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Two new dwarfgobies from the Southwestern Pacific Ocean (Teleostei: Gobiidae: Eviota)

Authors:

Abstract

Two species of Eviota with red or orange bars crossing the body, a bifurcated 4th pelvic-fin ray with two long branches, and lacking many or all cephalic sensory-canal pores are described from Palau, Indonesia, and Papua New Guinea. Eviota jewettae has a dorsal/anal fin-ray formula of 8/8, 98% of the specimens lack all cephalic sensory-canal pores, 2-4 lower pectoral-fin rays branched; non-filamentous dorsal-fin spines; short tubular anterior nares that are not black and are less than 1/2 pupil diameter in length, and five wide bars across the body. Eviota pinocchioi has a dorsal/anal fin-ray formula of 9/8, always lacks the POP and IT pores and the PITO and AITO pores are fused in about 50% of the specimens, unbranched pectoral-fin rays, males with filamentous dorsal-fin spines, tubular anterior nares black and very long, almost equal to the pupil diameter, and six narrow bars across body.
Accepted by J. Sparks: 25 Oct. 2012; published: 5 Dec. 2012
ZOOTAXA
ISSN 1175-5326 (print edition)
ISSN 1175-5334 (online edition)
Copyright © 2012 · Magnolia Press
Zootaxa 3572: 3342 (2012)
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Two new dwarfgobies from the Southwestern Pacific Ocean
(Teleostei: Gobiidae: Eviota)
DAVID W. GREENFIELD¹ & RICHARD WINTERBOTTOM²
¹ Research Associate, Department of Ichthyology, California Academy of Sciences, 55 Music Concourse Dr., Golden Gate Park, San
Francisco, California 94118-4503, and Professor Emeritus, University of Hawaii. Mailing address: 944 Egan Ave., Pacific Grove, CA
93950. E-mail: greenfie@hawaii.edu
²Curator Emeritus, Department of Natural History, Royal Ontario Museum, 100 Queen’s Park, Toronto, Ontario, M5S 2C6; and
Department of Ecology & Evolutionary Biology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, M5S 1A1. E-mail: rickw@rom.on.ca.
Abstract
Two species of Eviota with red or orange bars crossing the body, a bifurcated 4th pelvic-fin ray with two long branches,
and lacking many or all cephalic sensory-canal pores are described from Palau, Indonesia, and Papua New Guinea. Eviota
jewettae has a dorsal/anal fin-ray formula of 8/8, 98% of the specimens lack all cephalic sensory-canal pores, 2–4 lower
pectoral-fin rays branched; non-filamentous dorsal-fin spines; short tubular anterior nares that are not black and are less
than ½ pupil diameter in length, and five wide bars across the body. Eviota pinocchioi has a dorsal/anal fin-ray formula
of 9/8, always lacks the POP and IT pores and the PITO and AITO pores are fused in about 50% of the specimens, un-
branched pectoral-fin rays, males with filamentous dorsal-fin spines, tubular anterior nares black and very long, almost
equal to the pupil diameter, and six narrow bars across body.
Key words: Eviota jewettae, Eviota pinocchioi
Introduction
While collecting gobiid fishes in Palau, Indonesia, and New Britain, Papua New Guinea the second author obtained
two species of Eviota with distinctive red or orange bars crossing the body and lacking a number of the cephalic
sensory-canal pores usually found in other species of Eviota. Both species have been illustrated in Dimara et al.
(2010), one as Eviota Palau sp. 2 and the other as Eviota Raja Ampat sp. 2 (live) and Eviota Palau sp. 6 (preserved).
These two species are described here. As is typical of all species of Eviota, the pelvic fins are separate and the 5th
pelvic-fin ray, if present, is unbranched; there are ctenoid scales on the body; no scales on the head, nape or
pectoral-fin base; the basal membrane of the pelvic fins is rudimentary or absent; and the teeth in the upper jaw are
in two or more rows.
Material and methods
Counts and measurements, descriptions of fin morphology and the cephalic sensory-canal pore patterns follow
Lachner and Karnell (1980). Measurements were made to the nearest 0.1 mm using an ocular micrometer and dial
calipers, and are presented as percentage of Standard Length (SL). All specimen lengths are SL in mm. Cyanine
Blue 5R (acid blue 113) stain was used to make pores more obvious (Akihito et al. 1993; Saruwatari et al. 1997;
Nakabo 2002) and an airjet used to observe them. For measurements, values for the holotype are given first,
followed by the range for all types and the mean in parentheses. Uchelbeluu Reef, off the S.E. corner of Koror
Island, has also been called the Short Drop-Off or Augupelu Reef by various authors. Specimens have been
deposited in the following museums: AMS—Australian Museum, Sydney; CAS—California Academy of
Sciences, San Francisco; ROM—Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto, and USNM—United States National Museum
(Smithsonian), Washington D.C.
GREENFIELD & WINTERBOTTOM
34 · Zootaxa 3572 © 2012 Magnolia Press
Eviota jewettae n. sp.
Jewett’s dwarfgoby
Figs. 1–8.
Eviota Raja Ampat sp. 2 and Eviota Palau sp. 6 Dimara, et al. 2010.
