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Sheep price patterns and factors affecting price variations in the highland markets of north Shewa, Ethiopia

Authors:
  • Debre Berhan Agricultural Research Center

Abstract

Research on sheep marketing situations and constraints in Ethiopia in general, and north central highlands in particular, remained very limited. This study examined sheep price patterns and factors underlying price variations. It also tried to find out major constraints in sheep marketing system in selected districts of North Shewa Zone (NSZ). Based on their importance of sheep marketing sites, four markets from NSZ were selected. The markets were surveyed on the main weekly market day for a period of two years. Data were recorded on price, weight (kg), sex, age, color, body condition and buyers' expected use of the animal for all transactions. A total of 7976 observations were recorded. Primary data were collected by interviews from 619 sellers and 618 buyers from all selected markets to get insight about market constraints and situations using pre tested structured questionnaires. Econometric model and descriptive analytical methods were used for the analysis based on liveweight price. The results showed that there was a considerable week-to-week variation throughout the year in liveweight prices in the study markets. Animal characteristics that affect liveweight price were weight, sex, age, body condition and color. The sheep market prices varied with respect to these characteristics. This suggests that weekly liveweight average prices vary partly due to varying in sheep characteristics in the markets. The major marketing constraints identified in the study areas were transportation, financial and information services. These constraints were found to make price disparities and instabilities. It is recommended that the government can take measures to help farmers by constructing market infrastructures. These measures include: (i) improving transport infrastructure; (ii) promotion of regional trade (iii) establishing market information systems and (iv) improving communication infrastructure. KEYWORDS: Price variations, sheep marketing, animal characteristics, market constraints.
Jordan Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume 2, No.1, 2006
- 65 -
Sheep Price Patterns and Factors Affecting Price Variations in
the Highland Markets of North Shewa, Ethiopia
T. Beneberu* and Amer S. Jabarin**
ABSTRACT
Research on sheep marketing situations and constraints in Ethiopia in general, and north central highlands in
particular, remained very limited. This study examined sheep price patterns and factors underlying price
variations. It also tried to find out major constraints in sheep marketing system in selected districts of North
Shewa Zone (NSZ). Based on their importance of sheep marketing sites, four markets from NSZ were selected.
The markets were surveyed on the main weekly market day for a period of two years. Data were recorded on
price, weight (kg), sex, age, color, body condition and buyers' expected use of the animal for all transactions. A
total of 7976 observations were recorded. Primary data were collected by interviews from 619 sellers and 618
buyers from all selected markets to get insight about market constraints and situations using pre tested structured
questionnaires. Econometric model and descriptive analytical methods were used for the analysis based on
liveweight price.
The results showed that there was a considerable week-to-week variation throughout the year in liveweight
prices in the study markets. Animal characteristics that affect liveweight price were weight, sex, age, body
condition and color. The sheep market prices varied with respect to these characteristics. This suggests that
weekly liveweight average prices vary partly due to varying in sheep characteristics in the markets. The major
marketing constraints identified in the study areas were transportation, financial and information services. These
constraints were found to make price disparities and instabilities.
It is recommended that the government can take measures to help farmers by constructing market infrastructures.
These measures include: (i) improving transport infrastructure; (ii) promotion of regional trade (iii) establishing
market information systems and (iv) improving communication infrastructure.
KEYWORDS: Price variations, sheep marketing, animal characteristics, market constraints.
1. INTRODUCTION
Livestock plays a significant role in the national
economy of Ethiopia. It is a major activity in the country
and contributes about 30 - 40% of agricultural GDP and
more than 85% of farm cash income. It also contributes
about 13-16% of total GDP. Between 1987/88 and
1995/96, the share of livestock in total exports averaged
16% (Winrock, 1992; Befekadu and Berhanu, 2000).
Farmers consider livestock a more reliable form of
wealth than the other alternatives and sheep are a readily
convertible source of cash at the time of need as well as
an important source of meat. On the average, three heads
of sheep are slaughtered per family per year and about
40% of farmer’s cash income from animal trade in the
central highlands is accounted for by sales of sheep
(Gryseels, 1988).
* Sheno Agricultural Research Center, P. O. BOX 112, Debre
Birhan, Ethiopia.
**Associate Professor of Agricultural Economics (Corresponding
Author), Department of Agricultural Economics an
d
Agribusiness, University of Jordan, P. O. BOX 13021, 11942,
Amman, Jordan. Received on 8/3/2005 and Accepted fo
r
Publication on 15/1/2006.
Sheep Price Patterns… T. Beneberu and Amer S. Jabarin
- 66 -
The estimated 21.7 million sheep in Ethiopia
represent only 9% of the total Tropical Livestock Unit
(TLU1); yet produce highly significant outcomes. Sheep
and goats generate almost 50% of cash income, about
25% of domestic meat consumption with a production
surplus which is exported mainly as live animals and
almost 50% of domestic wool requirements of the
country (FAO, 1994). Other studies showed that sheep
alone contribute about 20% at the national level of all
domestic meat consumption and are a major source of
earnings through the sale of live animals and skins. Sheep
rank second to cattle on the farm in their contribution to
both subsistence and cash income generated from
livestock production (Shapiro, 1991).
The rest of the paper is organized as follows. The data
and model are described in section 2. Section 3 describes
the results found and discusses the policy implications.
Finally, section 4 provides summary and conclusion
remarks.
2. ANALYTICAL FRAMEWORK
This study is based on a multi-visit formal survey
conducted in four markets in North Shewa Zone (NSZ),
Ethiopia. From NSZ, four districts namely Kimbibit,
Angolelana Asagrt, Lalo Mama Midr and Gera Keya with
one key market each – Hamus Gebeya, Chacha, Molale
and Mehal, Meda, respectively were selected on purpose
on the basis of their importance as sheep marketing sites.
Primary data were collected by interviews from 619
sellers and 618 buyers from all selected markets to get
insight about market constraints and situations using pre
tested structured questionnaires. Data on sheep weight
and characteristics were collected on the main weekly
market day. Secondary data include animals population,
rainfall etc. were collected from Zonal Agricultural
Department (ZAD) and other sources. For data collection
in the markets, enumerators who were multitalented in
sheep marketing were used. A festival period was
1 Tropical Livestock Unit defined as a standard unit of 250 kg
of live weight. The conversion rates for individual species
are: cattle = 0.7, and sheep and goat = 0.1 each.
represented by two market days: the market falling on the
festival day (or the preceding market day closest to the
festival day) and the one preceding it. Recordings were
done at the exit gate(s) for fenced market place or at one
or two of the most frequented departure routes if the
market is opened. Ages were approximated by the type
and number, teeth and body conditions are assessed by
certain physical characteristics apparent in sheep of
different degrees of fatness, i.e., on and around the back
bone in the loin area and the last rib, and above the
kidney (Carles, 1983). Four body condition scores
ranging from one for poor to four for very fat sheep were
used in this study. The scores were given by the
researcher.
Analysis of data was involved using econometric
techniques and descriptive statistics. (i.e. multiple
regression model, and descriptive statistics such as
percentage and mean were used to describe and analyze
the data.) Data were analyzed using SPSS (1999) and
Excel (2000).
For most of the seasons/festive days, the week
number that a specific season happened in the previous
year did not repeat exactly in the same week number in
the forthcoming year. Therefore, regression analysis for
both years at the same time was not possible. Thus, data
from August 2001 to July 2002 were used for regression
analysis, moreover, this year data represent relatively to
the normal situation. However, both years’ data were
utilized for trend analysis. For this study, a reduced form
of price equation model will be estimated. The quantity
equation is not the interest of this study.
In the model, the presences of dummies (animal
characteristics and seasons) have impacts on shifting the
constant term, weight and time (b0, W and T). The model
used in the analysis was as follows:
() () ( )
() () () ()
()
8354
2
0
1111
54 3 5
11 1 1
4483
1111
4
1
***
****
*
iii iiiiiiii
iiii
ii ii i i i i i
ii i i
ii ii ii ii
iiii
iii
i
bbWbWbT bZ bS bA bC
bL bY bW T bW S bW A
bW C bW Y bW Z bT S
bT C e
P+
====
== = =
====
=
=+ + + + + +
++ + + +
+++ +
++
∑∑∑∑
∑∑ ∑ ∑
∑∑∑∑
Jordan Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume 2, No.1, 2006
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Where P is liveweight price in Ethiopian Birr (US$1=
8.60 Ethiopian Birr); W is weight in kg; T is time in
week; Z, S, A, C, L and Y are dummy variables
representing season, sex, age, condition, color, and buyer
purposes, respectively. The bі’s are structural parameters
of the equation and the error term eі’s, represents error
term.
In the model, one dummy was assigned at random as
a base for each category having the value zero. Therefore,
the number of dummies should be K-1 where K is the
number of groupings by that category (Maddala, 1992).
Base dummy variables were: non-festival season, female,
greater than four years, Very fat, other colors and
fattening for season, sex, age, body condition, color and
buyers purposes, respectively. The arbitrariness of the
dummy variable assigned to the basis is undesirable
features of the statistical package.
