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Eviota nigramembrana, a new dwarfgoby from the Western Pacific (Teleostei: Gobiidae)

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Eviota nigramembrana is described from the Ryukyu Islands, Japan and also recorded from the Philippine Islands. It belongs to the cephalic sensory-pore system pattern group I (complete), has a dorsal/anal fin-ray formula of 8/8, 5th pelvic-fin ray absent, some lower pectoral-fin rays branched, five dark internal bands between anal-fin origin and caudal fin, no distinct marking on pectoral-fin base, dark internal rectangular mark above midline of ural centrum, a light spinous dorsal fin, and black pigment on the opercular membrane.
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Accepted by J. Sparks: 27 Feb. 2013; published: 10 Apr. 2013
ZOOTAXA
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ISSN 1175-5334 (online edition)
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http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.3637.2.7
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Eviota nigramembrana, a new dwarfgoby from the Western Pacific
(Teleostei: Gobiidae)
DAVID W. GREENFIELD¹ & TOSHIYUKI SUZUKI²
Research Associate, Department of Ichthyology, California Academy of Sciences, 55 Music Concourse Dr., Golden Gate Park, San
Francisco, California 94118-4599 and Professor Emeritus, University of Hawaii. Mailing address: 944 Egan Ave., Pacific Grove, CA
93950. E-mail: greenfie@hawaii.edu
²Kawanishi-midoridai Senior High School, 1-8 Kouyoudai, Kawanishi, Hyogo 666-0115, Japan.
E-mail: trimma-toshiyuki@hop.ocn.ne.jp
Abstract
Eviota nigramembrana is described from the Ryukyu Islands, Japan and also recorded from the Philippine Islands. It be-
longs to the cephalic sensory-pore system pattern group I (complete), has a dorsal/anal fin-ray formula of 8/8, 5th pelvic-
fin ray absent, some lower pectoral-fin rays branched, five dark internal bands between anal-fin origin and caudal fin, no
distinct marking on pectoral-fin base, dark internal rectangular mark above midline of ural centrum, a light spinous dorsal
fin, and black pigment on the opercular membrane.
Key words: Eviota nigramembvrana, Rukyu Islands, Pilippline Islands
Introduction
While collecting gobiid fishes in the Ryukyu Islands, Japan, the second author photographed and collected a
number of species of Eviota that he believed to be new to science. One of these species was referred to earlier as
Eviota sp. C by Hayashi et al. (1990). We describe that species here.
Material and methods
Counts and measurements, descriptions of fin morphology and the cephalic sensory-canal pore patterns follow
Lachner and Karnella (1980. Measurements were made to the nearest 0.1 mm using an ocular micrometer and dial
calipers, and are presented as percentage of Standard Length (SL). All specimen lengths are SL in mm. Cyanine
Blue 5R (acid blue 113) stain was used to make pores more obvious (Akihito et al. 2002; Saruwatari et al. 1997)
and an airjet used to observe them. For measurements, values for the holotype are given first, followed by the range
for all types and the mean in parentheses. As discussed in Greenfield & Jewett (2011), we are using the name
dwarfgoby for Eviota species and pygmygoby for Trimma species based on an agreement between systematists
working on these genera. Specimens have been deposited in the following museums: CAS—California Academy
of Sciences, San Francisco; OMNH—Osaka Museum of Natural History, Osaka, Japan, and USNM—United
States National Museum (Smithsonian), Washington D.C.
Eviota nigramembrana n. sp.
Blackbar dwarfgoby
Japanese name—Kometubu-isohaze
Figs. 1–6.
GREENFIELD & SUZUKI
170 · Zootaxa 3637 (2) © 2013 Magnolia Press
Eviota sp. C. Hayashi et al. 1990: 131; Senou et al., 2004: 122.
Eviota sp. 3. Akihito et al. 2002: 1178.
Holotype. OMNH-P 35642, 13.9 mm female, Okinawa Prefecture, the Ryukyu Islands, Uehara, Iriomote-jima
Island, 24.4325N, 123.8148E, 3–5 m depth, field number S-5671, Toshiyuki Suzuki & Masatomi Suzuki, 8 August
1996.
Paratypes: All from the Okinawa Prefecture, the Ryukyu Islands—USNM 406763 (ex OMNH-P 4285), 14.8
mm female, Aragusuku, Gusukube-cho, Miyako-gun, Miyako-jima Island, Aragusuku Beach, 24.7572N,
125.4263E, 3 m depth, field number S-3718, Toshiyuki Suzuki & Masatomi Hosokawa, 13 February 1994;
OMNH-P 34238, 11.4 mm male, Uehara, Iriomote-jima Island, 24.4298N, 123.8262E, 7 m depth, field number S-
17076, Toshiyuki Suzuki, Masatomi Suzuki & Akira Kawai, 8 July 2008; OMNH-P 35639, 13.8 mm female,
Uehara, Iriomote-jima Island, 24.4325N, 123.8148E, 5–6 m depth, field number S-3906, Toshiyuki Suzuki &
Masatomi Suzuki, 22 August 1994; OMNH-P 35641, 14.1 mm male, Uehara, Iriomote-jima Island, 24.4325N,
123.8148E, field number S-3987, 7–8 m depth, Toshiyuki Suzuki & Masatomi Suzuki, 27 August 1994; CAS
234537-(ex OMNH-P 35643), 14.0 mm male, Aakabanare, Iriomote-jima Island, 24.4004N, 123.8715E, 3 m
depth, field number S-5983, Toshiyuki Suzuki & Masatomi Suzuki, 24 July 1997; OMNH-P 35644, 14.0 mm
female, Uehara, Iriomote-jima Island, 24.4325N, 123.8148E, 5–6 m depth, field number S-6178, Toshiyuki Suzuki
& Masatomi Suzuki, 29 July 1997.
