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The Functions of Gender Role Traditionality, Ambivalent Sexism, Injury, and Frequency of Assault on Domestic Violence Perception A Study Between Japanese and American College Students

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This study examined the mediating influence of gender-role traditionality (GRT), ambivalent sexism, and victim injury and frequency of assault on domestic violence (DV) perception differences between Japanese and American college students. As predicted, Japanese tended to minimize, blame, and excuse DV more than did Americans, and these national differences were mediated by GRT. Participants viewed the DV incident more seriously when the victim presented injury or when the incident had occurred frequently. Those high in benevolent and hostile sexism were more likely to minimize DV, whereas those high only in benevolent sexism were more likely to blame the victim.
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... In terms of IPV perpetration specifically, Renzetti et al. (2018) found that hostile sexism was positively associated with IPV perpetration. Yamawaki et al. (2009) found that individuals higher in benevolent sexism had greater tendencies to blame victims of rape, and Notestine et al. (2017) found that ambivalent sexism was a significant predictor of blaming battered females. This may be because people who endorse benevolent sexism see women in need of protection when their actions align with stereotypical gender roles. ...
... This may be because people who endorse benevolent sexism see women in need of protection when their actions align with stereotypical gender roles. Since keywords such as drinking and partying at night associated with the female rape victim in this previous study indicated a violation of traditional gender roles of women, participants tended to reverse the belief about women needing protection and blamed the victim as a result (Yamawaki et al., 2009). Furthermore, in a study about stalking victims, Yamawaki et al. (2020) found that both hostile and benevolent sexism were predictors of victim blaming and that hostile sexism was a predictor of minimizing the seriousness of the stalking. ...
... Egalitarian gender roles refer to interactions between men and women in which the power distinctions are less pronounced (Gowda & Rodriguez, 2019). Previous researchers have found that traditional gender role ideology was strongly associated with both DV and IPV (Erickson et al., 2017;Morash et al., 2000;Yamawaki et al., 2009Yamawaki et al., , 2018Yoshihama et al., 2020). Morash and colleagues (2000) examined wife abuse in Mexican-descent families and found that wife abuse was related to adherence to traditional gender roles of the husband. ...
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Extensive research has been conducted regarding attitudes toward various types and patterns of violence against intimate partners, but there is a lack of research on attitudes toward economic abuse in general. In the current study, we examined attitudes toward economic abuse by examining how participants blamed the victim, minimized the economic abuse, and excused the perpetrator in hypothetical scenarios. We also examined two characteristics of participants: binary gender differences (i.e., woman, man) and differences between students and non-students. Participants (N = 239) were recruited via the SONA system of a private university (n = 120) and via Amazon's Mechanical Turk (n = 119). Participants were randomly assigned to read one of two hypothetical scenarios to evaluate how scenario condition (i.e., victim employed, victim unemployed), participant gender, and participant student status predicted attitudes toward economic abuse involving blaming, minimizing, and excusing. Moreover, we also examined ambivalent sexism and gender role ideology as predictors. A 2 (scenario condition: job, no job) × 2 (participant gender: woman, man) × 2 (student status: college student, non-college student) MANOVA indicated main effects of both participant gender and participant student status. Follow-up ANOVAs revealed that men were more likely to blame victims, minimize the economic abuse, and excuse perpetrators compared to women. Additionally, students were less likely to minimize the economic abuse compared to non-students. Moreover, both hostile sexism and traditional gender role ideology were significant predictors. Implications of the findings and future directions for researchers are discussed.
... As a case in point, a small but relevant percentage of both women and men from different countries consider IPV as such only when it involves physical and/or sexual violence or repeated violence (Yamawaki et al., 2009). Specifically, as compared to physical and sexual violence, people tend to judge psychological IPV as 'not very serious' and unproblematic (Pipes and LeBov-Keeler, 1997;González and Santana, 2001;Capezza and Arriaga, 2008;Gonzalez-Ortega et al., 2008;Harding and Helweg-Larsen, 2009;Medarić, 2011;Rodríguez-Franco et al., 2012;Larsen and Wobschall, 2016;García-Díaz et al., 2017), sometimes even as a positive occurrence in a relationship (Henton et al., 1983). ...
... Research has demonstrated that hostile sexism is linked to more lenient attitudes toward the seriousness of offenses committed by men against women and tolerant attitudes toward IPV, as hostile sexism assumes that a victim is exaggerating the seriousness of the incident to gain benefit (such as money or attention) for herself or to dominate or destroy the perpetrator (Sakall, 2001;Herzog, 2007;Martín-Fernández et al., 2018b). Moreover, both hostile and benevolent sexism are related to women's legitimization of IPV, minimization of its occurrence, exoneration of the perpetrator, and victim blame, as legitimation and justification of IPV contribute to legitimizing gender inequality (Glick et al., 2002;Craig et al., 2006;Yamawaki, 2007;Peters, 2008;Yamawaki et al., 2009;Masser et al., 2010;Valor-Segura et al., 2011;Vidal-Fernández and Megías, 2014;Giger et al., 2017;Lelaurain et al., 2019;Fakunmoju et al., 2021). ...