In the model, liveweight price was used as a
dependent variable. The advantage of using liveweight
price instead of price per head as a dependent variable is
that, it is possible to capture the wide variation in
weights, both within and between weeks; moreover,
liveweight price could give us more useful market
information.
The explanatory variables in the model are defined in
the following manner:
T = Weeks in the year: week 1, week 2 ---week 52.
Zi = 8 seasons: Ethiopian New Year, Id-al-fater
(Ramadan), Christmas, Id-al-adha, Easter, Lent (Period of
fasting before Easter, which is 55 days in Ethiopia),
Maulid (Birth day of the Prophet Mohammed), and non-
festival season.
Si = 3 sexes: male, castrated and female.
Ai = 5 age categories in year: A < 1, 1 < A < 2, 2 < A
< 3, 3 < A < 4 and A > 4, where A is age.
Ci = 4 body conditions: Poor, Average, Fat and Very
fat.
Li = 5 sheep color: Black, white, Brown and red,
Black and white, and others.
Yi = 4 buyer purpose: resale (profit), consumption,
reproduction and fattening.
3. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Sheep bought in all markets were different in some
way by buyers’ purpose. Mehal Meda and Molale are
markets where large proportions of sheep were bought for
profit by individuals especially traders and middlemen.
Hamus Gebeya and to some extent Chacha markets
represent buying for consumption purpose. Mehal Meda
and Molale market, respectively by traders, middlemen
and others who want to make profit out of sale on the
same or other market days. Purchasing for reproduction
and fattening purpose have the lowest proportion in all
markets (Table 1).
In general, age-wise, sheep less than or equal to two
years are dominant that were sold in all markets and the
percentage of sheep sold decreased as the age increased.
Sex distribution of sheep sold in the studied markets was
almost the same in all markets. However, sex
distributions within a market were considerably different.
Male sheep were dominant in all markets followed by
female sheep and castrated sheep were the lowest.
Moreover, sheep of average body condition were
dominant in all markets (Table 2).
Both the quantity purchased and supplied noticeably
increase during religious festivals. Apart from producers'
response to increased demand for sheep during festivals,
seasonality of supply is affected by lambing pattern and
producers' need for cash. Small ruminants were the
primary to be considered for sale when food and seed
grain stocks were depleted, and they are the main source
of income generation as recognized in many studies
(Zelalem and Fletcher, 1993; Rodriguez 1997; Barrs,
1998). The highest demand for grain seed and the lowest
stock of food grain occurs during June to end of
September. In addition, cash needs during September for
grain purchase, expenses like school fee and others are
required as it is the Ethiopian New Year time.
There is a remarkable fluctuation in weekly average
liveweight price and monthly average liveweight price in
all the study markets depending on the seasonal effects of
the year (Figures 1 and 2. Dating started from August
2000 and ended on July 2002). For the sake of clarity,
figures are drawn for two markets at a time for weekly
Sheep Price Patterns… T. Beneberu and Amer S. Jabarin
- 68 -
average liveweight price pattern. Demand for sheep
increases during Christian and Muslim holidays and in
the time of different ceremonies, generating a predictable
positive effect on prices.
The highest prices for sheep were recorded on
September, December, January, March and April/May.
These months are the times when the most important
festivals occurred. September is Ethiopian New Year,
which is celebrated by all people. The months December,
January, March and April/May accompanied with famous
religious festivals that are celebrated widely: Id-alfater,
Ethiopian Christmas, Id-al-adha and Ethiopian Easter all
demanding mostly sheep for home consumption. Lent
period, time of fasting before Easter, which is 55 days in
Ethiopia, is recognized by relatively low purchases of
sheep. During this period, less food is eaten in general,
while meat, egg and dairy products in particular are not
eaten by most Orthodox Christians.
From the liveweight price values, it was noticed that
relatively higher price was paid for sheep at Chacha and
Hamus Gebeya markets than Mehal Meda and Molale
markets, the latter two markets are located in remote
areas with very limited transportation facilities.
Probability levels of (F) tests of significance of the
variables and interactions included in the liveweight price
equation for each market under consideration are
presented in Table (4). The results indicate that most
factors are significant in at least two or three markets
from four markets.
The different patterns of variation in price per head
and liveweight price caused by week to week variation in
average weights is shown by plotting average price per
head and average liveweight price on the same graph
(Figure 3, is included only for one market as it happened
to be the same for the rest). It was evident from the
figures that there was weight difference from week to
week. If the weights did not vary at all from week to
week, the two price lines would maintain a constant
difference.
In the model, quadratic structure of the effect of
weight on liveweight price indicates that prices first
decline to a minimum and increase as weight increases.
This basically depends on the sign of the coefficient of
the variable in the second- order (quadratic), which is W2
in this case. If the coefficient of W2 is negative, the curve
will be concave downward, however, if coefficient of W2
is positive the curve will be concave upward and has
minimum value of liveweight price. It is desirable to
determine the maximum or minimum value of liveweight
price and the corresponding value of weight (Jerrold,
1984; Andargachew and Brokken, 1993). By comparing
the annual average weight of the sheep (sex-wise) and
taking the weight of the sheep at which minimum
liveweight price occurs (W*) for each market, it is
possible to judge the importance of weight with other
animal characteristics in determining the price of the
sheep for all markets.
At Chacha, the average weight of male sheep was
higher than W* while for female, the average weight was
slightly lower than, W*. Thus, for males and females
premiums in liveweight price were offered both as
weights increased above and decreased below W* (Table
5). At Hamus Gebeya, both male and female sheep had
lower overall average weight than W*. Thus, for males
and females premiums in liveweight price were offered as
weights decreased below W*. At Mehal Meda and
Molale markets, male, castrated and female sheep had an
overall average weight higher than W*. Hence for males
and females premiums in liveweight price were offered as
weights which increased above W*. In these markets,
liveweight prices of all the three sex categories were
rising as weights increase. One can only guess as to why
the relationship between liveweight price and weight are
so different from the other two markets. These markets
are remote and animals are purchased mainly for resale
(see Table 1). Since there is no transportation, animals
purchased for resale must be trekked a long distance from
where they were bought to other markets. Therefore,
traders favor higher weight in these markets to
counterbalance weight loss.
The average weight of castrates was well above W* in
all markets indicating that liveweight price was strongly
rising with increasing weights. This reflects a higher
demand for castrates that are both fat and heavy and
Jordan Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume 2, No.1, 2006
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results in higher price per animal. Farmers castrate sheep
for fattening in order to fetch higher prices. Heavy and
fatty sheep are the choice of those people who are in a
good economic status. In general, consumers prefer lambs
because of their tenderness and low weight and low
weight converts to low price per head.
Applying multiple regression analysis on the data
collected from August 2001 to July 2002, the adjusted
R2s for liveweight price were 0.367, 0.470, 0.552, and
0.553 for Chacha, Hamus Gebeya, Mehal Meda and
Molale market, respectively. Estimated parameters of the
main effects of liveweight price equation for Chacha,
Hamus Gebeya, Mehal Meda and Molale markets are
shown in Table (6).
Positive and negative coefficients within a set of
dummy variables signify premiums and discounts,
respectively, relative to the dummy in the base in
Ethiopian Birr. The t-test was used to check whether the
individual premiums or discounts were different from
zero.
The negative effect of weight in the model indicates
that overall lower premiums are paid for heavier animals.
Andargachew and Brokken (1993) and Jabbar and
Diedhiou (2001) have come to a similar conclusion,
namely that animals with higher weights fetched lower
prices. This is because consumers prefer lambs for their
tenderness and tenderness possession belong to lower
ages (mostly below two years). Lower age means lower
weight and this converts to low price per head, which
might be another target for the buyers.
The effect of time on the liveweight price indicated
that as time went within a year (from August 2001 to July
2002), there was a trend of decreasing sheep price. The
reason was that most sheep were demanded for the
purpose of slaughtering during festival days, and most of
these festival days occur within the first half of the year.
However, this should not be considered as a regular event
within year cyclical phenomenon since certain major
festival days such as Eid Al-adha is linked to the Lunar
Calendar which changes every year.
Interpretation of the rest of the results of regression
analysis can be done using reduced form of the
econometric model. For Hamus Gebeya market,
substituting the values of coefficients from Tables (6 and
7) to the reduced form, the following equation is obtained
for sex effect.
2
4.239 0.036 0.031
WW
ii
P++
=
Using the annual mean weight values of sheep in the
above equation, for a sheep weight 22 kg, other variables
are equal, a whole ram would be 20.04 Birr which is
more expensive than ewes. The reduced form equation
for castrated sheep can be obtained by the same manner
as indicated above, which is:
2
4.926 0.084 0.031
WW
ii
P++
=
For a sheep weight 34 kg, other variables are equal; a
castrated sheep would be 43.62 Birr more expensive than
ewes.
