” are used within the Western health setting and have proven to be successful techniques for reducing psychological distress. However, a limitation of such interventions is that they tend to apply the practices of mindfulness in an “out of context” manner. To overcome this, a newly formed Meditation Awareness Training (MAT) program focusses on the establishment of solid meditative foundations and integrates various support practices that are traditionally assumed to effectuate a more sustainable quality of well-being. The aim of this pilot study was to assess the feasibility and effectiveness of MAT for improving psychological well-being in a sub-clinical sample of higher education students with issues of stress, anxiety, and low mood. Utilizing a controlled design, participants of the study (n=14) undertook an 8-week MAT program and comparisons were made with a control group (n=11) on measures of self-assessed psychological well-being (emotional distress, positive affect, and negative affect) and dispositional mindfulness. Participants who received MAT showed significant improvements in psychological well-being and dispositional mindfulness over controls. MAT may increase emotion regulation ability in higher education students with issues of stress, anxiety, and low mood. Individuals receiving training in mindfulness meditation may benefit by engendering a broader, more ethically informed, and compassionate intention for their mindfulness practice.
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The Buddhist construct of mindfulness is a central element of mindfulness-based interventions and derives from a systematic phenomenological programme developed over several millennia to investigate subjective experience. Enthusiasm for ‘mindfulness’ in Western psychological and other science has resulted in proliferation of definitions, operationalizations and self-report inventories that purport to measure mindful awareness as a trait. This paper addresses a number of seemingly intractable issues regarding current attempts to characterize mindfulness and also highlights a number of vulnerabilities in this domain that may lead to denaturing, distortion, dilution or reification of Buddhist constructs related to mindfulness. Enriching positivist Western psychological paradigms with a detailed and complex Buddhist phenomenology of the mind may require greater study and long-term direct practice of insight meditation than is currently common among psychologists and other scientists. Pursuit of such an approach would seem a necessary precondition for attempts to characterize and quantify mindfulness.
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This paper draws attention to the stress levels and coping strategies used, in the families of children with autism. Differences in the stressors perceived and coping strategies adopted by the father, mother and siblings of a child with autism have been discussed. Given that pre-intervention parental stress levels predict the success of early intervention programmes and determine the prognosis, the paper highlights the importance as well as the lack of providing psychosocial support to the families of children with autism. The authors have illustrated various ways of delivering effective support services for parents. The article progresses from child-centred, professional dependence for service delivery to developing strategies that are family centred and encourage active participation of parents of children with autism themselves. The paper also draws attention to the prevailing scenario of autism in India.
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Mindful parenting has been thought to be more effective and less effortful than following a parenting routine. While there is evidence for effectiveness, the lessened effort is largely based on anecdotes. In this study, we created a self-report Parenting Effort Scale for use with already established parent self-report scales of everyday mindfulness and perceived youth problems. One hundred and eighteen volunteer mothers of middle school adolescents completed the three scales. As expected, mothers’ mindfulness scores covaried inversely with their effort scores and their perceptions of youth problems. Also as expected, the effort scores correlated positively with youth internalizing problem scores. This correlation was significantly weakened when mindfulness scores were entered in a regression model, suggesting that mothers’ mindfulness mediated the connection between their perceived effort and perceived youth internalizing problems. Surprisingly, there was no significant correlation between perceived effort and youth externalizing problems. However, we did find a connection involving effort, mindfulness, and externalizing problems. This connection revealed a moderating function in which mothers with high mindfulness scores reported less effort and lower youth externalizing problems compared to mothers with low mindfulness scores. KeywordsMindfulness–Parenting–Adolescents–Behavior–Parent effort scale
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Children with ADHD are often non-compliant with parental instructions. Various methods have been used to reduce problem behaviors in these children, with medication and manipulation of behavioral contingencies being the most prevalent. An objection often raised by parents is that these management strategies require them to impose external control on the children which not only results in the children not learning self-control strategies, but also does not enhance positive interactions between them and their parents. Studies have shown that providing mindfulness training to parents, without a focus on reducing problem behaviors, can enhance positive interactions with their children and increase their satisfaction with parenting. We were interested to see what effects giving mindfulness training to two mothers, and subsequently to their children, would have on compliance by the children. Using a multiple baseline across mothers and children design, we found that giving a mother mindfulness training enhanced compliance by her child. When the children were subsequently given similar training, compliance increased even more markedly, and was maintained during follow-up. The mothers reported associated increases in satisfaction with the interactions with their children and happiness with parenting. We suspect that the mindfulness training produces personal transformations, both in parents and children, rather than teaching strategies for changing behavior. KeywordsChildren with ADHD-Parental non-compliance-Mindfulness-Interactional context
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Cultivation of mindfulness, the nonjudgmental awareness of experiences in the present moment, produces beneficial effects on well-being and ameliorates psychiatric and stress-related symptoms. Mindfulness meditation has therefore increasingly been incorporated into psychotherapeutic interventions. Although the number of publications in the field has sharply increased over the last two decades, there is a paucity of theoretical reviews that integrate the existing literature into a comprehensive theoretical framework. In this article, we explore several components through which mindfulness meditation exerts its effects: (a) attention regulation, (b) body awareness, (c) emotion regulation (including reappraisal and exposure, extinction, and reconsolidation), and (d) change in perspective on the self. Recent empirical research, including practitioners' self-reports and experimental data, provides evidence supporting these mechanisms. Functional and structural neuroimaging studies have begun to explore the neuroscientific processes underlying these components. Evidence suggests that mindfulness practice is associated with neuroplastic changes in the anterior cingulate cortex, insula, temporo-parietal junction, fronto-limbic network, and default mode network structures. The authors suggest that the mechanisms described here work synergistically, establishing a process of enhanced self-regulation. Differentiating between these components seems useful to guide future basic research and to specifically target areas of development in the treatment of psychological disorders. © Association for Psychological Science 2011.
