Predicting Major Complications after Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy: A Simple Risk Score
Department of Surgery, UMass Surgical Outcomes Analysis & Research, University of Massachusetts Medical School, 55 Lake Avenue North, Worcester, MA 01655, USA. Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery
(Impact Factor: 2.8).
09/2009; 13(11):1929-36. DOI: 10.1007/s11605-009-0979-3
Reported morbidity varies widely for laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC). A reliable method to determine complication risk may be useful to optimize care. We developed an integer-based risk score to determine the likelihood of major complications following LC.
Using the Nationwide Inpatient Sample 1998-2006, patient discharges for LC were identified. Using previously validated methods, major complications were assessed. Preoperative covariates including patient demographics, disease characteristics, and hospital factors were used in logistic regression/bootstrap analyses to generate an integer score predicting postoperative complication rates. A randomly selected 80% was used to create the risk score, with validation in the remaining 20%.
Patient discharges (561,923) were identified with an overall complication rate of 6.5%. Predictive characteristics included: age, sex, Charlson comorbidity score, biliary tract inflammation, hospital teaching status, and admission type. Integer values were assigned and used to calculate an additive score. Three groups stratifying risk were assembled, with a fourfold gradient for complications ranging from 3.2% to 13.5%. The score discriminated well in both derivation and validation sets (c-statistic of 0.7).
An integer-based risk score can be used to predict complications following LC and may assist in preoperative risk stratification and patient counseling.
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ABSTRACT: This is a retrospective study presenting the experience of a teaching-oriented laparoendoscopic unit with laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) in order to add data to the international literature concerning issues such as epidemiology, intraoperative findings, conversion and complication rates.
In this study 5539 consecutive patients who underwent LC between 1990 and 2000 were included. Elective (n=4903) or emergent (n=636) LC was performed in all but 99 patients (who were converted to the open procedure). Conversion rate, complication rate, mortality, and length of stay were the main outcome parameters in this study.
There was no intraoperative or in-hospital mortality in our series. The conversion rate was 1.8%. The complication rate was 2.92% (162 patients). The vast majority of our patients (92%) were discharged from the hospital on the first postoperative day.
LC is a safe technique when up-to-date equipment and meticulous dissection techniques are employed. A specialized laparoscopic unit is important in a general surgery department, to have an experienced laparoscopic surgeon in all cases. In our opinion this is the only way to minimize common bile duct injuries and the rates of other major complications.
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ABSTRACT: Laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) has become the standard surgical procedure for symptomatic gallbladder disease. The aim of this study was to identify factors that may be predictive of cases that would require a conversion to laparotomy.
In the period of 2002-2007, 2015 patients who underwent elective LC were included in the study. Patients were divided into two groups. Group 1 (n = 1914) consisted of patients whose operation was successfully completed with LC. Group 2 (n = 101) consisted of patients who had a conversion. A prospective analysis of parameters, including patient demographics, laboratory values, radiologic data, and intraoperative findings, was performed. Multivariate stepwise logistic regression was used to determine those variables predicting conversion.
One-hundred and one (5.0%) patients required a conversion. Significant predictors of conversion to open cholecystectomy in univariate analysis were increasing age, male gender, previous upper abdominal or upper plus lower abdominal incisions, an elevated white blood cell count, high aspartate transaminase, alkaline phosphatase and total bilirubin levels, preoperative ultrasound findings of a thickened gallbladder wall and dilated common bile duct, preoperative endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP), high-grade adhesion, and scleroatrophic appearance of the gallbladder intraoperatively. Multivariate analysis revealed that a history of previous abdominal surgery, preoperative ERCP, high-grade adhesion, and scleroatrophic appearance of the gallbladder predicted conversion.
Patient selection is very important for efficient, safe training in LC. Based on the presented data, pathways could be suggested that enable the surgeon to precisely decide, during LC, when to convert to open surgery.
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ABSTRACT: Regionalization of care has been proposed for complex operations based on hospital/surgeon volume-mortality relationships. Controversy exists about whether more common procedures should be performed at high-volume centers. Using mortality alone to assess routine operations is hampered by relatively low perioperative mortality. We used a large national database to analyze the risk of major in-hospital complications after laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC).
Patients undergoing LC were identified in the Nationwide Inpatient Sample 1998-2006 from states with surgeon/hospital identifiers. Previously validated major complications including acute myocardial infarction, pulmonary compromise, postoperative infection, deep vein thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, hemorrhage, and reoperation were assessed. Univariate and multivariable analyses were performed and independent risk factors of complications were identified.
A total of 1,102,071 weighted patient discharges were identified, with a complication rate of 6.8%. Univariate analyses showed that advanced age, male gender, and higher Charlson Comorbidity Score were associated with higher complication rates (p < 0.0001). Higher surgeon volume (>or=36/year versus <12/year) and higher hospital volume (>or=225/year versus <or=120/year) were associated with fewer complications (6.7% versus 7.0%, 6.4% versus 7.0%, respectively; p < 0.0001). Multivariable analysis showed that advanced age (65 years or older versus younger than 65 years; adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.16; 95% CI, 2.01-2.32), male gender (AOR = 1.14; 95% CI, 1.10-1.19), and comorbidities (Charlson Comorbidity Score 2 versus 0; AOR = 2.49; 95% CI, 2.34-2.65) were associated with complications. Neither surgeon nor hospital volume was independently associated with increased risk of complications.
Major in-hospital complications after LC are associated with individual patient characteristics rather than surgeon or hospital operative volumes. These results suggest regionalization of general surgical procedures might be unnecessary. Rather, careful patient selection and preoperative preparation can diminish overall complication rates.
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