For Hamus Gebeya market, the equation for a sheep
of yearling (sheep age less than or equal to one year)
would be as follows:
2
6.845 0.058 0.031
WW
ii
P−+
=
For a sheep weight 20 kg, other variables are equal; a
yearling would be 18.09 Birr more expensive than any
sheep more than four years old. For the same market, the
equation for a lamb (sheep age between one or equal to
two years) would be as follows:
2
6.185 0.029 0.031
WW
ii
P−+
=
For a sheep weight 27 kg, other variables are equal; a
lamb would be 28 Birr more expensive than any sheep
more than four years old.
The effect of color on liveweight price in the model
for Mehal Meda market can be expressed in the following
reduced form:
2
4.086 0.025 0.04
WW
ii
P++
=
For a sheep weight 23 kg, other variables are equal; a
white sheep would be 25.82 Birr more expensive than
any sheep of other colors assigned to the base (other
colors that were not included in the dummies).
The effect of season on liveweight price in the model
for Chacha market can be represented in the following
reduced form of equation:
Sheep Price Patterns… T. Beneberu and Amer S. Jabarin
- 70 -
2
5.361 0.022 0.027
WW
ii
P−+
=
For a sheep weight 18 kg, other variables are equal; a
sheep sold during Ethiopian New Year would be 13.71
Birr more expensive than season assign to the base (none
festival season).
The formulation of equation in reduced form and
interpretation of the results can be done by the same
procedures for the rest of the variables in all markets.
Moreover, although some characteristics of the sheep
were found to be insignificant in the analysis, they remain
as a base for expectations of their relevance to the sheep
buying decision.
Even though markets' liberalization was declared
since March 1990, there are still other barriers that
require serious attention. Therefore, identifying issues
and problems to guide future policy decisions with the
aim of reducing costs in the marketing system and
thereby promoting the welfare of producers and
consumers in the study areas call for attention. Among
others, transportation, credit and market information
facilities are the most important issues to be mentioned.
In rural Ethiopian markets, marketing channels for all
farm products are short and not complex. This is
primarily due to the absence of commercial livestock
processing in the study areas. Farmers sell their products
directly to consumers or they sell to middlemen or traders
and finally reach to consumers. Road network, financial
services and market information services are some of the
prior essential components of sheep marketing in the
study areas. These components are important for the
improvement and development of the marketing system.
In all markets of the study areas, buyers and sellers
bargain on one-to-one basis with relatively few brokers or
other third party market intermediation. Farmers
frequently arrive at the market without a firm idea of the
price that they will receive, or prices they might receive
in other markets, and they are mostly engaged in
negotiation (Table 8).
Regarding the repayment schedule of the loan,
farmers are asked to pay their debit within a short period
where investment in sheep production or fattening might
not bring any significant returns. Hence, the credit
repayment scheme in the area did not consider the
farmers’ situation and market conditions. Moreover, the
rural credit system has no risk component. Whether the
farmers’ efforts have succeeded or failed even due to
factors beyond control, the loans would be paid.
Therefore, the existing credit repayment schedule system
and the problem of risk needs further study and remedial
measures must be taken accordingly. In doing so,
farmers’ willingness in taking and using credit can be
enhanced and the intended purpose of credit will be
achieved.
Climate is not the only problem in the areas that
hinder sheep production. However, there are varieties of
physical infrastructural shortcomings that impede the
physical flow of animals which create barriers to
domestic trade. Lack of these infrastructures has
hampered marketing of agricultural products and
discouraged investment in more marginal areas and in the
livestock sector. One of the most important physical
infrastructural weaknesses for sheep marketing system in
the areas relate to transportation. More than 75% of the
people who come to the market have no access to vehicle
transportation (Table 9).
Road infrastructure in the study areas has poorly
developed. At Mehal Meda and Molale there is only one
dry weather road, which is below standard that connects
the districts’ capitals to the main road. At Hamus Gebeya
and Chacha the main road passes nearby the markets
although it is not accessible to most of the rural farmers.
Therefore, it is clear that the people of the study areas are
not blessed with the benefits of using regular transport.
In general, as current practice indicates, proclaiming a
free market economy alone could not enable the farmers
to obtain the benefits of such a policy. Rather, what is
more important and worth considering are: overcoming
the highly undeveloped rural-urban road networks,
forming and strengthening well-managed agricultural
cooperatives on a voluntary basis, developing rural,
regional, and central product markets and establishing
market information exchange systems, and other aspects
of the marketing infrastructure.
Jordan Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume 2, No.1, 2006
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It is only when such conditions are fulfilled or at least
improved to a reasonable level that market information
and goods can flow better among different markets
relatively quickly, easily and reliably. Farmers could also
be in a position to improve their bargaining power. Such
developments would, hence, enable farmers to get the
right market price for their products, which would help
them to exert more effort on resources for improving their
agricultural production.
4- SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION
The result of this study showed that there was a
considerable week-to-week variation throughout the year
in sheep liveweight prices. These variations could relate
to variations in overall demand and on the characteristics
of animals offered for sale. Animal characteristics that
affect liveweight price were weight, sex, age, body
condition and color.
The results suggest that there may be some benefit
from coordinating breeding, fattening and marketing
programs to take the best advantage from some preferred
animal characteristics and selected seasons or festival
markets. Investments in rural infrastructure
(communications, roads, electricity, education, credit and
extension) can promote rural development by providing
access to relevant information, facilitating marketing of
agricultural inputs and products and development of agro
industries, which is essential to the population.
Therefore, the government can take measures to help
farmers by constructing market infrastructures so as to
shrink price disparities and instability. These measures
include: (i) Improving transport infrastructure. (ii)
Establishing market information systems (iii) Improving
communication infrastructure and (iv) Promotion of
regional trade.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
The authors wish to thank the Ethiopian Agricultural
Research Organization (EARO) for making available the
funds necessary to carry out this research.
Table (1): Percentage market structure of the study markets by buyers’ purpose.
Markets names
Chacha H/Gebeya M/Meda Molale
Buyer purposes % % % %
1. Consumption 31.4 59.5 29.2 22.9
2. Profit/resale 45.8 23.9 55.5 55.6
3. Reproduction 14.7 10.1 11.3 15.0
4. Fattening 8.1 6.5 4.0 6.5
No. of observations 1054 983 987 948
Sheep Price Patterns… T. Beneberu and Amer S. Jabarin
- 72 -
Table (2): Characteristics of traded animals in the study markets (%)
Markets name Animal Characteristics
Chacha H/Gebeya M/Meda Molale
Age (A) in years % % % %
A < 1 51.7 72.5 57.0 31.3
1< A < 2 16.7 8.3 29.8 35.9
2< A < 3 5.2 2.6 3.4 13.8
3< A < 4 8.2 5.8 4.6 8.5
A > 4 18.2 10.7 5.2 10.4
Color
Black 9.7 13.0 7.6 17.5
White 19.9 14.6 15.7 27.1
Brown & red 24.1 22.7 23.6 21.9
Black & white 23.5 19.3 21.7 16.9
Others 22.8 30.3 31.4 16.6
Sex
Male 48.4 51.1 47.1 48.8
Castrated 7.6 5.5 8.2 8.6
Female 44.0 43.4 44.7 42.5
Body condition
Poor 2.1 3.5 19.8 13.7
Average 71.5 74.3 63.2 48.4
Fat 16.0 14.5 12.7 21.8
Very fat 10.3 7.7 4.4 16.0
No. of observations 1054 983 987 948
Table (3): Mean and standard deviation for the study markets
Chacha H/Gebeya M/Meda Molale
Mean Std. D.* Mean Std. D Mean Std. D. Mean Std. D.
Weight (kg) 23.22 6.373 21.76 6.192 23.72 6.273 22.01 6.328
Price per head (Birr) 100.48 36.611 94.31 35.614 81.69 35.146 89.74 37.501
Liveweight price (Birr) 4.30 0.741 4.32 0.764 3.36 0.702 4.03 0.892
Std. D.* = Standard Deviation.
Jordan Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume 2, No.1, 2006
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Table (4): Tests of significance (Prob. > F) of factors included in liveweight price equation for all markets.
Chacha market H/Gebeya market M/Meda market Molale market
Weight 0.9484 0.0001 0.5113 0.1642
Weight2 0.8092 0.0001 0.9343 0.7669
Week 0.1949 0.0001 0.0099 0.0078
Sex 0.1069 0.0004 0.0001 0.8207
Age 0.3682 0.0001 0.0211 0.1892
Body condition 0.1871 0.0001 0.0001 0.0008
Color 0.3199 0.0001 0.0005 0.0014
Buyers purpose 0.5504 0.2184 0.5275 0.6297
Season 0.0001 0.0051 0.0937 0.0427
Wt. X Week 0.8003 0.0008 0.0198 0.0028
Wt. X Sex 0.0213 0.0001 0.0001 0.0573
Wt. X Age 0.4130 0.0106 0.0186 0.0320
Wt. X Body condition 0.3680 0.0016 0.0004 0.0488
Wt. X Buyers purpose 0.7372 0.2204 0.3630 0.5311
Wt. X Season 0.0003 0.0305 0.0196 0.1275
Week X Sex 0.3596 0.5439 0.0959 0.1100
Week X Body condition 0.5748 0.4421 0.0001 0.0320
Table (5): Overall average weight by sex and weights at which minimum liveweight prices occur in the study
markets.