Holotype: ROM 84731, 12.1 mm female, Palau, Hatohobei State, Helen Reef, southern margin near east end,
02°47’56” N, 131°45’20”E, cave (ca 15 m wide, 4 m high) and surrounding area with sand/silt floor, floor at 27 m,
24–32 m, rotenone, field number RW08-33, R. Winterbottom, M. Westneat, J.Williams, W. Holleman, B. Hubley,
M. Winterbottom, and C. McCord , 23 September 2008.
Paratypes: ROM 84721, 10.7 mm female, Palau, Hatohobei State, Helen Reef, outer reef along SE edge,
02°49’40”N, 131°47’18”E, steep drop-off slope (ca 85°) with small caves, overhangs, some sand and rubble,
20–30 m, rotenone, field number RW08-29, R. Winterbottom, M. Westneat, J.Williams, W. Holleman, B. Hubley,
M. Winterbottom, and C. McCord, 22 September 2008; ROM 84725, 9.4 and 11.2 mm males, Palau, Hatohobei
State, Helen Reef, south end 'embayment', 02°47’57”N, 131°45’18”E, vertical drop-off from reef top (no reef
slope), 22–34 m, rotenone, field number RW08-30, R. Winterbottom, M. Westneat, J.Williams, W. Holleman, B.
Hubley, M. Winterbottom, and C. McCord, 22 September 2008; ROM 84761, 10.1 mm male, Palau, Hatohobei
State, Helen Reef, NW outer reef about 0.5 km S of northern large ship wreck, NW of N tip of island in lagoon,
02°58’38”N, 131°47’59”E, steep (80–85°) drop-off slope just past lip of reef slope, a few small caves (some with
sand floor, most with rubble) and crevices, 7–33 m, rotenone, field number RW08-45, R. Winterbottom, M.
Westneat, J.Williams, W. Holleman, B. Hubley, M. Winterbottom, and C. McCord, 27 September 2008; ROM
93605 (ex-ROM 84731) 40 specimens 6.5–11.8 mm (one cleared & stained) plus four males 11.4–12.4 mm, five
females 10.9–11.8 mm in vials (measured; photograph of 11.8 mm female) ; AMS I.4607-001, four females
10.1–11.0 mm, one male 12.0 mm; CAS 234443, four females 10.0–11.4 mm, one male 10.0 mm; USNM 406708,
three females 9.9–10.9 mm, 2 males 10.0–10.2 mm. The last four lots all taken with the holotype.
FIGURE 1. Eviota jewettae, holotype preserved, ROM 84731. Photograph by D.W. Greenfield.
Non-types: Philippine Islands – USNM 235381, 10.8 mm female, Balicasag I., 9°31’14”N, 123°40’00”E,
0–24.4 m, field number SP 78-38. USNM 235380 (7) 10.1–12.1 mm, same data as USNM 235381; USNM 235382
(2) 11.6 (see Fig. 4) & 12.4 mm, S. tip of Cebu, Liloan Pt., 13.4–19.2 m, J. Libbey, JL-2; USNM 235385 (3)
10.5–12.4, near Moalboal, Cebu NW side Pescador I., 18.3–24.4 m, J. Libbey, JL-3; USNM 235384 (1) 10.9, E.
coast of Cebu near Huisan Point, Caceres Reef, 24.4–30.5 m, J. Libbey, JL-7; USNM 235383 (1) 11.9 mm, Siquijor
I., 25.9–30.5 m, J. Libbey, LK 79-16; CAS 52736 (2), 12.2–12.9 mm; ANSP 150918 (2), 11.0–11.6 mm; AMNH
55056 (2), 10.9–12.4 mm; AMS I.23988-001 (2), 11.0–11.3 mm. The last four lots were taken with USNM 235381.
Papua New Guinea—ROM 88146, 10.4 mm male, Eastern New Britain, Rabaul, Simpson Bay, S. side of
Dawapia Rocks, 04°14’08” S, 152°10’02.3” E, 17.7 m, steep reef slope, caves and crevices, clove oil, field number
RW11-04CR2, R. Winterbottom and W. Holleman, 20 November 2011; ROM 88160, 11.0 male, Eastern New
Britain, Rabaul, Simpson Bay, S. side Dawapia Rocks, 04°14’10.7”S, 152°10’01.8”E, 13.4 m, overhang and small
caves on steep reef slope, clove oil, field number RW11-06BR2, R. Winterbottom and W. Holleman, 21 November
2011; ROM 92164, 10.1 mm male, Eastern New Britain, Rabaul, S.E. side of Little Pigeon Island off Simpson Bay,
04°15’59.6”S, 152°19’38.9”E, 26.5 m, vertical wall with small and large caves and crevices, clove oil, field
number RW11-11AW1, R. Winterbottom and W. Holleman, 24 November 2011. Indonesia – ROM 87458, 8.4 mm
Zootaxa 3572 © 2012 Magnolia Press · 35
TWO NEW DWARFGOBIES FROM THE SOUTHWESTERN PACIFIC OCEAN
male, Raja Ampat, E. side Balbulol Island off Misool, 02°01’07.6”S, 130°42’12.3”E, 15.2–18.3 m, clove oil, field
number RW10-52, R. Winterbottom and L. Katz, 3 February 2010
Diagnosis. The following combination of characters distinguish E. jewettae from congeners: cephalic sensory-
pore system lacking all pores 98% of the time; dorsal/anal fin-ray formula 8/8; pectoral-fin rays 15–16, ventralmost
two rays unbranched with at least two (but up to four) lower rays branched at tips above this, remainder of rays
unbranched; 4th pelvic-fin ray bifurcated with each branch about 60% of total length of the ray; unbranched 5th
pelvic-fin ray 13–20% of 4th; dorsal-fin spines not filamentous, tubular anterior nares short, less than ½ pupil
diameter in length; in life body translucent and crossed by five broad orange to red bands.
FIGURE 2. Eviota jewettae, paratypes preserved, ROM 93605. Photograph by D.W. Greenfield.
