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First record of Stegomyia albopicta (Skuse) (Diptera: Culicidae) in Germany

  • Kommunale Aktionsgemeinschaft zur Bekämpfung der Schnakenplage e.V. (KABS)


With the help of the international used tyre trade, the Asian tiger mosquito, Stegomyia albopicta, has been able to expand its range world-wide. In 1979, the species was recorded in Europe for the first time in Albania, and has since been reported in 14 European countries. In addition to its rapid spread, St. albopicta is of particular interest due to its vector capacity for certain infectious viral diseases. Due to the increasing threat of an introduction of St. albopicta from neighbouring countries, a national monitoring programme was initiated in Germany by KABS (German Mosquito Control Organization) in 2005. In addition to used tyre trading companies, sampling was carried out at container terminals at inland ports along the Rhine, terminals receiving trains from Italy, and rest areas and parking lots along the German highway A5 coming from the south. At the end of September 2007, five eggs from the non-indigenous species St. albopicta were found on oviposition substrate in an ovitrap in the southern section of this major north-south highway. This is the first report of this non-indigenous species in Germany and demonstrates that live adults can be transported over long distances within motor vehicles.
European Mosquito Bulletin, 26 (2008), 1-5.
Journal of the European Mosquito Control Association
ISSN 1460-6127;
First published online 1 September 2008
First record of Stegomyia a lbopicta (Skuse)
(Diptera: Culicidae) in Germany
Björn Pluskota
, Volker Storch
, Thomas Braunbeck
, Matthias Beck
Norbert Becker
German Mosquito Control Association (GMCA/KABS), Ludwigstr. 99, D-67165 Waldsee, Germany;
Department of Zoology, University of Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 230, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany.
With the help of the international used tyre trade, the Asian tiger mosquito, Stegomyia albopicta, has
been able to expand its range world-wide. In 1979, the species was recorded in Europe for the first
time in Albania, and has since been reported in 14 European countries. In addition to its rapid spread,
St. albopicta is of particular interest due to its vector capacity for certain infectious viral diseases. Due
to the increasing threat of an introduction of St. albopicta from neighbouring countries, a national
monitoring programme was initiated in Germany by KABS (German Mosquito Control Organization)
in 2005. In addition to used tyre trading companies, sampling was carried out at container terminals at
inland ports along the Rhine, terminals receiving trains from Italy, and rest areas and parking lots
along the German highway A5 coming from the south. At the end of September 2007, five eggs from
the non-indigenous species St. albopicta were found on oviposition substrate in an ovitrap in the
southern section of this major north-south highway. This is the first report of this non-indigenous
species in Germany and demonstrates that live adults can be transported over long distances within
motor vehicles.
Keywords: mosquito, Stegomyia albopicta, Aedes albopictus, Germany
The mosquito Stegomyia albopicta, previously
Aedes albopictus (Reinert & Harbach 2005),
originating from Southeast Asia, has
undergone a noteworthy expansion of its range
in the last few decades (Hawley 1988). Mainly
with the help of the international used tyre
trade, the so-called “Asian tiger mosquitohas
been able to travel across very large distances
and between continents (Reiter 1998). Due to
its ability to colonise a wide range of natural
and artificial breeding places, and coupled with
the resistance of its eggs to desiccation and the
relative lack of host preference (Hawley 1988),
this species has been able to rapidly build up
populations in new geographic regions large
enough to successfully establish stable
populations. Once consolidated, national trade
and traffic has facilitated subsequent rapid
spread into further regions within these new
countries (Moore & Mitchell 1997).
In Europe, St. albopicta was first reported in
Albania in 1979 (Adhami 1998) and later in
Italy in 1990, where it was introduced through
the import of used tyres from the USA into the
port town of Genoa (Sabatini et al. 1990, Dalla
Pozza and Majori 1992). Within the next few
years, the species rapidly dispersed to other
regions of Italy (Romi 1994), and in the
meantime it has been reported from France
(Schaffner & Karch 2000), Serbia and
Montenegro (Petric et al. 2001), Belgium
(Schaffner et al 2004), Switzerland (Flacio et
al. 2004), Greece (Samanidou et al. 2005),
Croatia (Klobucar et al. 2006), Spain (Aranda
et al. 2006) and the Netherlands (Scholten et
al. 2007).
Apart from its rapid geographical dispersion,
St. albopicta is of special interest due to its
vector capacity for infectious viral diseases
(Reiter et al. 2006). It is, for example, assumed
that this species was involved in the spread of
chikungunya virus to humans in Italy in 2007
(Beltrame et al. 2007).