Markets Minimum
liveweight
price
W* Average weight
male sheep Average weight
castrated sheep Average weight
female sheep
Chacha 4.23 21.98 23.22 33.18 21.50
H/Gebeya 4.15 25.00 21.70 33.93 20.28
M/Meda 2.35 20.45 24.27 34.40 21.16
Molale 3.98 18.79 23.31 30.01 18.90
W*= weight of the sheep at which minimum liveweight price occurs.
Sheep Price Patterns… T. Beneberu and Amer S. Jabarin
- 74 -
Table (6): Estimated parameters of main effects of liveweight price equation for all markets.
Chacha
market H/Gebeya market M/Meda market Molale
market
Intercept 5.025*** 4.847*** 3.921*** 4.547***
Weight -0.034 0.002 0.025 -0.034
Weight 2 0.027 0.031 0.040 0.031
Time -0.084 -0.014*** -0.002 0.042
Sex
Male -0.013 -0.608*** -0.855*** 0.204***
Castrated 0.034 0.078 0.364*** 0.303***
Female @
Age (year)
A < 1 0.033 1.998*** 0.145** 0.415***
1 <A < 2 -0.047* 1.338*** -0.012 0.037
2 <A < 3 -0.018 0.461*** 0.503*** -0.026
3 <A < 4 0.021 -0.065 -1.142*** -0.107
> 4 @
Body condition
Poor -0.050 -1.775*** -1.834*** -1.114***
Average 0.084 -0.964*** -0.785*** 0.073
Fat -0.080 -0.081 -0.050 -0.139
Very fat @
Color
Black -0.020 -0.253*** -0.147** -0.029
White 0.103** 0.126** 0.165*** 0.118**
Brown & Red 0.005 0.010 -0.005 0.042*
Black & White 0.014 -0.164*** -0.006 0.195***
Others @
Buyers purpose
Consumption 0.045 -0.021 -0.030 0.031
Resale -0.030 -0.005 0.080 0.001
Reproduction 0.018 -0.008 -0.022 0.236***
Fattening @
Seasons
New year 0.336*** 0.252*** 0.424*** 0.824***
Id-al-fater -1.380*** 0.006 0.030 0.015
Christmas -0.412*** -0.004 -0.038 0.032
Id-al-adha 0.248*** 0.206** 0.032 -0.050
Lent -0.866*** -0.217*** 0.142*** 0.020
Easter 0.247*** 0.196** 0.202*** -0.027
Maulid -0.011 -0.014 0.001 -0.006
Non-festival @
N 1054 983 987 948
Adjusted R2 (liveweight price) 0.367 0.474 0.552 0.553
Std. Error 0.589 0.554 0.471 0.594
F- value 41.729 41.229 56.132 74.406
Significance < 0.0001 < 0.0001 < 0.0001 < 0.0001
Where *, ** and *** indicate statistical significance at 10%, 5% and 1% levels, respectively. A=age in years.
Jordan Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume 2, No.1, 2006
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Table (7): Estimated parameters of interaction effects of liveweight price equation for all markets
Chacha market Hamus Gebeya market Mehal Meda market Molale market
Interaction with weight
Weight X Time -0.039 0.113 -0.001*** 0.041
Weight X Sex
Male 0.007*** 0.034*** 0.045*** 0.061**
Castrated 0.026 0.082 0.242 -0.095
Female @
Weight X Age (year)
A < 1 0.018 -0.060*** 0.005 -0.030***
1 <A < 2 -0.042 -0.031*** 0.010*** 0.032
2 <A < 3 -0.020 -0.196* -0.053 -0.036
3 <A < 4 0.022 0.010*** 0.046*** 0.007***
> 4 @
Weight X Condition
Poor -0.080*** -0.110 -0.092 -0.038***
Average -0.029*** 0.146 0.165* -0.057***
Fat -0.013*** -0.025*** -0.013*** -0.026***
Very fat @
Weight X Buyers purpose
Consumption 0.035 -0.024 -0.008 0.010
Resale -0.036 0.006 -0.003** 0.000
Reproduction 0.006 -0.017 -0.021 -0.061
Fattening @
Weight X Seasons
New year 0.012 -0.081 0.013 -0.027
Id-al-fater 0.045** 0.010 -0.008*** 0.025
Christmas 0.193* -0.002 -0.011*** 0.030
Id-al-adha -0.026 -0.151 0.026 0.009**
Lent 0.030*** 0.062 0.069 0.013
Easter 0.036 -0.061 0.029 -0.019
Maulid -0.003 -0.021 0.010 -0.013
Non-festival @
Interaction with Time
Time X Sex
Male 0.044 0.046 0.009 0.005
Castrated 0.019 0.021*** 0.018*** -0.067
Female @
Time X Condition
Poor -0.050 0.011 0.023*** -0.069
Average -0.012*** 0.056 -0.004 0.006***
Fat -0.010*** -0.075 -0.001 0.052
Very fat @
Where *, ** and *** indicate statistical significance at 10%, 5% and 1% levels, respectively. A=age in years.
Sheep Price Patterns… T. Beneberu and Amer S. Jabarin
- 76 -
Table (8) Ways of sheep price formulations in the study markets.
Chacha Market Hamus Gebeya
Market Mehal Meda Market Molale Market
Buyer
% Seller
% Buyers % Seller % Buyers
% Seller
% Buyers
% Seller
%
Based on the previous market day
price
22.1 35.3 23.1 47.5 23.4 28.6 32.3 28.3
Collecting information on market
day
11.0 7.8 15.6 15.6 10.1 6.5 21.9 13.8
Negotiation 66.9 56.9 61.3 36.9 66.5 64.9 45.8 57.9
No. Observations 145 153 160 160 158 154 155 152
Table (9) Access for vehicle transportation in the study markets.
Chacha market Hamus Gebeya market Mehal Meda market Molale market
Buyer % Seller % Buyer % Seller % Buyer % Seller % Buyer % Seller %
Access 26.9 24.2 22.5 20.6 19.6 13.6 15.5 9.9
No access 73.1 75.8 77.5 79.4 80.4 86.4 84.5 90.1
No. Observations 145 153 160 160 158 154 155 152
Figure 1: Weekly average liveweight price values pattern for two years at Hamus Gebeya and Mehal Meda
markets.
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
1
7
13
19
25
31
37
43
49
55
61
67
73
79
85
91
97
103
Weeks
Liveweight price (Birr )
H/Gebeya
M/Meda
Jordan Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume 2, No.1, 2006
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Figure 2: Pattern of monthly average liveweight price in the study markets.
Figure 3: Weekly average price per head and liveweight price contrast for two years at M/Meda market.
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
Months
Liveweight price (Birr)
Chacha
H/G ebeya
M/Meda
Molale
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
160
1 8 15 22 29 36 43 50 57 64 71 78 85 92 99
Weeks
Price/head (Birr)
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
Liveweight price (Birr)
Price/head
Liveweight price
Sheep Price Patterns… T. Beneberu and Amer S. Jabarin
- 78 -
5. REFERENCES
Andargachew, K. and Brokken, R. F. 1993. Intra-annual
Sheep Price Patterns and Factors Underlying Price
Variations in the Central Highlands of Ethiopia. Agric.
Econ., 8(1): 125-138.
Barrs, R.M.T. 1998. Costs and Return of Camels and Small
Ruminants in Pastoral Herds of Eastern Ethiopia. P. 162-
175. In: Proceedings of the Sixth Ethiopian Society of
Animal Production, 14-15 May 1998. A. Ababa,
Ethiopia
Befekadu, Degefe and Berhanu Nega, 2000. Annual Report
on the Ethiopian Economy: Volume I, 1999/2000. The
Ethiopian Economic Association, Addis Ababa,
Ethiopia. 429 pp.
Carles, A.B. 1983. Sheep Production in the Tropics. Oxford
University Press, New York.
Jabbar M.A. 1998. Buyer Preferences for Sheep and Goats
in Southern Nigeria: A Hedonic Price Analysis. Agric.
Econ., 18(1): 21–30.
Jabbar M.A. and Diedhiou, M.L. 2001. Does Breed Matter
to Cattle Farmers and Buyers? Evidence from West
Africa (eds). International Livestock Research Institute
(ILRI), Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
Jerrold, H.Zar 1984. Biostatistical Analysis, 2nd ed. Prentice-
Hall International, Inc. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey,
USA.
Little, Peter D. 2000. Cross Border Livestock Trade and
Food Security in the Somalia and Northern Kenya
Borderlands. Unpublished Manuscript. Binghamton, NY:
Institute for Development Anthropology.
Maddala, G.S. 1992. Introduction to Econometrics, 2nd ed.
Macmillan Publishing Company, New York.
Rodriguez A.R. 1997. Rural Poverty and Natural Resources
in the Dry Areas: The Context of ICARDA’s Research.
Working Paper. ICARDA (International Center for
Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas), Aleppo, Syria.