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Parenting stress and child behavior problems have been posited to have a transactional effect on each other across development. However, few studies have tested this model empirically. The authors investigated the relationship between parenting stress and child behavior problems from ages 3 to 9 years old among 237 children, 144 of whom were typically developing and 93 who were identified as developmentally delayed. Behavior problems and parenting stress covaried significantly across time for both groups of children. Cross-lagged panel analyses generally supported a bidirectional relationship between parenting stress and child behavior problems for mothers and fathers.
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Interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA) is an increasingly popular approach to qualitative inquiry. This handy text covers its theoretical foundations and provides a detailed guide to conducting IPA research. Extended worked examples from the authors' own studies in health, sexuality, psychological distress and identity illustrate the breadth and depth of IPA research. Each of the chapters also offers a guide to other good exemplars of IPA research in the designated area. The final section of the book considers how IPA connects with other contemporary qualitative approaches like discourse and narrative analysis and how it addresses issues to do with validity. The book is written in an accessible style and will be extremely useful to students and researchers in psychology and related disciplines in the health and social sciences.
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Data validating the Autism Parenting Stress Index (APSI) is presented for 274 children under age six. Cronbach's alpha was .827. As a measure of parenting stress specific to core and co-morbid symptoms of autism, the APSI is unique. It is intended for use by clinicians to identify areas where parents need support with parenting skills, and to assess the effect of intervention on parenting stress. Mean parenting stress in the autism group was four times that of the typical group and double that of the other developmental delay group [F(2,272) = 153; p < 001]. An exploratory factor analysis suggested three factors impacting parenting stress: one relating to core deficits, one to co-morbid behavioral symptoms, and one to co-morbid physical symptoms.
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The prevalence of and risk factors for aggression were examined in 1,380 children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Prevalence was high, with parents reporting that 68% had demonstrated aggression to a caregiver and 49% to non-caregivers. Overall, aggression was not associated with clinician observed severity of ASD symptoms, intellectual functioning, gender, marital status, parental educational level, or aspects of communication. Individuals who are younger, come from a higher income family, have more parent reported social/communication problems, or engage in repetitive behaviors were more likely to demonstrate aggression. Given the significant impact of aggression on individual and family outcomes, it is hoped that this knowledge will inform more targeted intervention efforts.
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Positive behavior support (PBS) is an applied science that uses educational and systems change methods (environmental redesign) to enhance quality of life and minimize problem behavior. PBS initially evolved within the field of developmental disabilities and emerged from three major sources: applied behavior analysis, the normalization/inclusion movement, and person-centered values. Although elements of PBS can be found in other approaches, its uniqueness lies in the fact that it integrates the following critical features into a cohesive whole: comprehensive lifestyle change, a lifespan perspective, ecological validity, stakeholder participation, social validity, systems change and multicomponent intervention, emphasis on prevention, flexibility in scientific practices, and multiple theoretical perspectives. These characteristics are likely to produce future evolution of PBS with respect to assessment practices, intervention strategies, training, and extension to new populations. The approach reflects a more general trend in the social sciences and education away from pathology-based models to a new positive model that stresses personal competence and environmental integrity.