Description. Dorsal-fin rays VI-I,8; anal-fin rays I,8; pectoral-fin rays 16 (15–16), ventralmost two rays
unbranched with at least two (but up to four) lower rays branched at tips above this, remainder of rays unbranched
(easily broken); 4th pelvic-fin ray bifurcated with each branch about 60% of the total length of the ray, similar to
Fig. 2 of E. lacrimae in Sunobe (1988); unbranched 5th pelvic-fin ray 13–20% of 4th pelvic-fin ray length; 11
branched caudal-fin rays; segmented caudal-fin rays 17; lateral scale rows 25 (24–25, usually 25); transverse scale
rows 7; vertebrae 26; dorsal-fin spines not filamentous in males; 98% without pores in the cephalic sensory-pore
system, but always lacking the POP, IT and NA pores; male genital papilla non-fimbriate.
FIGURE 3. Eviota jewettae, ROM 88160, preserved specimen from Rabaul. Photograph by D.W. Greenfield.
Measurements (based on holotype and 9 paratypes, 10.9–12.4 mm). Head length 33.7 (30.8–34.2, 32.2);
origin of first dorsal fin 38.3 (34.7–40.9, 37.3); origin of second dorsal fin 56.8 (53.8–63.2, 58.0); origin of anal fin
GREENFIELD & WINTERBOTTOM
36 · Zootaxa 3572 © 2012 Magnolia Press
65.8 (56.5–65.8, 61.7); caudal-peduncle length 23.5 (21.6–26.6, 23.8); caudal-peduncle depth 12.3 (11.7–13.2,
12.4); body depth 20.6 (19.3–25.0, 21.5); eye diameter 11.5 (9.6–12.9, 11.0); snout length 6.2 (5.2–6.3, 5.6); upper-
jaw length 11.5 (10.8–13.7, 12.0).
Color in preservative of holotype (Fig. 1). Background color of head and body pale yellowish. A few
scattered small melanophores on top of the head directly behind the eyes, but no other dark pigment on the head.
No dark markings on body, but a few melanophores on the gut show through the translucent sides of the abdomen.
Caudal, pectoral and pelvic fins immaculate. A light peppering of small melanophores on basal and dorsal thirds of
the first dorsal fin. A few scattered melanophores on the anterior portion of the second dorsal fin. Distal half of the
anal fin with a peppering of melanophores.
Color in preservative of paratypes. A number of the paratypes from Palau show more dark pigmentation
than is present in the holotype. There often is a concentration of melanophores along the anal-fin base that extends
back along the caudal peduncle to the caudal-fin base. A few scattered melanophores may be present at the center
of the pectoral-fin base. There may be a peppering of melanophores behind the eyes extending back across the nape
to the dorsal-fin origin and then on the dorsum along the dorsal-fin bases. Most of the first dorsal-fin membranes
heavily peppered with melanophores. A few specimens have a series of dark subcutaneous bars crossing the body.
All have melanophores on the gut that show through the translucent sides of the abdomen (Fig. 2, ROM 93605).
FIGURE 4. Eviota jewettae, illustration of a 11.6 mm male from the Philippines (USNM 235382) also exhibiting strong body
bars. Drawn by J.R. Schroeder
Color in preservative of non-types. Specimens from Raja Ampat, Indonesia (ROM 87458) and Rabaul, New
Britain, Papua New Guinea (ROM 88160 & 88146) have five strong subcutaneous body bars (Fig 3, ROM88160).
Figure 4 is a drawing of a 11.6 mm male from the Philippines (USNM 235382) also exhibiting strong body bars.
FIGURE 5. Eviota jewettae, ROM 93605, fresh specimen, 11.6 mm, Palau, Helen Reef. Photograph by R. Winterbottom.
Zootaxa 3572 © 2012 Magnolia Press · 37
TWO NEW DWARFGOBIES FROM THE SOUTHWESTERN PACIFIC OCEAN
Color of fresh paratype (Fig. 5, ROM 93605, Palau). Background color of head and body translucent white.
Body crossed by five wide orange bars plus a narrow bar at the caudal-fin base: the first from the front of the first
dorsal fin down behind the pectoral-fin base; the second at the posterior end of the first dorsal fin, curving down
across the abdomen towards the anus; the third at the second element of the second dorsal fin extending down to
the anal-fin origin; the fourth at the sixth element of the second dorsal fin extending down to the anal fin; the fifth
across the caudal peduncle; the caudal-fin base crossed by a narrow bar that extends a short distance onto the
caudal fin; some dark pigment on the ventral edge of the bars on the anal fin and caudal peduncle. Nape orange,
crossed by three narrow white lines. Top of head, snout, nares, and operculum orange. Cheek under and behind eye
with several round red-orange spots. A bar extending under center of eye down behind jaws to under head and
another at the anteroventral portion of the eye extending down to the jaws. Top of head with scattered
melanophores behind the eyes and some extending back behind the eyes. Eye with a black pupil surrounded by an
orange iris that is ringed by dark pigment. Abdomen with a scattering of small melanophores on the gut showing
through the translucent sides. Area around the anus dark. First two body bars extending up onto the first dorsal fin,
black areas present on fin, more concentrated posteriorly. Second dorsal fin with body bars extending up onto basal
third, scattered melanophores along it base and on distal margin. Anal fin with body bars extending onto it entire
length. Caudal, pectoral and pelvic-fin rays orange.
FIGURE 6. Freshly collected specimen of Eviota jewettae (ROM 88160) from Rabaul, Eastern New Britain. Photograph by R.
Winterbottom.
