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Studies on agility in the workplace have focused excessively on technical factors, and little attention has been given to the workforce. Most studies on workforce agility are conceptual and have a notable absence of quantitative modelling and analysis. In the study, a theoretical model of the impact of two organisational characteristics, namely organisational learning and an organic structure (with three dimensions, which are decentralisation of decision-making, low formalisation and a flat structure), on workforce agility was developed and empirically tested. Several small- and medium-sized enterprises in Iran were investigated. The structural equation modelling showed that organisational learning and only the decentralisation of decision-making and a flat structure were positively and significantly correlated with workforce agility. The impact of the dimensions of an organic structure on organisational learning was also considered. Based on the results, we proposed a process model on workforce agility.
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... Accordingly, H2 was proposed. The flat organizational structure was assessed with one measured variable (Flat) similar to the study of Alavi et al. [65]. ...
... Based on these, H2b was developed. Alavi et al. [65] evidenced the positive and significant effect of the flat structure on organizational learning. Menon and Suresh [63] justified that the organizational structure has a positive and significant effect on organizational learning in the higher education context. ...
... Braunscheidel and Suresh [68] revealed that learning orientation has a positive effect on integral integration, which indicates organizational integration through communication and teamwork. Similarly, Alavi et al. [65] hypothesized and confirmed that higher levels of organizational learning lead to higher levels of workforce agility. As per these findings, H4a was hypothesized. ...
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In today's complex, dynamic, and uncertain business environment with increasing globalization, extreme competitiveness , and changing stakeholder needs, companies are expected to sense the change and respond appropriately. Agility is a significant concept that helps organizations survive, sustain as an operable entity, stay competitive, and become successful in a changing environment. Unlike the other sectors, agility has not been studied in detail in the architecture, engineering, and construction (AEC) industry. This article aims to investigate organizational agility of the AEC companies. In this respect, it proposes a model that includes the following components: organizational agility drivers (political, economic, social, technological, environmental, legal changes, the threat of new entrants, and rivalry among competitors), enablers (flat structure, changed culture, organizational learning, people, technology, and external relations), and capabilities (sensing, responsiveness , flexibility, and competency). The data to verify the model are collected from companies based in Turkey through an online questionnaire survey and analyzed by using structural equation modeling. According to the analysis results, the influence of agility drivers has not been found significant, changed culture directly contributes to higher levels of organizational agility, and responsiveness and flexibility are the major indicators of organizational agility. This study recommends the AEC companies to observe environmental changes and develop strategies enhancing the organizational agility enablers to address these changes.
... Despite the increasing attention on workforce agility in the context of a dynamic business environment, there is still unclear of accurate definition and sufficient theories about workforce agility (Breu et al., 2001;Sherehiy, 2008;Alavi et al., 2014). Several researchers defined workforce agility either as a specific ability, attitude, or behavior that is demonstrated or required by employees in a volatile global business environment. ...
... Moreover, this research finding corresponded to McCann et al.'s (2009) study, which reported that agility has a significant positive correlation with profitability and competitiveness. They concluded that companies should aim to build an agile workforce to deal with business risk in markets and to maintain competitive advantage (Lundby and Caligiuri, 2013;Sherehiy and Karwowski, 2014;Alavi et al., 2014). ...
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Several Asian countries today face talent risk and talent shortage especially in engineering-and technology-related fields within high-tech industries such as automotive component manufacturing and automobile industry. This situation can lead to the loss of competitiveness and business sustainability. Limited automobile companies have strategies to cope with talent risk, which involves increasing workforce agility and enables the companies to quickly adapt themselves to disruptive changes. Those companies can reduce the impact from negative consequence of people risk. In this context, this study investigated the relationships between talent risk, competitive advantage, and agility in the Asian automotive industry. The data collection was collected from 12 automobile companies in Thailand, Malaysia, and Indonesia. The analysis was delivered in two phases; a quantitative step was the data collected were subjected to confirmatory factor analysis and simple path analysis; and a qualitative step as the results were confirmed through in-depth interviews with executives and managers. The study revealed that talent risk has a positive relationship with competitive advantage and agility mediates the relationship between talent risk and competitive advantage. Our findings imply that the Asian automotive industry should focus on building an agile workforce to reduce the impact of talent risk on competitiveness.
... We suggest that responsible leadership can facilitate workforce agility by emphasizing interaction with stakeholders [29], influencing flexibility and participation [28], and ensuring an exchange between leaders and stakeholders [43]. We believe that in order to build relationships with stakeholders, who sometimes have contradictory and rapidly changing goals, employees are needed who are adaptable and flexible [16], demonstrate the ability to react to a turbulent and changing environment [32,44], can troubleshoot problems day-to-day [8], are able to learn to be responsive to new market demands, and are able to function efficiently under stress [8]. Thus, based on the above studies, we propose the following hypothesis: Hypothesis 1: Responsible Leadership has a direct positive effect on Workforce Agility. ...
