Article

Effects of Prenatal Alcohol Exposure on Brain Activation During an Arithmetic Task: An fMRI Study

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA, USA.
Alcoholism Clinical and Experimental Research (Impact Factor: 3.21). 09/2009; 33(11):1901-8. DOI: 10.1111/j.1530-0277.2009.01028.x
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

While behavioral studies have established that prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) can result in diminished arithmetic processing capability, the underlying neural correlates of this deficit are still unclear. The aim of the present study was to use functional magnetic resonance imaging to determine the effect of PAE on neuronal activation during a subtraction task.
Participants were young adults from a low socio-economic status population who were identified prenatally; the sample consisted of healthy unexposed controls (n = 17) and PAE who were subdivided based on the presence (n = 19) or absence of physical dysmorphic signs (n = 18). Multiple regression analysis was used to determine extent of activation and percent signal change during arithmetic processing, using a letter-matching task as the baseline. Region of interest analysis of activation was performed in the native space and normalized for each individual to compensate for the considerable variability in head size observed in the alcohol-exposed population.
An exposure-dependent response was observed in task performance and neuronal activation. Dysmorphic PAE individuals showed significantly lower task-related performance and activation in regions known to be associated with arithmetic processing, including left superior and right inferior parietal regions and medial frontal gyrus, while the nondysmorphic PAE group was generally intermediate but not significantly different from the control group in task performance and activation.
Results indicate that there is a range of effects of PAE on arithmetic processing and that the severity of this deficit may be dependent on degree of impairment demonstrated by the exposed individual. Evidence of physical dysmorphia may be indicative of functional damage to regions associated with arithmetic calculation, resulting in markedly impaired neuronal recruitment.

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Available from: Claire Coles, Jul 25, 2014
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    • "In an arithmetic task-based fMRI experiment under IRB approval , 44 participants were scanned in 3T Siemens Trio scanner (Santhanam et al., 2009) at the Biomedical Imaging Technology Center of Emory University. They were all young adults (age 20– 26) who were from 3 groups including unexposed healthy controls (16 subjects), exposure with the absence of dysmorphic signs (14 subjects) and exposure with presence of dysmorphic signs (14 subjects) (Santhanam et al., 2009). The task was presented in blocks, and the total scan included 102 time points (the first 2 points are ignored). "
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    ABSTRACT: Although many studies have demonstrated effects of prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) on physical, cognitive, and behavioral development in children, few have focused on the long term effects on adults. In this study, data are presented on adaptive function and entry into adult roles in a community sample of young adults with PAE. The expectation was that prenatally exposed adults would show lower adaptive functioning and more difficulty with entry into adult roles than the non-exposed control group and that these effects would be related to the severity of PAE effects. The predominantly African-American, low income sample included adults with a wide range of prenatal exposure (n=123) as well as control groups for socioeconomic (SES) (n=59) and disability (n=54) status. The mothers of the alcohol-exposed and SES-control group participants were recruited before birth and offspring have been followed up periodically. The disability control group was recruited in adolescence. The adults were interviewed about adaptive function in day-to-day life and adult role entry. Collateral adults who were well-acquainted with each participant were interviewed concerning adaptive function. Results showed that adults who were dysmorphic and/or cognitively affected by PAE had difficulty with adaptive function and entry into adult roles. Males showing cognitive effects with no physical effects were the most severely affected. Results for exposed adults not showing physical or cognitive effects were similar to or more positive than those of the control group for most outcomes. PAE has long-term effects on adaptive outcomes in early adulthood. Additional research should focus on possible interventions at this transition and on factors contributing to the adjustment of the exposed, but unaffected participants. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2015 · Neurotoxicology and Teratology
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    • "In an arithmetic task-based fMRI experiment under IRB approval , 44 participants were scanned in 3T Siemens Trio scanner (Santhanam et al., 2009) at the Biomedical Imaging Technology Center of Emory University. They were all young adults (age 20– 26) who were from 3 groups including unexposed healthy controls (16 subjects), exposure with the absence of dysmorphic signs (14 subjects) and exposure with presence of dysmorphic signs (14 subjects) (Santhanam et al., 2009). The task was presented in blocks, and the total scan included 102 time points (the first 2 points are ignored). "
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    ABSTRACT: Task-based fMRI activation mapping has been widely used in clinical neuroscience in order to assess different functional activity patterns in conditions such as prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) affected brains and healthy controls. In this paper, we propose a novel, alternative approach of group-wise sparse representation of the fMRI data of multiple groups of subjects (healthy control, exposed non-dysmorphic PAE and exposed dysmorphic PAE) and assess the systematic functional activity differences among these three populations. Specifically, a common time series signal dictionary is learned from the aggregated fMRI signals of all three groups of subjects, and then the weight coefficient matrices (named statistical coefficient map (SCM)) associated with each common dictionary were statistically assessed for each group separately. Through inter-group comparisons based on the correspondence established by the common dictionary, our experimental results have demonstrated that the group-wise sparse coding strategy and the SCM can effectively reveal a collection of brain networks/regions that were affected by different levels of severity of PAE. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2015
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    • "In regards to directly assessing brain-behavior relationships , functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies show significantly lower activation during mental arithmetic tasks in the parietal and frontal regions in PAE [Santhanam et al., 2009]. Similarly, math performance has been related to white matter fractional anisotropy in those with PAE [Lebel et al., 2010]. "
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