An analysis of the literature and preliminary
unpublished laboratory data suggests that,
given the current climatic conditions, the only
region in Germany where St. albopicta might
be expected to establish persistent populations
is the Upper Rhine valley. This region is
located in southwestern Germany, is
approximately 300 km long and on average 30
km wide, and has an especially mild climate
compared to central European standards
(Liedtke 2002).
In May 2005, KABS (German Mosquito
Control Organization) initiated a project to
take action against the increasing threat of St.
albopicta introduction into and its
establishment in Germany. The primary goal
of the project is to analyse the pathways of
introduction into Germany, thereby identifying
sites that have the highest probability of being
colonized by St. albopicta, and to regularly
monitor these “hot spots”.
The primary mode of dispersal of St. albopicta
by human activity has been through transport
of desiccation-resistant eggs with cargo that
previously contained water serving as breeding
sites. The most important type of cargo is old
tyres that have been stored outdoors (Knudsen
1995). Therefore, companies processing or
trading used tyres are most likely to introduce
St. albopicta and were therefore given high
monitoring priority.
Another type of cargo in which a large number
of eggs or larvae can be transported over great
distances is the so-called Lucky Bamboo
(Dracaena spp.). For instance, the trade in this
ornamental plant, which is boxed with standing
water, permits an “ideal insectary in transit
and was the reason for the introduction of St.
albopicta from Asia to California (Madon et
al. 2004). Similarly, multiple introductions of
the Asian tiger mosquito to the Netherlands in
greenhouses of horticulture companies could
be traced back to intensive trade of this plant
(Scholten et al. 2007). However, we were not
able to locate any intermediate trading
companies for Lucky Bamboo within our
monitoring area or in other parts of Germany.
Due to high humidity and cool air temperature,
freight containers offer conditions suitable for
the transport of living insects (Reiter 1984).
Therefore, container terminals at inland ports
along the Rhine as well as terminals receiving
trains from Italy were regularly monitored.
Rest areas and parking lots along the German
highway A5 have a high potential to serve as
sites of introduction and were, therefore, major
components of the monitoring programme.
This highway runs from south to north through
the entire Upper Rhine valley and is part of the
most important continuous south-north
highway in Europe, running from Sicily to
Stockholm. It is a main truck and tourist route
for those returning from Italy and southern
France to Germany, the Benelux and
Scandinavia. Transportation of adult St.
albopicta by cars and trucks was documented
during a monitoring programme in 2003, when
the species was detected for the first time in
Switzerland (Flacio et al. 2004). Since then,
multiple introductions of Asian Tiger
mosquitoes from Italy to southern Switzerland
have been observed, and, in autumn 2007, it
was first recorded in northern Switzerland
(Bundesamt für Gesundheit 2007). There are
indications that the number of mosquitoes
transported correlates with traffic volume
(Flacio et al. 2006).
Materials and Methods
During 2007, the monitoring programme
employed 80-100 ovitraps at 47 trapping sites.
The number of ovitraps used per location
varied between one and six, depending on
suitable habitats and the probability of St.
albopicta being introduced to the site.
From the beginning of May to the end of
September of each year, potential sites are
monitored using ovitraps, which are examined
for eggs and larvae every 14 days. In addition,
in the areas surrounding the traps, promising
shrubs and trees are checked for mosquitoes
using the human bait method. Eggs are
preliminarily identified microscopically and
are kept in the laboratory at 25°C and 80%
humidity for one week to ensure complete
embryonic development. Deoxygenated tap
water, enriched with a small amount of
brewer’s yeast, is used as a hatching stimulus.
Following hatching, larvae are reared to the
adult stage, if possible. Identification keys of
Becker et al. (2003) are used to determine the
In total, four species from the family Culicidae
have been collected since the monitoring
programme was initiated. Most of the
mosquitoes collected were of the indigenous
dendrolimnobiotic species Ochlerotatus
geniculatus and Anopheles plumbeus, as well
as Culex pipiens in isolated cases. During the
last trap inspection, at the end of September
2007, five eggs from the non-indigenous St.
albopicta were found on the oviposition
substrate in one of the traps at a parking lot in
the southern part of the German highway A5
(Latitude 47°42’22”N, Longitude 7°31’28”E).
Only two of the eggs hatched after being
flooded three times for 72 hours at weekly
intervals and partial drying between flooding.
Both hatched larvae developed into adults and
were conclusively identified as St. albopicta.
No St. albopicta eggs were found in the second
ovitrap at the same site, nor were adults found
up to 200 m around the traps using the human
bait method.
The discovery of eggs of St. albopicta! in an
ovitrap located at a parking lot on a highway
used by tourists and transport vehicles coming
from southern Europe is the first documented
case of this non-indigenous species in
Germany. Furthermore, it demonstrates that
living adults can be transported over extended
distances within these vehicles. Through
regular monitoring and the initiation of control
measures, St. albopicta!has only been reported
sporadically and in small numbers in parts of
southern and, since autumn 2007, also in
northern Switzerland. The female, which laid
the above-mentioned eggs, thus most likely
came from more distant populations in
northern Italy.