20 pp.
SPSS, 1999. Statistical Package for Social Sciences, Release
4.0, for Sun 4 (Unix). SPSS Incorporated.
Winrock International, 1992. Assessment of Animal
Agriculture in Sub-Saharan Africa. Winrock
International Institute for Agricultural Development,
Morrilton, Arkansas, USA. Pp.125. Cited in Robin
Mearns (1996) Balancing Livestock and the
Environment, Washington, DC, September 27-28, an
associated event to the Fourth World Bank Conference
on Environmentally Sustainable Development.
Yishak Mengesha, Ehui S., Jabbar M. and Shapiro B. 1999.
Handbook of Livestock Statistics for Developing
Countries. ILRI (International Livestock Research
Institute), Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
Zelalem A. and Fletcher, I. 1993. Small Ruminant
Productivity in the Central Ethiopian Mixed Farming
Systems. In: Proceedings of the Fourth National
Livestock Improvement Conference, 13-15 Nov. 1991.
A. Ababa, Ethiopia. IAR, A. Ababa, Ethiopia.
Jordan Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume 2, No.1, 2006
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ﻷﺍﻤﻨـ ﻁﺎﻌﺴﻟـﻴﻐﺘ ﻰﻠﻋ ﺓﺭﺜﺅﻤﻟﺍ لﻤﺍﻭﻌﻟﺍﻭ ﺔﻴﺭـﺭﺎﻌﺴﺃ ﺕﺍﺭ ﺴﺃ ﻲﻓ ﻑﺍﺭﺨﻟﺍـﻕﺍﻭ ﻴﺸ ﻕﻁﺎﻨﻤـ ﺎﻴﺒﻭﻴﺜﺇ ﻲﻓ ﺍﻭ
.ﻭﺭﻴﺒﻴﻨﻴﺒ
*
ﻲﺤﺒﺼ ﺭﻤﺎﻋﻭ ،ﻥﻴﺭﺎﺒﺠ
**
ﺹـﺨﻠﻤ
ﻨﻫ ﺙﺎﺤﺒﻷﺍ ﻲﻓ ﺓﺭﻴﺒﻜ ﺔﻴﺩﻭﺩﺤﻤ ﻙﻟﺎ لﺍﻭﺤﺄﺒ ﻕﻠﻌﺘﺘ ﻲﺘﻟﺍ ﻡﺎﻋ لﻜﺸﺒ ﺎﻴﺒﻭﻴﺜﺇ ﻲﻓ ﺎﻬﻬﺠﺍﻭﺘ ﻲﺘﻟﺍ ﺕﺍﺩﺩﺤﻤﻟﺍﻭ ﻑﺍﺭﺨﻟﺍ ﻕﺍﻭﺴﺃ ، ﻲـﻓﻭ ﻁﺴﻭﻟﺍ ﺔﻴﻟﺎﻤﺸﻟﺍ ﺕﺎﻌﻔﺘﺭﻤﻟﺍ ﻕﻁﺎﻨﻤ ﺩﻴﺩﺤﺘﻟﺎﺒ . ﺓﺭﺜﺅـﻤﻟﺍ لﻤﺍﻭﻌﻟﺍﻭ ﻑﺍﺭﺨﻟﺍ ﺭﺎﻌﺴﺃ ﻁﺎﻤﻨﺃ ﺙﺤﺒﻟﺍ ﺍﺫﻫ لﻭﺎﻨﺘﻴ ﻲـﻓ ﺕﺍﺭـﻴﻐﺘﻟﺍ ﺔﻘﻁﻨﻤﻟﺍ ﻩﺫﻫ ﻲﻓ ﺔﻴﺭﻌﺴﻟﺍ، ﺒﻟﺍ ﺍﺫﻫ لﻭﺎﺤﻴﻭ ﻕﻁﺎـﻨﻤ ﻲـﻗ ﻑﺍﺭـﺨﻟﺍ ﻕﻴﻭﺴﺘ ﻡﺎﻅﻨ ﻪﺠﺍﻭﺘ ﻲﺘﻟﺍ ﺕﺍﺩﺩﺤﻤﻟﺍ ﻡﻫﺃ ﻰﻠﻋ ﻑﺭﻌﺘﻟﺍ ﺙﺤ ﺎﻴﺒﻭﻴﺜﺇ ﻲﻓ ﺍﻭﻴﺸ لﺎﻤﺸ ﺔﻘﻁﻨﻤ ﻲﻓ ﺓﺭﺎﺘﺨﻤ . ﺕﺎـﻴﺎﻐﻟ ﻕﺍﻭﺴﺃ ﺔﻌﺒﺭﺃ ﺭﺎﻴﺘﺨﺍ ﻡﺘ ﻑﺍﺭﺨﻟﺍ ﻕﻴﻭﺴﺘ ﻊﻗﺍﻭﻤﻟ ﺔﻴﺒﺴﻨﻟﺍ ﺔﻴﻤﻫﻷﺍ ﻰﻠﻋ ﺀﺎﻨﺒﻭ
ﻁﺴﻭﻟﺍ ﺔﻴﻟﺎﻤﺸﻟﺍ ﺕﺎﻌﻔﺘﺭﻤﻟﺍ ﻕﻁﺎﻨﻤ ﻲﻓ ﺔﺴﺍﺭﺩﻟﺍ ﻩﺫﻫ، ﻕﺍﻭﺴﻷﺍ ﺢﺴﻤﺒ ﻡﺎﻴﻘﻟﺍ ﻡﺘ ﺩﻘﻟﻭ ﻲﺴﻴﺌﺭﻟﺍ ﻡﻭﻴﻟﺍ ﻲﻓ ﺎﻴﻋﻭﺒﺴ ﻲـﻓ ﻉﻭﺒـﺴﻷﺍ ﻥﻴﻤﺎﻋ ﺓﺩﻤﻟﻭ ﺎﻤﻜ ، ﻡﺍﺩﺨﺘـﺴﺍ ﻊـﻗﻭﺘﻭ ﻡﺴـﺠﻟﺍ ﺔﻟﺎﺤﻭ ﻥﻭﻠﻟﺍﻭ ﺭﻤﻌﻟﺍﻭ ﺱﻨﺠﻟﺍﻭ ﻥﺯﻭﻟﺍﻭ ﻑﺍﺭﺨﻟﺍ ﺭﻌﺴﺒ ﺔﻘﻠﻌﺘﻤﻟﺍ ﺕﺎﻨﺎﻴﺒﻟﺍ ﻊﻴﻤﺠﺘ ﻡﺘ
ﻊﻴﺒﻟﺍ ﺕﺎﻘﻔﺼ ﻊﻴﻤﺠﻟ ﻑﺍﺭﺨﻠﻟ ﻱﺭﺘﺸﻤﻟﺍ، ﺙـﺤﺒﻟﺍ ﺍﺫﻫ ﺕﺎﻴﺎﻐﻟ ﺔﻠﺠﺴﻤﻟﺍ ﺕﺍﺩﻫﺎﺸﻤﻟﺍ ﺩﺩﻋ ﻎﻠﺒ ﺙﻴﺤ 7976 ﺓﺩﻫﺎﺸـﻤ . ﺕـﻌﻤﺠﻭ ﺕﺎﻨﺎﻴﺒﻟﺍ ﺔﻠﺒﺎﻘﻤ لﻼﺨ ﻥﻤ ﺔﻴﻟﻭﻷ619 ﺔﻋﺎﺒﻟﺍ ﻥﻤ 618 لـﺠﺃ ﻥـﻤ ﺔـﺴﺍﺭﺩﻟﺍ ﺔﻘﻁﻨﻤ ﻲﻓ ﺓﺭﺎﺘﺨﻤﻟﺍ ﻕﺍﻭﺴﻷﺍ ﻲﻓ ﻥﻴﺭﺘﺸﻤﻟﺍ ﻥﻤ
ﺔﻴﻘﻴﻭﺴﺘﻟﺍ ﺕﺍﺩﺩﺤﻤﻟﺍ ﻡﻫﺃ ﻰﻟﺇ لﻭﺼﻭﻠﻟ ﺔﻴﻠﻴﺼﻔﺘﻟﺍ ﺕﺎﻤﻭﻠﻌﻤﻟﺍ ﻰﻠﻋ لﻭﺼﺤﻟﺍ . ﻕﺭـﻁﻭ ﻲﺴﺎﻴﻗ ﻱﺩﺎﺼﺘﻗﺍ ﺝﺫﻭﻤﻨ ﻡﺍﺩﺨﺘﺴﺍ ﻡﺘ ﻙﻟﺫﻜ لﻴﻠﺤﺘﻟﺍﻑﺍﺭﺨﻠﻟ ﻲﺤﻟﺍ ﻥﺯﻭﻟﺍ ﺭﺎﻌﺴﺄﺒ ﻕﻠﻌﺘﻤﻟﺍ لﻴﻠﺤﺘﻟﺍ ﻲﻓ ﻲﻔﺼﻭﻟ .