... One of the main aims of this work concerned having a better knowledge regarding women's evaluation and behavioral responses to psychological abusive acts in an intimate relationship. In line with previous studies (Herzog, 2007;Yamawaki et al., 2009;DeHart et al., 2010;Nguyen et al., 2013), therefore, we developed a task, in which respondents were asked to evaluate short hypothetical scenarios. Using the structure of the MPAB (Follingstad et al., 2015) as a model, we selected the five types of psychological abuse that IPV victims experience most frequently [i.e., monitoring, jealousy, verbal abuse, isolating, and creating a hostile environment (Follingstad et al., 1990(Follingstad et al., , 2015Harned, 2001;Carney and Barner, 2012)]. ...
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Research on intimate partner violence (IPV) has recognized psychological abuse as a precursor of physical and sexual violence in intimate relationships. However, risk factors in predicting women’s psychological abuse victimization in such a context are still unclear. The goal of the present work was to investigate the role of ambivalent sexism on psychological IPV victimization, by taking into account in the same study the effect of three additional social-psychological factors: women’s i) attitudes supportive of IPV, ii) endorsement of legitimating myths of IPV, and iii) acceptance of psychological aggression in intimate relationships. A total of 408 Italian young women (Mage = 23.87; SD = 2.39) involved in non-marital heterosexual romantic relationships completed measures aimed at assessing i) hostile and benevolent sexism, ii) attitudes supportive of IPV, iii) legitimating myths of IPV, iv) prevalence of psychological abuse experienced within the last 12 months, and performed a task developed ad hoc to measure v) acceptance of psychological aggression in intimate relationships. Results showed that the effect of ambivalent sexism on participants’ prevalence of psychological abuse was mediated by the endorsement of attitudes supportive of IPV and legitimating myths of IPV, as well as by acceptance of psychological aggression. Findings are discussed based on literature about ambivalent sexism, and attitudes and beliefs about IPV.
... There is currently a consolidated body of evidence that shows an association between sexist attitudes and risky sexual relationships among young people [8], emotional dependence [9], low levels of education among women [10] and poor quality of affective relationships [11]. In both sexes, HS predicted more favorable attitudes toward bullying [12] men and women, high score in BS and HS sexism were more likely to minimize DV, whereas those high only in BS were more likely to blame the victim [13], When men had a high relational dependence and perceived that women had a low in relationship commitment, HS was related with more aggressive toward their female partner [14]. From a health promotion perspective, encouraging non-sexist attitudes and personal abilities in the adolescent population is key to the development of positive, healthy and non-sexist interpersonal relationships as well as the prevention of dating violence [15]. ...
... The study was a quasi-experimental study using a convenience sample of secondary students (age range: [12][13][14][15][16][17] in six European cities: Alicante (Spain), Mathosinos (Portugal), Cardiff (United Kingdom), Roma (Italy), Poznán (Poland) and Iasi (Romania). The intervention group included students from 12 school centers selected using viability criteria. ...
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Background: Sexism results in a number of attitudes and behaviors that contribute to gender inequalities in social structure and interpersonal relationships. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of Lights4Violence, an intervention program based on promoting health assets to reduce sexist attitudes in young European people. Methods: We carried out a quasi-experimental study in a non-probabilistic population of 1146 students, aged 12-17 years. The dependent variables were the difference in the wave 1 and wave 2 values in the subscales of the Ambivalent Sexism Inventory: benevolent sexism (BS) and hostile sexism (HS). The effect of the intervention was evaluated through linear regression analyses stratified by sex. The models were adjusted by baseline subscales scores, socio-demographic and psychological variables. Results: In girls, we observed a decrease in BS in the intervention group compared to the control group (β = - 0.101; p = 0.006). In the wave2,, BS decreased more in the intervention group compared to the control group in girls with mothers with a low level of education (β = - 0.338; p = 0.001), with a high level of social support (β = - 0.251; p < 0.001), with greater capacity for conflict resolution (β = - 0.201; p < 0.001) and lower levels of aggressiveness (β = - 0.232, p < 0.001). In boys, the mean levels of HS and BH decreased in wave 2 in both the control and intervention groups. The changes observed after the wave 2 were the same in the control group and in the intervention group. No significant differences were identified between both groups. Conclusions: The implementation of the Lights4Violence was associated with a significant reduction in BS in girls, which highlights the potential of interventions aimed at supporting the personal competencies and social support. It is necessary to reinforce the inclusion of educational contents that promote reflection among boys about the role of gender and the meaning of the attributes of masculinity. Trial registration: Clinicaltrials.gov : NCT03411564 . Unique Protocol ID: 776905. Date registered: 26-01-2018.