Particularly at the end of vacation periods in
Germany, Scandinavia and Benelux, a large
number of tourists drive back from Italy on the
German highway A5, a major south-north
route. In vacation areas St. albopicta! is most
likely attracted to the campers and caravans by
human olfactory cues. Since these mobile
living spaces are mostly unused while driving,
mosquitoes attempting to feed during transport
are less likely to be discovered than in cars and
truck cabins.
The fact that only five eggs were found in only
one trap and that no adults were collected
implies that the eggs were laid by a single
transported female that was already
inseminated. According to Gubler (1970), St.
albopicta! females lay an average of 62.5 eggs
and tend to deposit these in multiple
oviposition sites (Hawley 1988). Therefore, it
is likely that more eggs from this female could
have been found in natural or human-made
containers at this site. Nevertheless, the
probability of successful colonization of an
empty habitat patch depends, besides species-
specific and environmental factors, mainly on
the number of immigrants and the initial size
of the founder population (Hanski 1999).
Therefore, the establishment of a stable
population on the basis of such a small number
of eggs the next spring is rather unlikely.
Cornel & Hunt (1991) also assumed that, even
though St. albopicta!has been reported to have
been transported into South Africa several
times, due to the small numbers transported at
each occurrence, a breeding population has not
been established there.
However, additional mosquitoes introduced in
the next year could supplement the small
founder population genetically as well as
quantitatively, preventing them from dying
out. Such a mechanism, by which so-called
“sink populations” with negative population
growth (r < 0) do not expire due to regular
immigration from distant “source populations
(r > 0), is known from metapopulation ecology
(Hanski 1999) and is also described as the
“rescue effect” in island biogeography (Brown
& Kodric-Brown 1977). In addition, with
increasing population density and an
expanding range in Italy, the number of “blind
passengers and consequently successful
introductions to hitherto unsettled areas and
also immigrations in existing small founder
populations along human-made distribution
routes increases. For example, Flacio et al.
(2006) reported that the invasion of the
mosquitoes from Italy to southern Switzerland
continues to grow; the number of positive
cases increased by 35% from 2005 to 2006.
It has been shown that, after an introduction
and establishment of a sufficiently large
population, St. albopicta! can rapidly increase
its population size and range (Fontenille &
Toto 2001). If control measures are initiated
too late, there is a great risk of stable
establishment of an originally small and
locally restricted population and dispersion of
St. albopicta! to other climatically suitable
Therefore, in 2008, the number of surveillance
traps will be increased at the positive site,
potential breeding sites will be mapped and
appropriate control measures will be
implemented. Furthermore, monitoring will be
intensified in general and international
cooperation will be initiated, especially with
the countries neighbouring Germany. Public
relations measures such as an information
homepage and information brochures will be
prepared in order to activate community
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... Dispersal of adult Ae. albopictus by ground vehicles (e.g. trucks and private vehicles) from Italy is believed to have resulted in the dispersal of this species into Switzerland, Slovenia, San Marino, the Czech Republic, Croatia and Germany [16][17][18][19][20][21]. In Spain, dispersal of adult Ae. albopictus inside private vehicles across the country was directly observed in multiple instances [5], likely contributing to the rapid spread of Ae. albopictus throughout Spain since its first detection in 2004. ...
... However, introductions of Ae. albopictus to new countries from this pathway has decreased with time, and in the last 2 decades, transportation of Ae. albopictus in ground vehicles was the main dispersal pathway for Ae. albopictus into new countries in Europe[6,[16][17][18][19][20][21] (Figs. 2, 3). The trade of lucky bamboo (Dracaena species) containing Ae. albopictus eggs has been recorded occasionally ...