ﺔـﺴﻭﺭﺩﻤﻟﺍ ﻕﺍﻭﺴﻷﺍ ﻲﻓ ﻡﺎﻌﻟﺍ لﻼﺨ ﻉﻭﺒﺴﺃ ﻰﻟﺇ ﻉﻭﺒﺴﺃ ﻥﻤ ﻑﺍﺭﺨﻠﻟ ﻲﺤﻟﺍ ﻥﺯﻭﻟﺍ ﺭﺎﻌﺴﺃ ﻲﻓ ﺭﻴﺒﻜ ﻥﻴﺎﺒﺘ ﺩﻭﺠﻭ ﺞﺌﺎﺘﻨﻟﺍ ﺕﺭﻬﻅﺃ . ﻲﺤﻟﺍ ﻥﺯﻭﻟﺍ ﺭﺎﻌﺴﺃ ﻰﻠﻋ ﺓﺭﺜﺅﻤﻟﺍ ﺕﺎﻔﺼﻟﺍ ﺕﻠﻤﺸﻭ : ﻥﻭﻠﻟﺍﻭ ﻡﺴﺠﻟﺍ ﺔﻟﺎﺤﻭ ﺭﻤﻌﻟﺍﻭ ﺱﻨﺠﻟﺍ ﻥﺍﻭﻴﺤﻟﺍ ﻥﺯﻭ، ﺒﺘ ﺙﻴﺤ ﺭﺎﻌﺴﻷﺍ ﺕﻨﻴﺎ ﺹﺌﺎﺼﺨﻟﺍ ﻩﺫﻫ ﺏﺒﺴﺒ . ﺔﺴﺍﺭﺩﻟﺍ ﺔﻘﻁﻨﻤ ﻪﺠﺍﻭﺘ ﻲﺘﻟﺍ ﺔﻴﻘﻴﻭﺴﺘﻟﺍ ﺕﺎﺒﻭﻌﺼﻟﺍ ﻡﻫﺃ ﻥﺃ ﺔﺴﺍﺭﺩﻟﺍ ﺕﻨﻴﺒ ﻙﻟﺫﻜ : ﺕﺎﻤﺩﺨﻭ لﻴﻭﻤﺘﻟﺍ لﻘﻨﻟﺍ ﺔﻴﻘﻴﻭﺴﺘﻟﺍ ﺕﺎﻤﻭﻠﻌﻤﻟﺍ، ﺕﺎﺒﻭﻌﺼﻟﺍ ﻩﺫﻫ ﺭﺜﺅﺘ ﺙﻴﺤ ﻲﻓﺎﻫﺭﺍﺭﻘﺘﺴﺍ ﻡﺩﻋﻭ ﺭﺎﻌﺴﻷﺍ ﻥﻴﺎﺒﺘ . ﻴﻠﻋﻭ ﺜﺤﺎﺒﻟﺍ ﻲﺼﻭﻴ ﻥﺎ ﺎﺴﻤﺒ ﺔﻴﺒﻭﻴﺜﻹﺍ ﺔﻤﻭﻜﺤﻟﺍ ﻡﺎﻴﻗ ﺓﺭﻭﺭﻀﺒ لﻼﺨ ﻥﻤ ﻑﺍﺭﺨﻟﺍ ﻲﺒﺭﻤ ﺓﺩﻋﺀﺎﺸﻨ ﻲـﺘﻟﺍ ﺔﻴﻘﻴﻭﺴﺘﻟﺍ ﺔﻴﺘﺤﺘﻟﺍ ﻰﻨﺒﻟﺍ لﻤﺸﺘ :1( لﻘﻨﻠﻟ ﺔﻴﺘﺤﺘﻟﺍ ﻰﻨﺒﻟﺍ ﻥﻴﺴﺤﺘ2( ﺔﻴﻤﻴﻠﻗﻹﺍ ﺓﺭﺎﺠﺘﻠﻟ ﺞﻴﻭﺭﺘﻟﺍ3 ( ﺔﻴﻘﻴﻭﺴـﺘﻟﺍ ﺕﺎﻤﻭﻠﻌﻤﻠﻟ ﻡﻅﻨ ﺱﻴﺴﺄﺘ4 ( ﺴـﺤﺘ لﺎﺼﺘﻻﺍ لﺌﺎﺴﻭ.
________________________________________________ * ﺯﻜﺭﻤ )ﻭﻨﻴﺸ (ﺎﻴﺒﻭﻴﺜﺇ ،ﻥﺎﻫﺭﺒ ﻱﺭﺒﺩ ،ﺔﻴﻋﺍﺭﺯﻟﺍ ﺙﻭﺤﺒﻠﻟ. ** ،ﺔﻴﻋﺍﺭﺯﻟﺍ لﺎﻤﻋﻷﺍ ﺓﺭﺍﺩﺇﻭ ﻲﻋﺍﺭﺯﻟﺍ ﺩﺎﺼﺘﻗﻻﺍ ﻡﺴﻗﺔﻴﻨﺩﺭﻷﺍ ﺔﻌﻤﺎﺠﻟﺍ ،ﺔﻋﺍﺭﺯﻟﺍ ﺔﻴﻠﻜ. ﺙﺤﺒﻟﺍ ﻡﻼﺘﺴﺍ ﺦﻴﺭﺎﺘ 8/3/2005 ﻪﻟﻭﺒﻗ ﺦﻴﺭﺎﺘﻭ ،15/1/2006.
... This indicates that the price of Bonga sheep increases with better meat and fat size as well as height. This result agrees with the findings of Beneberu [66], Zelalem et al. [12] and Zewdie and Teferi [67]. ...
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Background Bonga sheep is a mutton type breed with a long-fat-tail and better body weight at maturity. The breed is especially located in the Southwestern mid and highland land areas of Ethiopia. Currently, the breed was well known in Ethiopia and also its price is higher as compared to other sheep breeds in the country. However, empirical evidence is lacking on price determinants of the breed in Ethiopia. Therefore, this research aims at identifying sheep attributes and other factors that determine the market prices of Bonga sheep in Southwestern Ethiopia. Methodology Data from 300 traded sheep and sheep marketers were collected from five major sheep marketing centers in the Kaffa zone. A hedonic price model adjusted for heteroscedasticity was employed to analyze the observed price data. Results The model result showed that the attributes of the sheep are important guiding criteria in price formulation. Among the attributes age, sex (male), colour (red), body condition (good), tail type (very fat) and absence of horn significantly and positively determine the sheep price. As well, market place (Gojebi and Bonga) near to big cities and season (holiday) and purpose of purchase are also significant determinants of bong sheep price out of the sheep attributes in Southwestern Ethiopia. Conclusion Targeting in systematic improvement of the significant attributes which are demanded by the market and establishment of a breeding program to make sheep improvement in a sustainable way. Besides, effort should be geared to transform the system into a market-oriented system using a value chain framework by improving access to market information.
... Tesfaye [16] reported similar seasonal effects on sheep marketing conditions. Sheep prices are also affected by the sheep's characteristics, such as weight, sex, age, body condition, and coat colour [38]. Farmers observed that producing crossbred sheep with 25% Dorper inheritance was more profitable due to their high market demand, better price, phenotypic preference, and low feed requirement. ...
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The study was conducted to assess the production system and farmers' perceptions of Dorper crossbreds in Eastern Amhara, Ethiopia. Data on the sheep production system and farmers' perceptions were collected using participatory rural appraisal in Kalu and Gubalafto districts. According to this survey, the average landholding in Kalu and Gubalafto districts was 0.75 and 0.55ha per household, respectively. The average number of sheep per household in Kalu (0.64TLU) was higher than in Gubalafto (0.42TLU). In the districts, sheep were virtually kept under low-input, traditional management systems; sheep production was entirely dependent on local sheep, and pure breeding was common. However, following the introduction of the Dorper sheep, few farmers were found to participate in crossbreeding activities. The primary goal of keeping sheep in Kalu and Gubalafto was to generate income with indexes of 0.31 and 0.32, respectively, followed by social security with the same index (0.24). In Kalu and Gubalafto, in approximately 77.3 and 68% of cases, respectively, children were found to be involved in sheepherding. In the Kalu district, feed scarcity and disease ranked first and second, respectively, with indexes of 0.40 and 0.27. In Gubalafto, feed scarcity ranked first with the same index (0.40), and still, the disease ranked second with a lower index (0.23). Because of their fast growth, all farmers expressed a strong desire to keep Dorper crossbreds. Farmers also reported that the 25% Dorper crossbreds had a high market demand and price due to their larger body size. In conclusion, to use Dorper sheep properly and increase the profitability of sheep producers, effective ram dissemination and breeding strategies need to be designed by considering the current production system and the farmers' needs.
... Sheep, especially those of local breeds, are important for the subsistence of human populations in developing countries. These breeds have multiple functions and significantly contribute to the income of small-scale farmers in marginal areas as well as noticed in the literature (Beneberu and Jabarin, 2006;Kosgey, 2004;Kosgey and Okeyo, 2007;Thiruvenkadan et al., 2009). They provide high-quality protein due to their excellent ability to transform fodder composed of grasses and legumes into foods with high protein value for human consumption (Gonzaga Neto et al., 2005;Odoi et al., 2000). ...