Color of fresh non-type specimen (Fig. 6, ROM 88160, Rabaul, New Britain). Background color of head and
body translucent white. Body crossed by five wide reddish bars with a concentration of melanophores on the dorsal
and ventral margins of each bar: the first from the front of the first dorsal fin down behind the pectoral-fin base; the
second at the posterior end of the first dorsal fin, curving down across the abdomen towards the anus; the third at
the second element of the second dorsal fin extending down to the anal-fin origin; the fourth at the sixth element of
the second dorsal fin extending down to the anal fin; the fifth across the caudal peduncle. Small red-orange marks
at dorsal and ventral caudal-fin base connected with a fainter bar. Nape with indistinct light red blotches with
scattered melanophores. Scale edges on dorsal half of body dark. Operculum with a light red blotch extending up
behind eye. Cheek under and behind eye with several round reddish spots, a bar extending from below center of
eye down behind jaws to ventral surface of head and another at the anteroventral portion of the eye extending down
to the jaws. Jaws and snout reddish with scattered melanophores. Anterior tubular nares dusky. First dorsal fin dark
red on basal half of first three elements, membranes between them black. A small clear area above this followed by
similar coloration on the distal portion. A clear area along the basal portion of the next three elements extending up
to meet the clear area at the middle of the anterior portion of the fin. Posterior half of fin with dark red spines and
black pigment on the membranes. Basal one-quarter of spine of second dorsal fin clear, the remainder red. The
lower half of the next rays are red from the third body bar extending up onto it, overlaid with black pigment, and
the upper half has clear rays and reddish membranes peppered with small melanophores. The space between the
third and fourth ray is clear, with the light area extending distally. The remainder of the fin is dark from the fourth
body bar and is overlaid by a peppering of melanophores. Anal fin with body bars extending onto it entire length,
and entire fin overlaid with a peppering of melanophores. Caudal, pectoral and pelvic-fin rays reddish and overlaid
with a peppering of melanophores.
GREENFIELD & WINTERBOTTOM
38 · Zootaxa 3572 © 2012 Magnolia Press
FIGURE 7. Freshly collected specimens of Eviota jewettae from Halmahera, Indonesia. Photograph by G.R. Allen.
A photograph of three specimens of E. jewettae from Raja Ampat, Indonesia taken by G.R. Allen (Fig. 7 ),
shows some variation in the bands crossing the body. Figure 8 is an underwater photograph of a live E. jewettae
taken at Waigeo Island, Indonesia.
Distribution. Known from Palau, Philippine Islands, Papua New Guinea and Raja Ampat, Indonesia. In Palau,
the species is currently known only from Helen Reef, the southern-most of the South West Islands, and has not yet
been found at the main island group to the north.
Etymology. This species is named for Susan L. Jewett who previously recognized this species as undescribed
from specimens taken by the Smithsonian Philippine Expedition in 1978. During the 1970’s and 1980’s she,
sometimes under the name Karnella, and E.A. Lachner described many Eviota species new to science and laid the
foundation for the study of this genus.
Comparisons. Eviota jewettae is the only described species almost always completely lacking all cephalic
sensory pores, although we are aware of some other possible undescribed species that also lack pores.
Remarks. Cutaneous papilla may be located at the location of pore sites and mistaken for pores, especially in
the interorbital area. Stain and the use of an airjet are helpful in distinguishing between these.
As noted above, there are differences in the live and preserved coloration between the specimens from Palau and
those from other locations to the south. In fresh material the Palau specimens have orange bars crossing the body
and little dark pigmentation, whereas those from Indonesia and Papua New Guinea have reddish colored bars and
much dark pigmentation. We do not have information on the fresh coloration of the USNM specimens from the
Philippines, but the preserved material exhibits dark bars crossing the body as do those from Indonesia and Papua
New Guinea. In one lot of 66 specimens from Palau, only a few showed any indication of dark barring. Because of
these differences we have restricted the type material to Palau in the event that future DNA studies show them to be
different.
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TWO NEW DWARFGOBIES FROM THE SOUTHWESTERN PACIFIC OCEAN
FIGURE 8. Underwater photograph of Eviota jewettae from Waigeo Island, Indonesia. Photograph by G.R. Allen.
Eviota pinocchioi n. sp.
Pinocchio dwarfgoby
Figs. 9–11.
Eviota Palau sp. 2, Dimara, et al. 2010.
Holotype: ROM 76361, 15.3 mm male, Palau, S.W. corner of Uchelbeluu Reef, 07°16’54.3” N, 134°31’38.7” E,
15.2–26.5 m, vertical drop-off with caves and sandy shelves/slope, some Halimeda, field number RW04-19, R.
Winterbottom, W. Holleman, B. Hubley, and D. Winterbottom, 28 May 2004.
Paratypes: ROM 93606, 3 males 13.4–16.5 mm, 2 females 13.0–14.9mm, taken with holotype. ROM 79437,
7 females 10.8–14.5 mm, Palau, S.W. corner Uchelbeluu Reef, 07°16’28.7”N, 134°31’32.1”E, 13.7–25.9 m, wall
with ledges, shallow caves and some silty sand, field number RW04-5, R. Winterbottom, B. Hubley, D.