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Background Aedes albopictus is a highly invasive species and an important vector of dengue and chikungunya viruses. Indigenous to Southeast Asia, Ae. albopictus has successfully invaded every inhabited continent, except Antarctica, in the past 80 years. Vector surveillance and control at points of entry (PoE) is the most critical front line of defence against the introduction of Ae. albopictus to new areas. Identifying the pathways by which Ae. albopictus are introduced is the key to implementing effective vector surveillance to rapidly detect introductions and to eliminate them. Methods A literature review was conducted to identify studies and data sources reporting the known and suspected dispersal pathways of human-mediated Ae. albopictus dispersal between 1940–2020. Studies and data sources reporting the first introduction of Ae. albopictus in a new country were selected for data extraction and analyses. Results Between 1940–2020, Ae. albopictus was reported via various dispersal pathways into 86 new countries. Two main dispersal pathways were identified: (1) at global and continental spatial scales, maritime sea transport was the main dispersal pathway for Ae. albopictus into new countries in the middle to late 20th Century, with ships carrying used tyres of particular importance during the 1980s and 1990s, and (2) at continental and national spatial scales, the passive transportation of Ae. albopictus in ground vehicles and to a lesser extent the trade of used tyres and maritime sea transport appear to be the major drivers of Ae. albopictus dispersal into new countries, especially in Europe. Finally, the dispersal pathways for the introduction and spread of Ae. albopictus in numerous countries remains unknown, especially from the 1990s onwards. Conclusions This review identified the main known and suspected dispersal pathways of human-mediated Ae. albopictus dispersal leading to the first introduction of Ae. albopictus into new countries and highlighted gaps in our understanding of Ae. albopictus dispersal pathways. Relevant advances in vector surveillance and genomic tracking techniques are presented and discussed in the context of improving vector surveillance. Graphical Abstract
... The global trade of lucky bamboo (Dracaena sp.) and tires is the most important pathway for the global dispersal of invasive Aedes species [21,22]. Subsequently, public and private transport especially along highways is considered one of the main drivers of Ae. albopictus's spread in Europe [23][24][25][26][27]. Thus, targeted field surveillance of potential points of entry (PoE) for Ae. ...
... The introduction of Ae. albopictus in Europe was facilitated by passive dispersion through the global transportation of tires [35,36] and the import of Dracaena plants known as "lucky bamboo, " e.g., in The Netherlands [21] and Bulgaria [37]. Further dispersal in Europe inside vehicles via highway systems was documented in Switzerland [38], Germany [23], Spain [24] and the UK [26]. However, no exotic mosquito species were detected at the border crossing between Romania and Chişinӑu and at the botanical garden. ...
Full-text available
Background In Europe, Aedes albopictus is an important vector of chikungunya virus and Dirofilaria nematodes and has been involved in local autochthonous circulation of dengue and Zika viruses. Due to the ongoing spread, targeted field surveillance at potential points of entry of invasive Aedes mosquitoes was initiated by the Republic of Moldova in 2020 as part of the transboundary “Invasive Aedes Mosquitoes COST-Action project.” Methods In 2020, ovitraps were positioned at each of three locations: the border crossing to Romania in Leuşeni (Hancesti region), Chişinӑu International Airport and Chişinӑu Botanical Garden. Results A total of 188 Aedes spp. eggs were collected at the Chişinӑu International Airport between August and September 2020. Twenty-three adults reared in the laboratory were identified morphologically as Ae. albopictus (Skuse, 1895), and 12 selected specimens were confirmed by molecular barcoding of the cytochrome oxidase subunit I gene region. In addition, one adult Ae. albopictus female at the same site was caught with a manual aspirator. Conclusions This is the first documented report of Ae. albopictus in the Republic of Moldova. The presence of immature and adult stages indicates the local reproduction of the species in the country. Therefore, it is crucial to extend and strengthen surveillance of the invasive Aedes mosquitoes to prevent Ae. albopictus and other exotic mosquito species from becoming established in the Republic of Moldova. Graphical abstract
... These results corroborate previous findings regarding the importance of geographical proximity in fostering the spread of this mosquito species, particularly through passive transportation in ground vehicles (Ibáñez-Justicia, 2020; Swan et al., 2022;Tatem et al., 2006). At continental and national scales, this form of passive transportation has been identified as a main pathway for mosquito introduction in Germany (Pluskota et al., 2008), Czech Republic (Šebesta et al., 2012) and Croatia (Klobučar et al., 2006), and it has fostered regional dispersal within Spain (Eritja et al., 2017) and Switzerland , travelling along major roads and highways. The timeframe predicted for the UK, above 10 years, is a surprising result, considering the recent detection of the species through surveillance actions in the southern part of the country (Medlock et al., 2017;Vaux et al., 2019), although without confirmation of its establishment and still absent in the available databases. ...