... A second possible explanation for regional differences in performance is that certain cultural factors may impact clinicians' familiarity with diagnosing relationship problems in clinical practice. Research suggests that Japanese individuals hold more patriarchal gender norms than individuals living in Western countries (Hofstede et al., 2010;Yamawaki et al., 2009), which can contribute to the perception of IPV as a private family matter rather than a public health issue (Nagae & Dancy, 2010;Nguyen et al., 2013;Yamawaki et al., 2009). IPV survivors in Japan report feeling ashamed of disclosing violence (Nagae & Dancy, 2010;Weingourt et al., 2001), and a national survey revealed that only 6% of women who experienced IPV had disclosed this to a health professional (Cabinet Office, 2012, as cited in Umeda et al., 2017). ...
... A second possible explanation for regional differences in performance is that certain cultural factors may impact clinicians' familiarity with diagnosing relationship problems in clinical practice. Research suggests that Japanese individuals hold more patriarchal gender norms than individuals living in Western countries (Hofstede et al., 2010;Yamawaki et al., 2009), which can contribute to the perception of IPV as a private family matter rather than a public health issue (Nagae & Dancy, 2010;Nguyen et al., 2013;Yamawaki et al., 2009). IPV survivors in Japan report feeling ashamed of disclosing violence (Nagae & Dancy, 2010;Weingourt et al., 2001), and a national survey revealed that only 6% of women who experienced IPV had disclosed this to a health professional (Cabinet Office, 2012, as cited in Umeda et al., 2017). ...
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Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a serious public health problem associated with increased risk of developing mental health conditions. Assessment of IPV in mental health settings is important for appropriate treatment planning and referral; however, lack of training in how to identify and respond to IPV presents a significant barrier to assessment. To address this issue, the World Health Organization (WHO) advanced a series of evidence-based recommendations for IPV-related training programs. This study examines the relationship between mental health professionals’ experiences of IPV-related training, including the degree to which their training resembles WHO training recommendations, and their accuracy in correctly identifying relationship problems. Participants were psychologists and psychiatrists ( N = 321) from 24 countries who agreed to participate in an online survey in French, Japanese, or Spanish. They responded to questions regarding their IPV-related training (i.e., components and hours of training) and rated the presence or absence of clinically significant relationship problems and maltreatment (RPM) and mental disorders across four case vignettes. Participants who received IPV-related training, and whose training was more recent and more closely resembled WHO training recommendations, were more likely than those without training to accurately identify RPM when it was present. Clinicians regardless of IPV-related training were equally likely to misclassify normative couple issues as clinically significant RPM. Findings suggest that IPV-related training assists clinicians in making more accurate assessments of patients presenting with clinically significant relationship problems, including IPV. These data inform recommendations for IPV-related training programs and suggest that training should be repeated, multicomponent, and include experiential training exercises, and guidelines for distinguishing normative relationship problems from clinically significant RPM.
... The belief that men should do repair and maintenance, and women should carry out jobs such as childcare and cooking can also be supported by women [102,109]. As family function sexism increases, individuals may ignore or excuse domestic violence [110]. ...
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Experiences in family, school, and social life during childhood are associated with gender roles and occupational choice capability. This study examines how competent individuals are in occupational choice capability and the relationships of childhood experiences and gender roles with their competencies in occupational choice capability. The research is composed of 805 individuals aged 18 and older, who reside in Turkey. In the research, we used the Personal Information Form, Childhood Experiences Scale, Gender Roles Attitude Scale, and The Scale of Occupational Choice Capability. The SPSS 25 program and PROCESS-Macro were used to analyze the variables. The relationship between the scales was investigated using Pearson correlation analysis and multiple regression analysis. According to the findings we obtained, individuals’ family and school life were positively correlated with their career choices, and family function sexism harmed their choice of profession. We also found gender roles had a mediating role in the relationship between school life and career choice.
... Coulter et al. (2017) found significantly higher rates of pastyear sexual assault among Black students (women: 9.5%, men: 6.2%, transgender people: 55.6%) and students identifying as a race/ethnicity other than White, Asian or Pacific Islander, or Latinx (women: 10.2%, men: 5.4%, transgender people: 21.6%). International students may be disproportionately impacted by experiences of IPV and SA due to language difficulties and homesickness (Robertson, Line, Jones, & Thomas, 2000) as well as the absence of a local social support system (Hechanova-Alampay, Beehr, Christiansen, & Van Horn, 2002), and different cultural perspectives of violence (Lee, Pomeroy, Yoo, & Rheinboldt, 2005;Yamawaki, Ostenson, & Brown, 2009). ...