Winterbottom, and A. Bauman, 21 May 2004. ROM 80677, 15.0 male, Palau, off Uchelbeluu Reef, 7°16’24.8”N,
134°01’26.6”E, 73m, field number RW06-14, P. Colin, 28 March 2006. ROM 81010, 14.7 mm male, 11.4 mm
female (cleared and stained), Palau, Pelilieu State, Ngeddebus Id., S.E. coast, channel near drop-off, 07°06’00.9”N,
134°16’06.9”E, 39.6–48.8 m, plate and encrusting corals, Seriatopora, sponges and ascidians, field number RW06-
43, R. Winterbottom, W. Holleman, M. Winterbottom, M. Westneat, J. Cooper, A. Rice, and A. Bauman, 10 April
2006. ROM 77499, 2 females 12.7 & 15.2 mm, Palau, Koror, outer reef off Ulong pass to N. of Ngerumekaul pass,
07°18’11.2”N, 134°01’26.6”E, 15.2–30.5 m, field number RW06-18, P. Colin, 29 March 2006. ROM 80701, 14.5
mm male, 2 females 13.5 mm and 15.2 mm, Palau, Uchelbeluu reef near E. tip, 7°16’29.2”N, 134°31’32”E,
19.8–27.4 m, field number RW06-25, R. Winterbottom, W. Holleman, M. Winterbottom, M. Westneat, J. Cooper,
and A. Rice, 31 March 2006. CAS 234444 (ex-ROM 74882), 14.9 mm male, 13.9 mm female, 1 immature 11.0
mm, Palau, S.W. corner Uchelbeluu Reef, 07°16’26.9”N, 134°31’29.3”E, 12.2–21.3 m, vertical drop-off with
caves and ledges with some silty sand, Halimeda, field number RW04-04, R. Winterbottom, B. Hubley, A.
Bauman, and S. Kiefer, 20 May 2004. AMS I.46071-001 (ex-ROM 74882), 13.6 mm female, taken with CAS
234444; USNM 406709 (ex-ROM 80687), 2 females 12.8 mm, Palau, off Uchelbeluu Reef, 7°16’ 24.8”N, 134°
01’ 26.6”E, 17.4 m, field number RW06-18, P. Colin, 29 March 2006.
Non-types: ROM 76547, 10.5 mm female, Palau, Koror, just N. of pass to W. of Ulong Id. outer reef,
07°17’44.2”N, 134°14’18.9”E, vertical wall of drop-off, some small caves, broad sandy ledge at 31 m, 18.3–30.5
m, Halimeda, field number RW04-38, R. Winterbottom, W. Holleman, B. Hubley, and D. Winterbottom, 7 June
2004. ROM 84794, 9.1 mm immature, Palau, Sonsoral State, Merir Island, E coast, a little south of northern tip,
04°19’22”N, 132°21’9.02”E, 22.0–35.0 m, steep (ca 75°) reef slope with a moderate coral cover, limestone, a few
small caves and crevices with coarse sand floors, Acropora, Porites, star and lettuce corals, numerous sea-fans,
Halimeda, field number RW08-50, R. Winterbottom, M. Westneat, J. Williams, W. Holleman, B. Hubley, and M.
Winterbottom, 29 September 2008.
GREENFIELD & WINTERBOTTOM
40 · Zootaxa 3572 © 2012 Magnolia Press
FIGURE 9. Eviota pinocchioi, holotype preserved, ROM 76361, Photograph by D.W. Greenfield.
Questionable specimens: CAS 234099, 15.3 mm male, Indonesia, Rouw Island, Cendrawasih Bay, 65 m, M.
V. Erdmann, 19 November 2011; CAS 234827, 14.8 mm male, Indonesia, Mark’s Treasure, Cendrawasih Bay,
02°25.830’S, 134°59.409’E, 45 m, M.V. Erdmann, 15 June 2012; ROM 85364, 18.3 mm female, Indonesia, Raja
Ampat, east side of Barracuda Rock, 200 m north of Wayil Id., 02°11'43.4"N, 130°25'37.9"E, 60 m, field number
RW 10-41, M. V. Erdmann, 1 Feb., 2010.
Diagnosis. The following combination of characters distinguishes E. pinocchioi from congeners: cephalic
sensory-pore system always lacking POP and IT pores, PITO and AITO pores fused 50% of time; dorsal/anal fin-
ray formula 8/8; pectoral-fin rays unbranched; 4th pelvic-fin ray bifurcated with each branch about 50% of the total
length of the ray; unbranched 5th pelvic-fin ray 6.5–15.3 (11.0%) of 4th; dorsal-fin spines filamentous in males,
tubular anterior nares very long, length almost equal to pupil diameter, reaching well anterior to the upper lip, and
black; in life body translucent and crossed by six narrow red bands and devoid of obvious dark marks on body
when preserved.
Description. Dorsal-fin rays VI-I,9; anal-fin rays I,8[I,7(1), I,8(9)]; pectoral-fin rays 16 [15(2), 16(8)], rays
unbranched; pelvic fin I,4+ unbranched 5th, which is 13.7% [6.5–15.3 (11.0%)] the length of the 4th ray, 4th ray
bifurcated with each branch about 50% of total length of the ray, similar to Fig. 2 of E. lacrimae in Sunobe (1988);
11 branched caudal-fin rays; segmented caudal-fin rays 17; lateral scale rows 25 (24–26, usually 25); transverse
scale rows 7; vertebrae 25; first, second, and third dorsal-fin spines filamentous in males, extending back to about
the third soft ray in the second dorsal fin; always lacking the POP and IT pores in the cephalic sensory-pore system,
and the PITO and AITO pores are fused into one 50% of the time; male genital papilla non-fimbriate.
FIGURE 10. Eviota pinocchioi, freshly collected paratype, ROM 80701, 14.5 mm, Palau, Uchelbeluu Reef. Photograph by R.
Winterbottom.