Full-text available
The mosquito Aedes albopictus is a highly invasive species, which continues to widen its range worldwide. International trade is a major driver of its dispersal, in particular the imports of tyres and live plants. As a competent vector of numerous diseases, among which Zika and dengue, the spread of this species raises public health concerns. Based on indicators of trade volumes and trends along 15 years, combined with climatic similarity and geographic distance between countries, we tested a model aimed at estimating the time of arrival of the species in new countries. We used partial least squares regression to model the year of first recording of the species in previously invaded countries. The fitted model was subsequently applied to predict the expected time of arrival in countries where the species is still absent. The model was able to estimate the year of first recording of the species with up to 2 years difference for 90% of the countries. Temperature differences among countries and the number of exporting countries where the species is present were the most important predictors. Estimates indicate that Aedes albopictus might enter all countries assessed by 2035, earlier in Africa and South America than in Eastern and Northern Europe. However, passive transportation by ground vehicles may accelerate the dispersal of the species, whereas environmental suitability may have seasonal limits, factors that were not integrated in the model. Policy implications : Surveillance and control strategies require timely adjustments to curb the spread of this species, and public health policies must adapt to tackle the potential exposure to vector‐borne diseases. Our study highlights that, in the absence of transnational strategies to contain the dispersal of the species, a large number of new countries will be colonized in the coming years, in different regions of the world, where the implementation of timely preventive measures is paramount.
... Of the group of invasive species that have successfully expanded their habitat beyond their former dispersal areas, the Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus (Skuse 1895)-originally inhabiting the Asia-Pacific region [2]-merits careful attention owing to its high distributional potential and vector competence, especially for arboviruses like dengue, chikungunya and Zika virus [3]. Since 2007, adult Ae. albopictus mosquitoes that have travelled from the Mediterranean area, where their populations are abundant, have been continuously trapped at resting stations along highways in southern Germany [4,5]. In 2014, the first established and reproducing population of the Asian tiger mosquito was reported [6]. ...
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Background The control of the Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) is crucial owing to its high vector competence for more than 20 arboviruses—the most important being dengue, chikungunya and Zika virus. Aedes albopictus has an enormous adaptive potential, and its invasive spreading across urban and suburban environments poses challenges for its control. Therefore, all suitable, cost-effective and eco-friendly control tools should be put into practice. In this context, cyclopoid copepods are already known as effective predators of mosquito larvae. This study reports an essential preliminary step towards the integration of copepods into the vector control strategy in Germany, in order to provide a sustainable tool in an integrated control strategy based on the elimination or sanitation of breeding sites, the use of formulations based on Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis (Bti.) and the sterile insect technique (SIT). Methods The predatory potential of native cyclopoid copepods, namely the field-derived species Megacyclops viridis (Crustacea: Cyclopidae), was examined against the larvae of Ae. albopictus, and for comparison, against the larvae of the common house mosquito, Culex pipiens sensu lato (Diptera: Culicidae). The use of different larval instars as prey, and various predator-to-prey ratios, were examined under laboratory and semi-field conditions. The compatibility of Bti. applications along with the use of copepods was assessed in the laboratory. Results High predation efficiency of M. viridis upon first-instar larvae of Ae. albopictus was observed under laboratory (up to 96%) and semi-field conditions (65.7%). The copepods did not prey upon stages further developed than the first instars, and in comparison with Ae. albopictus, the predation rates on the larvae of Cx. pipiens s.l. were significantly lower. Conclusions The results indicate a high predation potential of M. viridis against Ae. albopictus larvae, even though strong larval stage and mosquito species preferences were implicated. The integration of copepods as a promising biocontrol agent to the vector control strategy in Germany is therefore highly recommended, especially because of the excellent compatibility of copepods with the use of Bti. However, further research is required, concerning all the probable parameters that may impact the copepod performance under natural conditions. Graphical Abstract
... In addition, modeling studies, considering present and future climatic conditions, suggest that its range will be expanding even further north (Caminade et al., 2012;Kraemer et al., 2019). Indeed, isolated populations of Ae. albopictus have already been reported from north of the Alps in Southern Germany (Becker et al., 2013;Pluskota et al., 2008;Werner et al., 2012) and northern Switzerland (Biebinger, 2020) with mosquitoes frequently re-introduced across the Alps along the highways from south to north (Fuehrer et al., 2020;Müller et al., 2020). Given the very patchy pattern of the reported Ae. albopictus populations and the uncertainties of the climatic models, the extent to which local populations north of the Alps are actually self-sustainable, rather than temporarily established by re-introduced individuals, is uncertain and their origins also remain largely unknown. ...
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Abstract Aedes albopictus originates from Southeast Asia and is considered one of the most invasive species globally. This mosquito is a nuisance and a disease vector of significant public health relevance. In Europe, Ae. albopictus is firmly established and widespread south of the Alps, a mountain range that forms a formidable biogeographic barrier to many organisms. Recent reports of Ae. albopictus north of the Alps raise questions of (1) the origins of its recent invasion, and (2) if this mosquito has established overwintering populations north of the Alps. To answer these questions, we analyzed population genomic data from >4000 genome‐wide SNPs obtained through double‐digest restriction site‐associated DNA sequencing. We collected SNP data from specimens from six sites in Switzerland, north and south of the Alps, and analyzed them together with specimens from other 33 European sites, five from the Americas, and five from its Asian native range. At a global level, we detected four genetic clusters with specimens from Indonesia, Brazil, and Japan as the most differentiated, whereas specimens from Europe, Hong Kong, and USA largely overlapped. Across the Alps, we detected a weak genetic structure and high levels of genetic admixture, supporting a scenario of rapid and human‐aided dispersal along transportation routes. While the genetic pattern suggests frequent re‐introductions into Switzerland from Italian sources, the recovery of a pair of full siblings in two consecutive years in Strasbourg, France, suggests the presence of an overwintering population north of the Alps. The suggestion of overwintering populations of Ae. albopictus north of the Alps and the expansion patterns identified points to an increased risk of further northward expansion and the need for increased surveillance of mosquito populations in Northern Europe.