... Sheep have multipurpose functions providing meat, manure and as source of cash income. They contribute to the livelihood of a large number of small and marginal farmers (Beneberu and Jabarin, 2006). The Amhara regional government of Ethiopia has taken measures to improve the productivity of indigenous sheep of the region. ...
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A study was carried out to characterize the cattle production system of the area, socio-economic profiles of households (HH) and herd size and structure in three districts of Sigimo, Gera and Dedo in Jimma zone, Southwestern Ethiopia between December, 2009 and April, 2010. These districts were purposively selected to represent highland, mid-highland and lowland agro-ecological zone. From the three districts, 180 representative households and 540 cattle were selected from 6 peasant associations. Data were collected by interviewing HH using a semi-structured questionnaires and topical guidelines (checklists), examination of household premises and animal houses, as well as, direct observations of animals in the farm. Focus group discussions with key informants were held in eight different sites. The results of the study revealed that the overall average family size was 5.22/HH and the overall average land holding for crop and livestock production was 2.25 ha/HH. Cattle had multi-functional roles like traction, milk and meat production, manure, and social and cultural functions in all of the three districts. The livestock production system of the area was characterized by mixed farming system. The overall average herd size in the study area was (7.87±3.02). As compared to Gera (7.47±5.16) and Dedo (5.92±1.81) heads of cattle, the average cattle herd size of sampled households was higher in Sigimo (10.13±4.09). Farmers reported that significant numbers of calving occurred at every month of the year and the most frequent calving was in August (Index=0.24), July (Index=0.15) and June (Index=0.13). The results revealed that there were clear differences in the housing system of cattle, responsibility in cattle management, herd size and structure and farm characteristics among the three districts. From the results of the study, it is recommended to keep small number of better performing cattle than keeping large number of unproductive one’s in areas where there is shortage of land.
... Sheep have multipurpose functions providing meat, manure and as source of cash income. They contribute to the livelihood of a large number of small and marginal farmers (Beneberu and Jabarin, 2006). The Amhara regional government of Ethiopia has taken measures to improve the productivity of indigenous sheep of the region. ...
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In the framework of designing community-based breeding strategies for indigenous cattle types of smallholders in Ethiopia, a survey of on-farm phenotypic characterization of Jimma indigenous cattle population was undertaken in Gera, Sigimo and Dedo districts of Jimma Zone. Multi stage sampling procedures such as stratified, purposive and random sampling were employed. One hundred eighty sample cattle owners with different herd sizes were interviewed on their cattle husbandry practices. Eight focus group discussions with key informants were held in different sites. Six quantitative measurements and thirteen qualitative records were taken and observed from 540 mature cattle and subjected to multivariate analysis of variance. For the analyses of quantitative data, the main effects of district and age of cattle were fitted to the final model. Cluster analysis on quantitative variables was employed to identify homogenous cattle population that may represent cattle types. The results showed highly significant (p<0.01) differences in most of the quantitative traits between districts for male and female cattle population. The analyses of variance to ascertain the difference between age groups for male and female cattle population in quantitative traits also showed highly significant (p<0.01) differences. The qualitative variables had also high significant contribution (p<0.01) in distinctly separating sample cattle populations. Between districts, there was highly significant (p<0.01) difference for milk production and lactation length. The overall average age at sexual maturity for males and females was 37.46±0.44 and 36.16±0.34 months, respectively. The overall average age at first calving and calving interval was 42.49±0.66 and 13.49±0.23 months, respectively. Morphologically, at least three distinct cattle types were found in the area, namely the Gera cattle type (Gera-Naso and Genji-Chala sites), the Sigimo cattle type (Alia and Seriti sites) and the Dedo cattle type (Waro-Kolobo and Ofolle-Dawe sites). The Gera cattle population has the longest horn, while the Sigimo cattle type has the shortest ear and horn length. On the other hand, the Dedo cattle type has big body frame and long ears. Draught power performance, body size, coat color and growing ability were among the higher ranked preferred traits for male cattle in that order. Preferred traits for female cattle include milk yield, coat color, body size and fertility. The study revealed distinct characteristics of cattle inhabiting different agro-ecologies and it is suggested that the characterization work should be followed with community based genetic improvement scheme.
... In developing countries, livestock production is mostly subsistence oriented and fulfills numerous capacities that contribute more to food security (Roessler et al., 2008;Duguma et al., 2010).The small ruminants account for 40% of cash income earned by farmers, 19% of the total value of subsistence food derived from all livestock production and 25% of total domestic meat consumption (Hirpa and Abebe, 2008). Sheep have multipurpose function and contribute to the livelihood of a large number of small and marginal farmers (Tefera and Jabarin, 2006;Thiruvenkadan et al., 2009). Smallholder sheep productions are the major source of food security serving a diverse role, including cash income, savings, fertilizer, socio-cultural functions and fiber yield. ...
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Article History Keywords Breeding practice Breeding objective Farta sheep Flock structure Selection criteria Washera sheep. The purpose of this research was to generate organized information on breeding objectives, breeding practices and choice criteria of farmers in Farta, Lay Gayint and Sekela districts. A sum of 180 households was selected to survey questionnaires in selected districts, Semi structured questioner and group discussions were used as information sources. The average separation of the Statistical Analysis System was used to analyze the flock size and structure in the three districts. An index was calculated to supply an overall ranking of categorical variables. The average flock per house holding the study districts was 8.8±0.05 heads. For source of income (0.45), home use (0.28), saving (0.20), and manure (0.04) were the reasons of sheep keeping. The uncontrolled mating system was practiced by most (72.6 %) of households. In the study districts 37.7 % of farmers received their own breeding rams while the rest farmers shared with their neighbors. Appearance (0.38), growth rate (0.34), color (0.13), pedigree (0.10) and tail type and size (0.10) were the sheep owner's standards for breeding ram, while the appearance (0.29), coat color (0.18), lamb growth (0.17), lambing interval (0.12), age at first lambing (0.09) and lamb survival (0.08) where the farmers' selection criteria for breeding ewes. Going through a breed improvement program considering the farmers' production objectives and existing breeding practices is important. Nevertheless, designing alternative breeding strategies to key out the optimal number of traits to be considered and size of flocks to be mixed is crucial before setting up a breeding plan. Contribution/Originality: This study is one of very few works which have investigated to evaluate the existing breeding practice and choice criteria of sheep farmers' in Ethiopia. This inquiry is important to design breeding strategies for improvement breeding practices and choice of traits chosen by farmers in the study districts.
... On the other hand, animals like females, of old age, thin animals and those with black colours were less preferred and cheaper. According to Beneberu (2003) young sheep fetch higher prices in the highland markets of North Shewa, Ethiopia. This is true not only for economic purpose, but also for its tenderness, softness and the like. ...
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This study was carried out in Bensa district of Sidama Zone, southern Ethiopia. The objective of this study was to assess consumer preference traits of indigenous sheep type in the study area. Data were analysed using SPSS versions 16. There are four towns where sheep was marketed in addition to many villages that were used as primary market outlets for sheep. Farmers, collectors, traders, brokers, restaurant/hotel owners and individual consumers were the major actors in the sheep market. There were five main market channels and three market outflow route of sheep in the study area. The most preferred traits by consumer in the study area were younger age, uncastrated, large frame size, good body condition and non-black colour. The demand for sheep was high during the time of crop harvesting and Christian holidays. It was concluded that understanding the consumer preferences of indigenous sheep can be used as first step in designing a sustainable breeding programme in the study area. Hence, this study recommended that community based selective breeding program should be implemented to control negative selection and improve the performance and productivity of sheep. Besides, effort should be geared to transform the system into market oriented system using value chain framework.
... Out of which about 73.1% are females, and about 26.9% are males (CSA, 2010).Of the total sheep population, 75% is found in the highlands where mixed crop-livestock systems dominate, while the remaining 25 per cent of the sheep is found in the lowlands (DAGRIS, 2006). Sheep have multipurpose function and contribute to the livelihood of a large number of small and marginal farmers (Beneberu and Jabarin, 2006;Thiruvenkadan et al., 2009). The multipurpose role of sheep as source of income, meat, skin, manure and coarse wool or long hairy fleece, means of risk avoidance during crop failure and their role in different cultural functions during festival are well documented Kosgey et al., 2008). ...