Measurements (based on holotype and 9 paratypes, 13.4–16.5 mm). Head length 33.4 (30.2–33.6, 32.3);
origin of first dorsal fin 38.0 (35.6–39.5, 37.5); origin of second dorsal fin 56.4 (54.0–61.4, 58.0); origin of anal fin
Zootaxa 3572 © 2012 Magnolia Press · 41
TWO NEW DWARFGOBIES FROM THE SOUTHWESTERN PACIFIC OCEAN
62.3 (57.7–66.0, 62.2); caudal-peduncle length 22.9 (20.5–26.9, 24.3); caudal-peduncle depth 13.8 (10.3–13.8,
12.4); body depth 20.3 (20.1–23.9, 21.6); eye diameter 10.2 (9.9–11.9, 10.6); snout length 5.2 (5.2–6.7, 5.8); upper-
jaw length 10.5 (9.6–12.7, 11.5).
Color of holotype in preservative (Fig. 9, ROM 76361). Background color of head and body pale yellowish.
No bold dark markings on body. A line of melanophores along ventral surface of caudal peduncle. Head with a few
small mealnophores behind center of eye, and several clusters of larger melanophores on top of head behind eyes.
Snout and center of upper jaw peppered with small melanophores. Anterior tubular nares black. Pupil and iris of
eye black. A few small melanophores on nape in advance of first dorsal fin. Basal half of pelvic fins dusky. Pectoral
fins immaculate. Caudal fin mostly clear with a few melanophores distally. Anal and soft dorsal fins with scattered
melanophores on rays and membranes. First dorsal fin with a dark band crossing base just above a clear portion
along base of fin near dorsum.
Color of fresh paratype (Fig. 10, ROM 80701). Background color of head and body translucent white. All
markings on body orange. Body crossed by six narrow bars: the first from the front of the first dorsal fin down
behind the pectoral-fin base; the second at the posterior end of the first dorsal fin, curving down across the
abdomen towards the anus; the third at the third element of the second dorsal fin extending down to the anal-fin
origin; the fourth at the sixth element of the second dorsal fin extending down to the anal fin; the fifth running from
behind the second dorsal fin down to the posterior end of the anal fin; and the sixth across the caudal peduncle. The
nape is crossed by two bars and there is a short bar between the two dorsal fins, another at the posterior end of the
second dorsal fin, with a corresponding bar below it at the anal fin, and two short bars at the dorsal and ventral
caudal-fin base. The central portion of the caudal-fin base also has a short bar. The area on top of the head behind
the eyes has a blotch and the opercular area has another. There are three narrow bars under the eye, the shortest at
the posteroventral margin, another ventrally under the eye and extending down across the jaws and the third at the
anteroventral edge and also crossing the jaws. Eye pupil black, iris sky blue with red-orange spokes surrounding
pupil. Base of anterior tubular nares orange, remainder black. The pectoral-fin base has two blotches, one at the top
and the other at the bottom, separated by a translucent white area. Second dorsal fin with brown spots on rays,
distal margin dusky. Upper half of caudal fin with brown spots on dusky rays. Anal-fin rays and membranes dusky.
Spines of first dorsal fin red-orange with first and second body bars extending onto lower one quarter of fin, a bar
of melanophores running across base just above a clear portion along base of fin near dorsum. Pectoral and pelvic
fins white.
FIGURE 11. Eviota pinocchioi, fresh specimen underwater, Indonesia. Photograph by M. Erdmann.
Distribution. Palau and possibly Indonesia. In Palau, the species has only been taken in the main island group
and the middle of the South West Islands (Merir I.).
Etymology. Named after Carlo Collodi’s fictional character Pinocchio, who had a nose that grew long when he
lied, alluding to the exceptionally long anterior tubular nares in this species.
Comparisons: Five other described Eviota species also lack only the POP and IT pores: E. lacrimae, E.
GREENFIELD & WINTERBOTTOM
42 · Zootaxa 3572 © 2012 Magnolia Press
ocellifer, E. sparsa, and E. susanae. Eviota pinocchioi has non-fimbriate genital papillae, a dorsal-fin count of VI-
I,9 and unbranched pectoral-fin rays (vs. fimbriate papillae in both sexes, VI-I,8 and branched pectoral-fin rays in
E. susanae). The 5th pelvic-fin ray is 53–90% of the 4th pelvic-fin ray and some pectoral fin-rays are branched in E.
sparsa (vs. 6.5–15.3% and unbranched in E. pinocchioi). The pectoral-fin rays are branched in E. ocellifer (vs.
unbranched in E. pinocchioi). Eviota lacrimae has a dorsal-fin count of VI-I,8 and the 5th pectoral-fin ray is usually
absent (vs. VI-I,9 and present in E. pinocchioi). Eviota pinocchioi also differs greatly in live coloration from all of
these species.
Remarks: Three specimens were collected in Indonesia that have the identical color pattern of E. pinocchioi,
including the long black tubular anterior nares (Fig. 11). They are like E. pinocchioi in lacking both the POP and IT
pores, but in addition lack more pores that are present in that species. ROM 85364 also lacks the PITO, SOT, and
AOT pores. CAS 234099 and 234827 lack all pores. Often very small specimens may lack pores, but CAS 234099
is 15.3 mm, CAS 234827 is 14.8 mm, and ROM 85364 is 18.3 mm. In addition, E. pinocchioi has 15–16 (usually
16) pectoral-fin rays, whereas the Indonesian specimens have 16, 17 and 18. Because the Indonesian specimens
share this unique color pattern with E. pinocchioi, have the same measurements and structure of the fourth pelvic-
fin ray (bifurcated with branches about 50% of total length of the ray), we are hesitant to treat them as a separate
species without further specimens and genetic information. Although the long black tubular anterior nares and
more simple bifurcated pelvic-fin rays are similar to those in species of Sueviota, Winterbottom and Hoese (1988)
did not list these as a synapomorphies for that genus. The branched 5th pelvic-fin ray and the basal membrane that
are present in Sueviota are lacking in E. pinocchioi and in all other species of Eviota.