... Warm and humid conditions and fluctuating water levels lead to regular mass developments of mosquitoes in these regions [79], which have been controlled by community organisations since 1910 [80]. In addition to this burden of mosquito nuisance on the human population, the invasive Asian tiger (Aedes albopictus) and Asian bush (Aedes japonicus) mosquitoes were detected in Baden-Wuerttemberg already in 2007 and 2008, respectively [81,82]. By contrast, only 107 kilometres of Rhine with major breeding sites for mosquitoes is located in Hesse, where the first invasive mosquito species (Ae. ...
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Since 2012, the citizen science project ‘Mückenatlas’ has been supplementing the German mosquito monitoring programme with over 28,000 submissions of physical insect samples. As the factors triggering people to catch mosquitoes for science are still unknown, we analysed the influence of mass media reports on mosquito submission numbers. Based on a theoretical framework of how mass media affect citizen responsiveness, we identified five possible influencing factors related to citizen science: (i) project awareness and knowledge, (ii) attention (economy), (iii) individual characteristics of citizen scientists and targeted communication, (iv) spatial differences and varying affectedness, and (v) media landscape. Hypotheses based on these influencing factors were quantitatively and qualitatively tested with two datasets: clipping data of mass media reports (online, television, radio and print) referring to or focussing on the ‘Mückenatlas’, and corresponding data of ‘Mückenatlas’ submissions between 2014 and 2017. In general, the number of media reports positively affected the number of mosquito submissions on a temporal and spatial scale, i.e. many media reports provoke many mosquito submissions. We found that an already heightened public and media awareness of mosquito-relevant topics combined with a direct call-to-action in a media report title led to a maximum participation. Differences on federal state level, however, suggest that factors additional to quantitative media coverage trigger participation in the ‘Mückenatlas’, in particular the mosquito affectedness of the resident population. Lastly, media types appear to differ in their effects on the number of submissions. Our results show under which circumstances the media presence of the ’Mückenatlas’ is most effective in activating people to submit mosquito samples, and thus provide advice for designing communication strategies for citizen science projects.
... Realizing the risk of passive transport of Ae. albopictus from Italy to Germany by road and rail, especially during the summer holiday season, the German Mosquito Control Association (KABS) started a monitoring program in 2005 [2]. Surveillance of rest areas and camping grounds along the A5 motorway leading from Italy revealed a regular and increasing appearance of Ae. albopictus along the upper Rhine area during the summer months [2,16,17]. The first established population was reported in an allotment garden in Freiburg in September 2014 [18]. ...
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Abstract Background The invasive species Aedes albopictus, commonly known as the Asian tiger mosquito, has undergone extreme range expansion by means of steady introductions as blind passengers in vehicles traveling from the Mediterranean to south-west Germany. The more than 25 established populations in the State of Baden-Württemberg, Palatine and Hesse (south-west Germany) have become a major nuisance and public health threat. Aedes albopictus deserves special attention as a vector of arboviruses, including dengue, chikungunya and Zika viruses. In Germany, Ae. albopictus control programs are implemented by local communities under the auspices of health departments and regulatory offices. Methods The control strategy comprised three pillars: (i) community participation (CP) based on the elimination of breeding sites or improved environmental sanitation, using fizzy tablets based on Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis (fizzy Bti tablets; Culinex® Tab plus); (ii) door-to-door (DtD) control by trained staff through the application of high doses of a water-dispersible Bti granular formulation (Vectobac® WG) aimed at achieving a long-lasting killing effect; and (iii) implementation of the sterile insect technique (SIT) to eliminate remaining Ae. albopictus populations. Prior to initiating large-scale city-wide treatments on a routine basis, the efficacy of the three elements was evaluated in laboratory and semi-field trials. Special emphasis was given to the mass release of sterile Ae. albopictus males. Results More than 60% of the local residents actively participated in the first pillar (CP) of the large-scale control program. The most effective element of the program was found to be the DtD intervention, including the application of Vectobac® WG (3000 ITU/mg) to potential breeding sites (10 g per rainwater container, maximum of 200 l = maximum of approx. 150,000 ITU/l, and 2.5 g per container
... Schaffner, Van Bortel, & Coosemans, 2004), en Suisse en 2003(Flacio et al., 2004), en Espagne en 2004(Aranda, Eritja, & Roiz, 2006), aux Pays-Bas en 2005 (E.-J., en Allemagne en 2007(Pluskota, Storch, Braunbeck, Beck, & Becker, 2008) et dans plusieurs pays des Balkans (E.Scholte & Schaffner, 2007). Aujourd'hui, Ae. albopictus est implanté sur toute la partie nord du bassin méditerranéen (Figure 30) et l'Italie est le pays le plus lourdement infesté. ...