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Parents of children with developmental disabilities, particularly autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), are at risk for high levels of distress. The factors contributing to this are unclear. This study investigated how child characteristics influence maternal parenting stress and psychological distress. Participants consisted of mothers and developmental-age matched preschool-aged children with ASD (N = 51) and developmental delay without autism (DD) ( N = 22). Evidence for higher levels of parenting stress and psychological distress was found in mothers in the ASD group compared to the DD group. Children's problem behavior was associated with increased parenting stress and psychological distress in mothers in the ASD and DD groups. This relationship was stronger in the DD group. Daily living skills were not related to parenting stress or psychological distress. Results suggest clinical services aiming to support parents should include a focus on reducing problem behaviors in children with developmental disabilities.
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This paper provides a summary of research on behavioral interventions for children with autism 8 years of age or younger published between 1996 and 2000. The analysis is divided into four sections: (1) emerging themes in the technology of behavior support, (2) a review of existing research syntheses focusing on behavioral interventions, (3) a new literature review of current pertinent research, and (4) an evaluative discussion of the synthesis results and the field's future needs to develop effective behavioral interventions for young children with autism. The authors offer recommendations for strengthening the existing research base and advancing behavioral technology to meet the needs of the defined target population.
Book
A revolution in working with difficult students began during the 1980s, with a dramatic shift away from dependence on simply punishing bad behavior to reinforcing desired, positive behaviors of children in the classroom. With its foundation in applied behavior analysis (ABA), positive behavior support (PBS) is a social ecology approach that continues to play an increasingly integral role in public education as well as mental health and social services nationwide. The Handbook of Positive Behavior Support gathers into one concise volume the many elements of this burgeoning field and organizes them into a powerful, dynamic knowledge base – theory, research, and applications. Within its chapters, leading experts, including the primary developers and researchers of PBS: • Review the origins, history, and ethical foundations of positive behavior support. • Report on applications of PBS in early childhood and family contexts, from Head Start to foster care to mental health settings to autism treatment programs. • Examine school-based PBS used to benefit all students regardless of ability or conduct. • Relate schoolwide PBS to wraparound mental health services and the RTI (response to intervention) movement. • Provide data and discussion on a variety of topics salient to PBS, including parenting issues, personnel training, high school use, poorly functioning schools, and more. This volume is an essential resource for school-based practitioners as well as clinicians and researchers in clinical child, school, and educational psychology.
Chapter
Behavior modification and therapy perhaps are best distinguished from other therapeutic and educational approaches by their dependence on the experimental-empirical methods for solving human problems. Thus, in evaluating the efficacy of emerging therapeutic and educational techniques, a large variety of experimental strategies has been carried out by behavioral researchers. Included, of course, are both group-comparison designs (cf. Kazdin, 1980) and single-case experimental designs (cf. Hersen & Barlow, 1976).
Chapter
The last several decades have seen the Western world's interest in mediation swell-both within pop-culture and across rigorous academic disciplines like psychology, medicine, neuroscience and philosophy. Today, there is abundant research suggesting that meditation confers mental and physical heath benefits, such as improvements in anxiety, depression, stress and cardiovascular fitness. Consensus on the definition of meditation, however, evades research in this area, rendering conclusions about the benefits of meditation unstable. While operationalizing terms is essential, it behooves researchers to remember that meditation takes on many different forms. In the East, meditation is seen as a daily practice that is synergistically integrated into daily life and that, like breathing, serves as an end in itself. The adoption of meditation into Western culture, however, transformed it into an instrument among others in a toolbox, like exercise or juice cleanses, to achieve discrete ends like stress reduction. The context in which meditation developed is vastly different than the one in which it is often investigated. The distinctions here are meaningful for both researchers and interested citizens who want to understand why and how meditation might bestow salutary effects on those who practice it. This chapter explores the current literature on the effects of meditation across psychosocial and physiological outcome measures from this comparative culture perspective. Gaps in the current research and implications for future directions are also discussed.
Chapter
This chapter introduces the concept of meditation in terms of its nature and applications. Meditation is a centuries old practice that takes various forms across cultures, but all forms focus on the inner transformation of the self through training the mind. Meditation enables us to cultivate and develop positive human qualities that are dormant within us, as well as to perceive the world as it is. Following a brief introduction to meditation, this chapter introduces topics covered in the rest of the book: measuring mindfulness (Chapter 2); meditation attitude (Chapter 3); Eastern and Western perspectives on meditation (Chapter 4); neuroanthropology of meditation (Chapter 5); neuroscientific perspective on meditation (Chapter 6); Vipassana, insight and intuition (Chapter 7); attention, consciousness and mindfulness in meditation (Chapter 8); mindfulness and memory (Chapter 9); meditation mindfulness and executive functions in children and adolescents (Chapter 10); mindfulness in developmental disabilities (Chapter 11); mindful occupational engagement (Chapter 12); mindfulness in organizations (Chapter 13); and mindfulness meditation and addictive behaviors (Chapter 14). Taken together, the chapters in this book provide an overview of the nature and applications of meditation, especially mindfulness meditation.