Acknowledgments
Susan L. Jewett kindly made her notes on USNM Philippine specimens of Eviota jewettae and an illustration (Fig.
4) available to us. The staff of the California Academy of Sciences as usual has provided continual support: D.
Catania, J. Fong, M. Hoang, T. Iwamoto, and L. Rocha. RW's field work in Palau benefitted from the participation
of many people, but especially so from Pat Colin, Mark Westneat and Wouter Holleman—many thanks to all.
Gerry Allen and Mark Erdmann kindly allowed us use of their excellent photographs from Indonesia, and Mark
Erdmann provided numerous specimens. The curatorial expertise of Don Stacey and Margaret Zur (both ROM) is
gratefully acknowledged. Jeffrey Williams, Shirleen Smith, and Sandra Raredon (USNM) assisted with the loan of
specimens.
References
Akihito, Sakamoto, K., Iwata, A. & Ikeda,Y. (1993) Cephalic sensory organs of the gobioid fishes, p. 1088–1116. In: Fishes of
Japan with pictorial keys to the species. T. Nakabo (ed.). Tokai University Press, Tokyo, Japan, 1474 pp. [In Japanese]
Dimara, R., Fauzan, A, Lazuardi, M, Pada, D., Allen, G.R, Erdmann, M.V., Huffard, C.L., Kaatz, L.S. & Winterbottom, R.
(2010) Pisces, Teleostei, Gobiidae, illustrated list of additions to the fauna of Raja Ampat Islands, Indonesia. Check List,
6(4), 619–625.
Lachner, E.A. & Karnella, S.J. (1980) Fishes of the Indo-Pacific genus Eviota with descriptions of eight new species
(Teleostei:Gobiidae). Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology, No. 315, 1–127.
Nakabo, T (ed.) (2002) Fishes of Japan with pictorial keys to the species. English edition. Tokai University Press, Tokyo, 2
vols., 1749 pp.
Saruwatari, T., Lopez, J.A. & Pietsch, T.W. (1997) Cyanine blue: a versatile and harmless stain for specimen observations.
Copeia, 1997 (4), 840–841.
Sunobe, T. (1988) A new gobiid fish of the genus Eviota from Cape Sata, Japan. Japanese Journal of Ichthyology, 35(3),
278–281.
Winterbottom, R. & Hoese, D.F. (1988) A new genus and four new species of fishes from the Indo-West Pacific (Pisces;
Perciformes; Gobiidae), with comments on relationships. Life Sciences Occasional Paper No. 37, Royal Ontario Museum,
1–17.
... Comparisons. There are only two other described species of Eviota lacking all cephalic sensory-canal pores: E. jewettae, from Palau, Philippine Islands, Papua New Guinea and Raja Ampat, Indonesia (Greenfield & Winterbottom 2012), and E. deminuta from Marquesas Islands (Tornabene et al. 2013). Eviota jewettae lacks the distinct dark spot on the caudal peduncle and yellow-orange broad wedge-shaped bar at the caudal-fin base that is present in E. occasa, and has a light-colored translucent body crossed by five wide orange bars (absent in E. occasa). ...
Article
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A new species of dwarfgoby, Eviota occasa, lacking all head pores, is described from Palau and Japan. It has a dorsal/anal-fin formula of 8/8, some of the pectoral-fin rays are branched, the 5th pelvic-fin ray is absent or rudimentary, the 4th pelvic-fin ray has 5 branches, the first dorsal fin is crossed by two dark bands separated by a diagonal light band, and there is a distinct dark spot on the caudal peduncle anterior to the caudal fin, followed by a pale bar and then a yellow-orange broad wedge-shaped bar at the caudal-fin base.
... Approximately 50 previously undescribed species of fishes were obtained during these trips, mostly gobies. Here we describe one of these new species in the gobiid genus Eviota as part of our ongoing studies of members of this genus (see Greenfield & Winterbottom, 2012 for the descriptions of two other new Palauan species of Eviota collected during these expeditions). The new species fits the description typical of all species of Eviota: the pelvic fins are separate and the 5 th pelvic-fin ray, if present, is unbranched; the membrane joining the 5 th pelvic-fin rays is rudimentary or absent; there are ctenoid scales on the body but no scales on the head, nape or pectoral-fin base; the breast either lacks scales or may have a few embedded cycloid scales; the teeth in the upper jaw are in two or more rows and there are 1–3 enlarged curved canine-like teeth in the innermost row of the lower jaw just behind the jaw symphysis. ...
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A new species of dwarfgoby, Eviota piperata is described from Palau. It belongs to the cephalic sensory-pore system Group II (lacking only the IT pore); has a dorsal/anal-fin formula of 8/8; has some pectoral-fin rays branched; no dark spot over the ural centrum; the male genital papilla is not fimbriate; and the cheek and body are heavily peppered with chromatophores.
... Small bodied, cryptobenthic marine fishes (<50 mm in length and closely associated with the benthos [1]) represent a diverse and often overlooked component of global marine vertebrate biodiversity. Due to the difficulties that are often associated with the collection [1]–[6] and identification [7]–[8] of cryptobenthic species, it is not surprising that the majority of newly described marine vertebrates falls within this category. Even in relatively well studied regions of the world’s oceans, new species of cryptobenthic fishes are discovered on an annual basis [7]–[10], and an increasing number of DNA-based studies are revealing that even relatively well-known species of cryptobenthic fishes represent complexes of morphologically similar, cryptic species [11]–[15]. ...