Le virus du chikungunya (CHIKV) est un arbovirus émergeant qui, au cours des dernières décennies, s’est largement propagé à l’échelle mondiale. Le virus est transmis par les moustiques du genre Aedes, notamment Aedes albopictus qui est aujourd’hui présent dans une soixantaine de départements en France. Vecteurs de plusieurs agents pathogènes, Ae. albopictus représente une réelle menace de santé publique. L’émergence d’arboviroses est généralement liée à la convergence d’un ensemble de facteurs intrinsèques et extrinsèques affectant le vecteur, l’agent pathogène et l’hôte. Le moustique étant un organisme ectotherme, dont la température interne varie avec celle de l’environnement, il est très sensible aux variations de température du milieu ambiant. La relation entre la température et la transmission des arbovirus reste encore mal comprise, en particulier sur le plan moléculaire. L’objectif général de ce projet est de comprendre comment la température affecte les interactions virus-moustique et influence les cycles de transmission. Pour cela, nous étudions les aspects moléculaires du CHIKV, de son vecteur Ae. albopictus et de leurs interactions sous l’influence de la température. Nos résultats démontrent que la température affecte d’une part l’évolution du CHIKV et d’autre part, l’expression génétique et la composition microbienne du moustique, notamment en réponse à l’infection. Ces données apportent des informations importantes sur la manière dont les systèmes vectoriels peuvent être affectés par la température. La compréhension des mécanismes sous-jacents les interactions virus-moustique avec l’environnement sont essentielles afin de prévenir les épidémies.
Since the first detection of the Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) eggs in Germany in 2007, several populations of this species have established in Germany. Although colloquially Ae. albopictus is called an 'invasive species', it is not considered 'invasive' and therefore to be controlled according to the European Union (EU) Environmental and Nature Protection Act since evidence of displacement of native species is missing. To test the competitive potential of Ae. albopictus towards mosquito species native to Germany, laboratory experiments were conducted with larvae of this species and indigenous Cx. pipiens complex species/biotypes. First instar larvae of Ae. albopictus and of one of the native taxa were exposed to different temperatures and fed with different food sources. The ratio of individuals developing into adults as well as the time the larvae needed for development were taken as a measure of competitive outcome. In addition, the size of emerging adults was compared between control and experimental groups. Regarding developmental time, no significant differences were found between treatments and controls while significant differences were found regarding developmental rate and average wing size of individuals. Because no evidence of competitive repression of the native species was found, Ae. albopictus cannot be included in the EU list of invasive species.
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Background The invasive species Aedes albopictus, the Asian tiger mosquito, has undergone an extreme expansion by steady introductions as blind passengers in vehicles from the Mediterranean to South-West Germany. The more than 15 established populations in the State of Baden-Württemberg and Palatine (South-West Germany) have become a major nuisance and public health threat. Aedes albopictus deserves special attention as vector of arboviruses like dengue, chikungunya or Zika virus. In Germany, control of Ae. albopictus is implemented under the auspice of health departments and regulatory offices. Methods The control strategy comprised three components or pillars: a) community participation (CP) based on the elimination or sanitation of breeding sites with the use of fizzy Bti-tablets (Culinex Tab plus); b) Door-to-Door (DtD) control by trained staff applying high doses of a Bti-water-dispersible granular formulation (Vectobac WG) aimed for a long-lasting killing effect; and c) the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) to eliminate remaining Ae. albopictus populations. Prior to large scale routine city-wide treatments, the efficacy of the three elements was evaluated in laboratory and semi-field trials. Special emphasis was given to the mass release of Ae. albopictus sterile males. Results More than 60% of the local residents joined the Community Participation within the large-scale control program. It was shown that the most effective element was the DtD intervention including the application of Vectobac WG (2700 ITU/mg after radiation with 25 kGy) to potential breeding sites (10 g/rainwater container, max. 200L ≙ 13,500ITU/L and 2.5g/container <50L) with a persistence of at least about three weeks. The average time required for the inspection and treatment per property was 27 minutes. In Ludwigshafen the larval source management resulted in a container index for Ae. albopictus below 1% in 2020 compared to 10.9% in 2019. The mean number of Aedes eggs/ovitrap were 4.3 in Ludwigshafen and 18.23 in