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The energy sector is undergoing significant transformation induced by environmental changes and increasing pressure from stakeholder groups. In order to quickly seize opportunities in the unpredictable contemporary business environment, leaders increasingly face the challenge of ensuring an appropriate level of organisational agility, achieved through workforce agility. In striving to achieve workforce agility, responsible leaders should consider the intrinsic motivation oriented towards work, how it affects a team's performance, and the level of its involvement. Based on studies that combine leadership, empowerment, and agility, we analyse whether and how responsible leadership and psychological empowerment support workforce agility in the energy sector firms. Using structural equation modelling, we analyse data gathered from a group of 187 managers and experts. The results support a hypothesised relationship between leadership focused on responsible management, psychological empowerment, and workforce agility. The survey reveals that a combination of responsible leadership and psychological empowerment affects workforce agility.
... Innovation climate was measured on a five-point Likert-type scale, ranging from 1 (strongly disagree) to 5 (strongly agree). Employees' intellectual agility was measured using a 15-item scale (a = 0.84) developed by Alavi et al. (2014). A sample item is "I look for the opportunities to make improvements at work." ...
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Despite previous research demonstrating the importance of entrepreneurial leadership in fostering innovative behavior among employees, less is known about the mechanisms and processes through which leaders influence their employees' innovative behavior. By utilizing social cognitive theory, the purpose of this paper is to examine the sequential role of innovation climate and employees' intellectual agility in mediating the link between entrepreneurial leadership and employees' innovative behavior. We collected 241 data points from full-time employees in the US using the survey method and tested our hypotheses using hierarchical multiple regression and PROCESS Macro. Entrepreneurial leadership was found to significantly impact employees' innovative behavior through the innovation climate and their intellectual agility. These findings allow leaders to pinpoint their critical roles in fostering innovation in their businesses and establishing the ideal culture and climate for innovation. It also allows leaders to create innovative settings to encourage employees to share ideas and concepts in a confident manner. A discussion of the findings, implications, limitations, and future research avenues is included.
... Organisational agility is an empowering factor that allows organisations to operate in a dynamic environment (Alavi et al., 2010;Harsch and Festing, 2020). Organisational agility refers to the ability of organisations to respond quickly and effectively to changes in market demand, with the aim of finding customer requirements in terms of price, characteristics, quality, quantity and delivery (Alavi et al., 2014). In order to achieve agility, every organisation must have empowerment in its possession, because it is the empowerment that directly influences the ability of the organisation to respond quickly and effectively to dynamic and unpredictable changes in the organisational environment (Alavi and Wahab, 2013). ...
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Agile manufacturing involves the implementation of popular approaches and techniques, such as lean and flexible manufacturing, in a concerted way, thus bringing about enormous improvement in products, responsiveness to customers, innovation, and flexibility. This chapter provides insight into the changing role of manufacturing, with emphasis on the latest paradigm, “agile manufacturing.” The chapter also discusses the nature of agility and its building blocks. Agile manufacturing requires a fundamental change in management philosophy. The aim is to create a manufacturing firm that can produce in volume and simultaneously produce variety for market niches. Agile companies seek to combine the advantages of time compression with techniques to reduce the cost of variety to offer instant delivery of small quantities of goods that meet individual specifications. Therefore, to become agile, a firm must redesign its processes and products to meet the expectations of customers for both customization and responsiveness. Agility gives companies a commanding competitive edge in the marketplace.
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The primary purpose of this article is to clarify the nature of the entrepreneurial orientation (EO) construct and to propose a contingency framework for investigating the relationship between EO and firm performance. We first explore and refine the dimensions of EO and discuss the usefulness of viewing a firm's EO as a multidimensional construct. Then, drawing on examples from the EO-related contingencies literature, we suggest alternative models (moderating effects, mediating effects, independent effects, interaction effects) for testing the EO-performance relationship.
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The impact of enterprise systems (ES) on organizational agility (OA) is an under-researched area. Given that most organizations are heavily investing on ES infrastructure and the increasing demand for agility, the lack of research on ES and OA is a critical oversight. This article reviews previous literature on information systems in general and ES in particular and organizational agility. The article offers a comprehensive and deepened perspective toward the existing discourses on ES-enabled organizational agility. Using insights from the dynamic capability theory, we propose a conceptual framework that highlights how organizations can exploit ESs to improve their agility in two significant ways-by creating and constantly developing an ES-enabled sensing and responding capability. We also argue that the quality of the ES competence provides the necessary technical and business platform for deploying and exploiting ES in building and rebuilding sensing and responding capabilities. The proposed framework sheds light on three important missing factors in the realm of IT-enabled organizational agility, namely ES competency, the alignment between ES-enabled sensing and responding capability, and environmental dynamism. Our theorizing makes an original contribution to ES and IS research by extending previous works of IT-enabled organizational agility by introducing the three constructs previously mentioned.