Technical Report
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Advocacy is a potentially powerful tool for addressing and mitigating some of the effects of intimate partner violence and sexual assault victimization. Community-based advocacy models, such as those in shelters and non-residential centers, have strong evidence of improving outcomes for survivors. College campuses have been adapting advocacy models for survivors of violence but with little evaluation. Evaluation is vital for campus-based advocacy to improve services for survivors, highlight advocate and survivor strengths, and provide evidence of the beneficial impact of programs. The Campus-based Advocacy Evaluation Toolkit provides guidance and tools for implementation and evaluation.
... Those who do not expect to follow the societal standards & gendered expectations are neglected or punished. Violence as a punishment or a method to shame women is justified in contexts (Nagae & Dancy, 2010;Yamawaki et al, 2009). The disparity often leads to trauma and in case if express women will be criticized by the majority. ...
Preprint
Women are often considered as weak when it comes to scientific knowledge. In a society where women were primarily defined to be a homemaker and take care of their children, they educated themselves, formed Citizen Radioactivity Measuring Stations (CRMS) and took great initiatives to educate the society by producing valuable lay expertise to cope with the aftermath of a nuclear disaster. The project is an attempt to analyze CRMS as women's initiatives and its significance in the society they belong to.
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The Ambivalent Sexism Theory suggests that there are two complementary types of sexism: hostile (subjectively negative attitude towards gender groups) and benevolent (subjectively positive attitude towards gender groups). In this meta‐analysis we analyzed the relationship between ambivalent sexism and attitudes toward male‐to‐female violence or violent behavior. Violence type, the context of violence, respondents’ gender, the countries’ level of gender inequality, and sample type were tested as moderators. The results showed that both hostile and benevolent sexism independently impact on attitudes toward violence and violent behavior albeit to a different degree. Specifically, the relationship between hostile sexism and attitudes and behavior is stronger than for the benevolent sexism. The type and context of violence moderate the relationship between hostile sexism and attitudes toward violence and violent behavior. Only the country's gender inequality levels showed a moderation effect for benevolent sexism. Theoretical and practical implications of the results are discussed. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
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Aim This study aimed to examine the role of the feminine or masculine gender stereotypes, ambivalent sexism and dating violence to predict nursing students’ beliefs about intimate partner violence. Background Although there has been a growing interest in understanding the sociocultural contexts and the factors on the intimate partner violence, there is a serious lack of empirical research on different dimensions of this problem among nursing students. Design A cross-sectional correlational design was used. Methods The data were collected from a sample of 520 university students from three nursing schools in Istanbul, Turkey. Participants were selected through convenience sampling. Data were collected with the Beliefs About Wife Beating Scale, the Ambivalent Sexism Inventory, the revised Conflict Tactics Scale and the sociodemographic form. Results Results revealed that male participants were more prone to justify wife beating and believe that battered women benefitted from beating. Based on the results of the study, in addition to sex, region of birth, representing feminine or masculine gender stereotypes, hostile sexism, psychological aggression and having an injury due to experiencing violence in the latest relationship were the important predictors of nursing students’ beliefs about intimate partner violence. Conclusions Nursing curricula should include courses to enhance students’ awareness towards violence against women, sexism and gender equality. More, universities should provide counseling services for nursing students who experienced violence.
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Chapter
Having presented the findings from 20 studies involving a variety of methodologies, we now introduce a theoretical framework that gives conceptual coherence to these findings. The proposed model, which emerged from our own empirical work and the work of others, offers several advantages. It provides an explanatory tool for comparing the decisions of various types of victims. In addition, it allows for the integration of the present findings with the existing literature on victim decision making. Further, the model suggests directions for future research, while at the same time laying the foundation for public policy decisions (see Chapter 10).
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The purpose of this chapter is to review and discuss the contributions cross-cultural studies have made or might make to our understanding of family violence. To cover as much territory as possible I have defined cross-cultural studies broadly to include any information collection and analysis approach that involves either the implicit or explicit comparison of two or more cultural groups. Cultural group is defined broadly as well, to include nations, political subdivisions within nations, ethnic groups, small-scale (primitive, nonliterate) societies, peasant societies, and so on. Following the work of Gelles and Straus (1979) family violence is defined as the action of a family member that will very likely cause physical pain to another family member. The term beating, such as wife beating or husband beating, is used throughout the chapter to refer to any violent act ranging from a slap to a beating with a stick to murder with a handgun.