Freiburg-Metzgergrün (SIT areas); while 22.4 in Freiburg-Gartenstadt (Control area). After the strong reduction of the Aedes population by Bti-application, the weekly release of 1,013 (Ludwigshafen) and 2,320 (Freiburg) sterile Ae. albopictus males/ha from May until October resulted in a high percentage of sterile eggs. In the trial area of Ludwigshafen the sterility of eggs reached 82.61% (mean: 60.52%; SD: 42.88%) and in Freiburg 62.68% (SD 28.21%). The natural sterility in the control area was 16.93±13.5%. The field results were in line with data obtained in cage tests under laboratory conditions where wild females mated with sterile males showed sterility rates of 87.53±9.15%. The sterility of eggs laid by females mated with unirradiated males was only 3.3±2.8%. The overall sterility of about 83% in Ludwigshafen indicates that our goal to almost eradicate the Ae. albopictus population could be achieved. Conclusions It is shown that an integrated control program based on a strict monitoring scheme is most effective when it comprises three components, namely a) community participation, b) DtD intervention including long-lasting Bti-larviciding to strongly reduce Ae. albopictus populations and c) the release of sterile males to reduce the remaining Ae. albopictus population to a minimum or even to eradicate it. The combination of the use of Bti with SIT are most effective and selective tools against Ae. albopictus, one of the most dangerous mosquito vector species.
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The first record of Aedes albopictus in metropolitan France has been made in a village of Orne (Basse-Normandie). A few larvae were collected in October 1999, in the used tire stock of an important tire recycling company, importing in particular from the USA and Japan. Reproduction of the species has taken place in France, and the environmental conditions make the implantation of the species probable.RésuméLa première observation d’Aedes albopictus en France métropolitaine a été effectuée dans un village de l’Orne (Basse-Normandie). Plusieurs larves ont été récoltées en octobre 1999, dans le stock d’une entreprise de recyclage de pneus usagés, pratiquant l’importation notamment des États-Unis et du Japon. L’espèce s’est reproduite sur place, et les conditions environnementales sont favorables à l’implantation de l’espèce.
Mosquitoes and Their Control presents a wealth of information on the bionomics, systematics, ecology, research techniques and control of both nuisance and disease vector mosquitoes in an easily readable style, providing practical guidelines and important information for professionals and laymen alike. Ninety-two European species and more than 100 globally important vector and nuisance species are included in the book. Most of them, including all European species, are described in the fully illustrated identification keys, followed by a detailed description of the morphology, biology, distribution and medical importance of each species, including over 700 detailed drawings. Mosquitoes and Their Control includes: systematics and biology, medical significance, research techniques, illustrated identification keys for larval and adult mosquito general, morphology, ecology, and distribution of the species identified in the keys, biological, chemical, physical and genetic control of mosquitoes. Mosquitoes and Their Control is a valuable tool for vector ecologists, entomologists, and all those involved with mosquito control, biology, ecology, and systematics world-wide. It will especially benefit those professionals, scientists and students dealing with mosquitoes and their control on a day-to-day basis. Society as a whole stands to gain from improved, environmentally responsible mosquito management programs designed on the basis of a broader understanding of mosquitoes and their control, as provided in this enlightening book...(AU)
In August-October 1979, infestations of the mosquito Aedes albopictus were discovered at a number of widely separated sites in Albania. Used tires were the principal larval habitat. The species was probably introduced from China in the mid-1970s. The initial infestation was probably at a rubber factory adjacent to the port of Durres (Durazzo), from where the mosquito was shipped in tires to recapping plants in other parts of the country. This is the first recorded infestation of Ae. albopictus outside Oriental and Australasian regions. Albania (Albanian name, Shqiperia; latitude, 39"38'N to 42'39'N; longitude, 19'18'E to 21"04'E; area, 28,748 km2; population (1990), 3.26 million) is a republic on the western shore of the Balkan Peninsula, across the Adriatic/IO&n Sea from the heel of Italy (Pig. 1) Seventy percent of the terrain is mountainous, with a mean altitude of 708 m. Summers are hot and dry. In lowland areas (below 300 m altitude), mean daily temperatures range from 23°C to 26°C in July and August. Winters are harsh and cold, with frequent subzero temperatures except in the coastal regions. The capital, Tirana (Albanian name, Tirane; 41"2l'N, 19"50'E; popu- lation ( 1990),253,000), is at the edge of the coastal plain, 27 km from the sea.