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Examination of genetic data (mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I) for western Atlantic clingfishes revealed two distinct lineages within a group of individuals originally identified as Acyrtus artius. Subsequent investigation of preserved voucher specimens was conducted to reconcile the genetic data and the existing classification, which is based on morphology. In addition to discovering that one of the genetic lineages is an undescribed species, which we describe as Acyrtus lanthanum, new species, we found that the nominal species Acyrtus artius has a putative venom gland associated with the subopercle that has been overlooked since the species was described nearly 60 years ago. The new species lacks the subopercular gland as does Acyrtus rubiginosus, but one is present in the related Arcos nudus. Venom glands have not been reported previously for the Gobiesocidae, and the venom gland described herein for Acyrtus and Arcos represents the first example in teleost fishes of a venom gland associated with the subopercle.
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Two new dwarfgobies, Eviota amamiko and Eviota perspicilla, are described from southern Japan, based on 3 (Ryukyu Islands) and 22 (Satsuma Peninsula and Koshiki, Osumi, and Amami islands) specimens, respectively. Eviota amamiko, belonging to a group lacking cephalic sensory-canal pores, can be distinguished from all other members of Eviota in having the following combination of characters: dorsal/anal fin-ray formula 8/8; 14 or 15 pectoral-fin rays; 5th pelvic-fin ray absent or rudimentary; urogenital papillae of both sexes not fimbriate; five dark brown irregularly shaped (usually X- or Y-like) bars on body; two narrow diagonal red lines below eye; anal-fin base with two reddish-brown spots; no dark spots on caudal peduncle over preural centrum; and caudal-fin base without crescentic marks. Although similar to Eviota japonica Jewett and Lachner 1983, Eviota prasina (Klunzinger 1871), and Eviota queenslandica Whitley 1932, E. perspicilla is clearly distinct from all other congeners in having the following combination of characters: cephalic sensory-canal pore system pattern 2 [lacking only pore H (IT)]; dorsal/anal fin-ray formula 9/8; some pectoral-fin rays branched; dorsal-fin spine not filamentous in both sexes; pelvic fin very long, its tip usually beyond anal-fin origin when appressed [length 26.7–38.9 (mean 34.7) % of standard length]; urogenital papillae of both sexes not fimbriate; five dark postanal bars (spots in preserved specimens) and two dark postocular spots present; two dark spots on pectoral-fin base; no dark spots under pectoral-fin base; distinct dark caudal-peduncle spot over preural centrum; and spinous dorsal fin blackish overall, with two small translucent white circular spots on its base.
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Two new species in the dwarfgoby genus Eviota, E. oculopiperita and E. geminata, are described from Saudi Arabia in the Red Sea, bringing the total number of species of Eviota in the Red Sea to eight. Eviota oculopiperita is most similar to E. shimadai, but differs in coloration and the structure of the fourth pelvic-fin ray. Eviota geminata is most similar to E. randalli but differs in lacking the IT and SOT cephalic sensory pores and in details of coloration.
Article
Full-text available
Two new species in the dwarfgoby genus Eviota, E. oculopiperita and E. geminata, are described from Saudi Arabia in the Red Sea, bringing the total number of species of Eviota in the Red Sea to eight. Eviota oculopiperita is most similar to E. shimadai, but differs in coloration and the structure of the fourth pelvic-fin ray. Eviota geminata is most similar to E. randalli but differs in lacking the IT and SOT cephalic sensory pores and in details of coloration.
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A new gobiid fish,Eviota lacrimae is described, on the basis of specimens collected from Cape Sata, Japan. This new species is distinguished from other species of the genus by the following characters: lacking IT and POP pores of the sensory organ; pelvic fin I, 4 and its fin membrane reduced between rays; fourth soft ray of pelvic fin with two branches.
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Previous surveys of the reef-associated ichthyofauna of the Raja Ampat Islands in West Papua, Indonesiarecorded a total of 1,320 species of reef fishes, including 271 species of Gobiidae. A recent survey focused on the crypticgobies of Raja Ampat resulted in 36 new records (including nine species of both Trimma and Eviota). Sixteen of the newrecords are currently undescribed species, with seven of these identified as Raja Ampat endemics, while the remaining ninespecies are also known from localities outside Raja Ampat in the western Pacific. Five species previously recorded fromthe area have been re-identified, two of them representing undescribed species, and a new record from the literature hasbeen added. This brings the total number of reef fishes known from Raja Ampat waters to 1,357, of which 308 belong to theGobiidae. The number of species (including the undescribed taxa) apparently endemic to the Bird’s Head Peninsula of WestPapua now totals 33.
Cephalic sensory organs of the gobioid fishes
  • Sakamoto Akihito
  • K Iwata
  • A Ikeda
Akihito, Sakamoto, K., Iwata, A. & Ikeda,Y. (1993) Cephalic sensory organs of the gobioid fishes, p. 1088-1116. In: Fishes of Japan with pictorial keys to the species. T. Nakabo (ed.). Tokai University Press, Tokyo, Japan, 1474 pp. [In Japanese]
A new genus and four new species of fishes from the Indo-West Pacific
  • R Winterbottom
  • D F Hoese
Winterbottom, R. & Hoese, D.F. (1988) A new genus and four new species of fishes from the Indo-West Pacific (Pisces;
This pdf is provided by Magnolia Press for private/research use. Commercial sale or deposition in a public library or website is prohibited
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TERMS OF USE This pdf is provided by Magnolia Press for private/research use. Commercial sale or deposition in a public library or website is prohibited.