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The study was conducted in Debre Libanos and Wuchale Districts of Selale area, Central Ethiopia with the objective of assessing traditional husbandry practices of indigenous sheep types. A total of 300 households (150 in Debre Libanos and 150 in Wuchale district) were randomly sampled for the interview in selected and surrounding Kebeles having similar production system. A semi-structured questionnaire and group discussion were used to gather husbandry practices. The result showed that most of the households heads are males (77.33%) and mixed crop-livestock system is their production system. The chi-square test in both Wuchale and Debre Libanos district indicated that there were significance differences (P<0.05) between sexes, among educational status and among the age of the respondents. Sheep were kept predominantly as source of income generation. The major purpose of keeping male sheep across both districts was primarily for to be used as an income with an index ranging from 0.46 to 0.50, followed by meat with an index ranging from 0.16-0.18. Almost all respondents provided night shelter for their sheep, in adjacent to main family house (30.33%), in a separate shed purpose-made for sheep (25.33%) and in the main family house with some sort of partition (44.33%). Natural pasture and crop residue were the main feed sources and rivers and spring water were main water source for sheep and Fasciollosis, sheep pox and foot root were the major reported sheep disease in the studied areas. The improved husbandry practices in the livestock farming make it more sustainable and profitable livelihood especially to the rural backward people. Thus, technological intervention is very vital to these traditional practices for the improvement of sheep production in the studied area.
... Of the total sheep population, 75 percent is found in the highlands where mixed croplivestock systems dominate, while the remaining 25 per cent of the sheep is found in the lowlands (DAGRIS, 2006). Sheep have multipurpose function and contribute to the livelihood of a large number of small and marginal farmers ((Beneberu and Jabarin, 2006; Thiruvenkadan et al., 2009). The multipurpose role of sheep as source of income, meat, skin, manure and coarse wool or long hairy fleece, means of risk avoidance during crop failure and their role in different cultural functions during festival are well documented (Kosgey et al., 2008). ...
Article
Full-text available
This study was aimed to generate organized information on traditional breeding practices and selection criteria for indigenous sheep types in two districts of Selale area. A total of 300 households (150 in Debre Libanos and 150 in Wuchale district) were randomly sampled for the interview in selected and surrounding Kebeles. A semi-structured questionnaire and group discussion were used to gather sheep breeding practices and selection criteria in the area. The result showed that most of the households heads are males (77.33%) and mixed crop-livestock system. Sheep were kept predominantly as source of income generation. Mating was predominantly uncontrolled and no report of controlled breeding. Out of total farmers interviewed, only about 7.33% and 14% kept their own breeding males in Debre Libanos and Wuchale, respectively. The majority of the farmers got the service from unknown ram (63.33% in Debre Libanos and 51.33% in Wuchale). Selection of breeding animals was reported to be practiced in the study areas, and mainly focused on selection of breeding males. In selecting a breeding ram, appearance and/or conformation ranked first for both Debre Libanos and Wuchale sheep owners with an index of 0.42 and 0.311, respectively. Uncontrolled mating and absence of breeding rams in many of the flocks in Debre Libanos and Wuchale districts are challenges which have to be tackled when implementing breeding programs. In order to minimize the failure of breed improvement programs it is important to involve farmers considering the existing breeding practices, selection criteria and trait preferences of the community. Introduction Ethiopia is home for at least 9 breeds and 14 traditional sheep populations (Solomon et al., 2007a) with
... From the total interviewed farmers, 26.1% mentioned that Washera rams and its crosses attributed an increased market value due to its better body conformation (size, color, tail). Sheep price is affected by animal characteristics such as weight, sex, age, condition, and color (Beneberu et al., 2006). According to Chipman (2003), Washera breed of sheep has been found to be a relatively fast growing breed under harsh circumstances with good ...
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A rapid survey was conducted in south Gonder zone districts to collect information on the adaptability and productivity of distributed Washera rams and its crosses under smallholder farmer’s management systems in the study areas. Pre-survey information was collected from zone agricultural office professionals and checklist was used to collect information from zone and district professionals, development agents and smallholder farmers. In addition, physical observation and body measurements were taken on rams and their progenies. Since the distribution has started in 2005, 1965 Washera rams were distributed in to nine districts by different organizations like Food for Hunger International, World Vision, Research and District Agricultural and Rural development office (WoARD) safety net program. According to the professionals and farmers judgments, Washera sheep has many economically important traits of which better growth rate, attractive coat color and big fat tail are the most important ones. Farmers recalled some adaptation problems as susceptibility to food shortage and disease, especially at their early age of arrival. The observed physical measurements depicted that these sheep are performing well. The body weight and other linear measurements obtained for rams were better than the values for the same breed of sheep at Adet and Quarit. Among the interviewed farmers (70%) preferred to rear Washera and its crosses while 8.7% of them preferred their locals (Farta). In general, most of the farmers (73.9%) have positive comment and suggestion on the distribution of Washera rams through which the performance of the locals could be improved. For future distribution, districts should consider when and where to buy and distribute the rams. In addition, for efficient use of the rams, the distribution should consider communal use of the rams in a common grazing land and it is better to distribute on recommended areas. Finally, in the context of animal genetic resource utilization and conservation, a strategy that would help to improve and conserve the Washera sheep at its belt should be designed.
Article
A sheep market survey was undertaken to determine the effects of certain animal and market characteristics on price and the pattern of sheep prices in relation to seasons. Nine key Ethiopian central highlands markets were surveyed for a period of one year in 1989. Each market was surveyed once a week on the main market day. Price, weight, sex, age, colour, condition score, breed type and buyer's purpose were recorded for all completed transactions as well as the numbers offered and sold on each market day. A total of 50 062 cases were recorded.Three markets, each representing redistributive, intermediate and terminal markets, as identified by the distribution in buyer's purpose were chosen for further analysis. Considerable weekly price variation was evident in these markets. Prices were also seasonal with higher premiums paid during some religious festivals. Animal characteristics (weight, age, condition, sex, colour) as well as buyer's purpose and seasons were variably important in explaining variation in price among animals within weeks. Variations in the composition of these characteristics from week-to-week were among factors underlying changes in weekly mean prices. R2 varied from 0.2659 to 0.3583 in the quadratic price per kg model and from 0.7822 to 0.8413 in the quadratic price per head model in the three markets. However, it was found that price per head was predicted equally well overall by estimated price per kg multiplied by actual weights and that because of wide variation in weights, both within and between weeks, price per kg is more useful market information.
Article
World agriculture is based on a small number of animal species and a decreasing number of breeds within each species. Several breeds of West African shorthorn cattle (Bos taurus brachyceros) are now at high risk of extinction due to interbreeding. The West African shorthorn breeds are particularly important resources because of their superior abilities to resist diseases, particularly trypanosomosis, and be productive under high humidity, heat stress, water restriction and with poor quality feed. An analysis of farmers' breeding practices and breed preferences in a sample area in southwest Nigeria confirmed a strong trend away from trypanotolerant breeds, especially Muturu, and identified the traits farmers find least desirable in these breeds relative to zebu (Bos indicus) breeds. An analysis of cattle market prices found that buyers have preferences for specific breeds for specific purposes and that though in general price differences due to breed are small, in some cases, buyers pay significantly different prices for certain breeds consistent with their preferences. The best hopes for increased utilization of breeds at risk such as Muturu is likely in other areas of West Africa, for example in southeast Nigeria, where the Muturu is better suited to the farming systems and there is a large market for this breed to provide incentives.
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Article
The introduction discusses the geographical distribution, environments, functional roles, importance in rural communities, and the importance of promoting production. The 2 main parts analyse for each animal: origin and history of domestication; breeds; reproductive behaviour; breeding methods; feeds and feeding; diseases and parasites; management; productive efficiency; processing and marketing of the animal products. A 3rd part considers the development of goat and sheep production. -M.A.Bass
Article
A survey of two rural markets in southwest Nigeria over 14 months showed that supplies, sales and prices of sheep and goats varied widely during the period with a sharp peak during the Muslim festival of Eid-el-Kabir and a smaller peak during the Christmas-New Year period. Local West African Dwarf (WAD) sheep and goats and northern Y'ankasa sheep and Red Sokoto goats were traded in the markets and animals were purchased for rearing, trading, ceremonies, butchering/catering, sacrifice, and festivals. There were significant differences between species/breeds purchased for various purposes. A hedonic price model was fitted to determine factors influencing price. After adjustments were made for age, weight, sex, time of transaction and market, WAD sheep commanded higher prices than WAD goats and Red Sokoto goats for all purposes except for butchering/catering; Red Sokoto goats commanded similar or lower prices than WAD goats depending on the purpose for purchase; and Y'ankasa sheep, principally purchased for the Eid-el-Kabir festival, commanded marginally higher prices than WAD sheep. The market share of WAD sheep is currently small and is under competition from northern sheep and goats, so increased production of WAD sheep in the south will benefit both producers and consumers in the area. In general, the results indicate that buyers have preferences for specific breeds and species for specific purposes, so producers and sellers may benefit by targeting specific buyer categories and times of the year.
Small Ruminant Productivity in the Central Ethiopian Mixed Farming Systems
  • A Zelalem
  • I Fletcher
Zelalem A. and Fletcher, I. 1993. Small Ruminant Productivity in the Central Ethiopian Mixed Farming Systems. In: Proceedings of the Fourth National Livestock Improvement Conference, 13-15 Nov. 1991. A. Ababa, Ethiopia. IAR, A. Ababa, Ethiopia.
  • H Jerrold
  • Zar
Jerrold, H.Zar 1984. Biostatistical Analysis, 2 nd ed. Prentice- Hall International, Inc. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, USA.