Chapter
Mindfulness-based interventions, consisting of either variations of standard mindfulness-based programs or custom designed procedures, for individuals with developmental disabilities have been reported in the research literature for about a decade. This effort has focused on teaching mindfulness skills to support staff, parents, and teachers of individuals with developmental disabilities, as well as the individuals themselves. The training for support staff, parents and teachers has focused on personal transformation and the reduction of stress so that they can enhance their own wellness, and thus be more mentally and physically available to the people they serve. The training for individuals with developmental disabilities has focused on enabling them to reducetheir challenging behaviors, such as aggression, obesity, smoking, and inappropriate sexual behaviors, as well as on enhancing their wellness and thereby decreasing depression, anxiety, and rumination while increasing attention, social skills, and academic performance. This chapter presents a narrative review of the extant studies and provides an overview of the status of current research
Book
Our understanding of the nature and applications of meditation, especially mindfulness meditation, has been expanding almost as rapidly as the empirical evidence from neuroscience and intervention studies that have become available in the research literature. Meditation is centuries old and prevalent in almost all ancient cultures in one form or another. Initially, people in the West were enamored by its spiritual promise of personal transformation, but now a larger portion is attracted to mindfulness meditation (Vipassana or insight meditation) because of the promise of enhanced physical and mental wellbeing. Indeed, research shows that engaging in a daily practice of meditation for 20 to 30 minutes a day over 8 weeks produces new neural networks in the brain, attesting to observable calmness and clarity of perception. This book brings together a diverse group of experts who collectively provide a nuanced view of meditation from a variety of perspectives. This book offers a single-source authoritative guide to an ancient practice that is coming into its own in the Western world.
Article
Challenging behaviour displayed by some people with intellectual disabilities is often a response to social, biological and environmental factors, particularly the behaviours and attitudes of carers. The nature of staff interactions with clients often depends on the training staff have received and the degree of stress they experience, as well as on the design and culture of services. In mistakenly assuming that clients are in control of what they do, carers may become angry and respond inappropriately. Strategies are needed, therefore, to address the conduct of carers as well as the challenging behaviours of clients.
Article
Abstract Few research studies have explored how the level of a child's behavior problems leads to psychological distress in parents of children with autism. The authors explored whether psychological acceptance and mindfulness mediated this relationship between child behavior and parental distress. Seventy-one mothers and 39 fathers of children with autism participated, by reporting on their own positive and negative psychological well-being and their child's behavior problems. Psychological acceptance was found to act as a mediator variable for maternal anxiety, depression, and stress, and for paternal depression. General mindfulness and mindful parenting had significant mediation effects for maternal anxiety, depression, and stress. These results contribute to evidence that mindfulness and acceptance may be important parental psychological processes, with implications for parent support.
Article
This study evaluated the acceptability and effects of a Mindful Parenting course in mental health care. Parents (n = 86) referred to secondary mental health care because of their children’s and/or their own psychopathology, or parent–child relationship problems, followed a Mindful Parenting course in a group format (10 groups). Assessments took place just before the course (pre-test), immediately after the nine-week course (post-test), and at 8-week follow-up. A waitlist assessment took place only for those parents who had to wait for a course (n = 23). Measures concerned parent report of psychopathology symptoms of their target child, as well as their own psychopathology symptoms, parental stress, parenting behaviors, coparenting, and marital functioning. Only one parent dropped out and parents evaluated the program as valuable and effective in many areas of family functioning. No improvement was reported during waitlist, except for an improvement in parental externalizing symptoms. Improvements after the course occurred in the target child’s internalizing and externalizing psychopathology symptoms, parents’ own internalizing symptoms and further improvement on their externalizing symptoms. Also, improvements occurred on parental stress, parenting, and coparenting, but not on marital functioning. Improvements were generally maintained at follow-up. In conclusion, the very low dropout rate as well as the positive evaluations, suggest that Mindful Parenting is an acceptable and feasible intervention in mental health care. Mindful Parenting appears a promising new intervention for parents in mental health care, as it seems effective on a broad range of child, parent, and family variables. Studies comparing Mindful Parenting to other effective interventions, such as Parent Management training, are needed to gain more knowledge about its relative and differential effectiveness.