Non-types: Philippine Islands-Negros Oriental, Siquijor Id.- USNM 223062 (3) 12.5–17.2 mm, 0–10.7 m,
SP78-7; USNM 223063 (19) 13.0–18.2 m, 0–1.2 m, LK 79-15; USNM 223067 (1) 13.3 mm, 0–6.1 m, SP 78-4;
USNM 223068 (1) 16.3 mm, 0–0.9 m, LK 79-14. Apo Id.—USNM 223071 (2) 12.7 & 16.8 mm, 0–6.1 m, SP 78-
35; CAS 47914 (2) 16.6 & 16.8 m, 0–2.4 m, LK 79-20. Zamboanga del Norte, Allibay Id.—USNM 223066 (1)
13.6 mm, 0–3.1 m, LK 79-5. Solino (Selinog) Id.—AMS I.22206-001 (3) 13.2–15.7 mm, 13.7–21.3 m, LK 79-6;
USNM 223065 (1) 12.6 mm, 12.2–18.3 m, LK 79-9. Palawan Province, Tagauayan Id.—USNM 223064 (4)
13.7–14.2 mm, 0–13.7 m, SP 78-24.
Diagnosis. The following combination of characters distinguishes E. nigramembrana from congeners:
cephalic sensory-pore system pattern group I (complete); dorsal/anal fin-ray formula 8/8; 5th pelvic-fin ray absent;
five internal bands between anal-fin origin and caudal-fin base; base of pectoral fin pale; a dark rectangular caudal-
peduncle spot above midline; spinous dorsal fin pale, without broad dark and light bands; posterior edge of
opercular membrane with a concentration of dark chromatophores; in life red-orange spots along bases of both
dorsal fins, and belly with distinct red spots.
Description. Dorsal-fin rays VI-I,8 [I,8 (6), I,9 (1-OMNH P. 34238)]; anal-fin rays I,8; dorsal and anal soft
rays branched except first, the last ray branched to base; pectoral-fin rays 16 (16–17, usually 16), lower rays 10–16
may be branched (usually 10–14); pelvic fins joined by membrane only at extreme base; no pelvic frenum; pelvic-
fin rays I,4, 4th pelvic-fin ray with 8 (6–8, usually 7 or 8) branches, 1–3 segments between branches; 5th pelvic-fin
ray absent; 11 branched caudal-fin rays; segmented caudal-fin rays 17; lateral scale rows 23 (23–24); transverse
scale rows 7; no scales on head, nape, breast, or pectoral-fin base; vertebrae 26; dorsal-fin spines filamentous in
males and females, extending back to 3rd or 4th element of second dorsal fin; cephalic sensory-pore system
compete (Group I); male genital papilla non-fimbriate, not reaching anal-fin base, sides smooth and curved with a
blunt tip with a few short skin flaps on the end; mouth oblique, forming an angle of about 45° to horizontal axis of
body, lower jaw not projecting; maxilla extending to center of pupil; nostrils short, not extending to upper lip and
light in color; gill opening extending forward to midway between edge of preoperculum and posterior end of
opercular membrane; gill membranes attached anteriorly to isthmus, without a free fold; scales on body finely
ctenoid,.
Measurements (based on holotype and 6 paratypes, 11.4–14.8 mm). Head length 31.6 (30.5–34.2, 31.8);
origin of first dorsal fin 36.0 (33.6–37.4, 35.7), above posterior end of pectoral-fin base; origin of second dorsal fin
56.1 (55.4–59.6, 57.2), slightly in advance of anal-fin origin; origin of anal fin 63.3 (58.5–63.3, 61.6); caudal-
peduncle length 25.2 (22.9–28.5, 25.5); caudal-peduncle relatively deep, 15.8 (13.9–15.8, 15.0); body of moderate
depth 23.7 (21.8–25.2, 23.6); eye diameter 10.1 (9.8–11.2, 10.4); snout length 6.1 (4.2–6.1, 5.1); upper-jaw length
10.8 (10.3–12.7, 11.2).
Color in preservative of holotype: (Fig. 1 ). Background color of head and body pale yellowish. Head with a
diffuse occipital spot about the size of the pupil (absent or faint in most paratypes), a few scattered melanophores
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EVIOTA NIGRAMEMBRANA
on side of head and nape (more intense in some paratypes). Opercular membrane with an obvious concentration of
melanophores contrasting with a lighter operculum and pectoral-fin base (Fig. 2). Melanophores also more
concentrated on membrane covering branchiostegals below operculum. Iris of eye black and pupil translucent
yellow. Body without distinctive markings except for a subcutaneous rectangular dark spot above the midline over
the ural centrum and five subcutaneous dark marks along the ventral surface between the anal-fin origin and
caudal-fin base. Pectoral and pelvic-fin rays edged with tiny melanophores, membranes clear. Caudal-fin
membranes peppered with light brown chromatophores, distal margin edged with brown. Anal fin covered with
light brown chromatophores. Basal one-quarter of first and second dorsal fins heavily peppered with
melanophores, remainder lightly peppered with distal margins darker.
FIGURE 1. Color in preservative of holotype of Eviota nigramembrana, OMNH-P. 35642. Photograph by D.W. Greenfield.
FIGURE 2. Dark pigment on opercular membrane of Eviota nigramembrana, OMNH-P. 35644. Photograph by D.W.
Greenfield.
GREENFIELD & SUZUKI
172 · Zootaxa 3637 (2) © 2013 Magnolia Press
Color of fresh holotype: (Fig. 3). Background color of head translucent sky blue as is the lower half of the
body. Background color of upper half of body and nape translucent cream. Head overlaid by a number of narrow
irregular red-orange lines: four under the eye, the anteriormost from the anteroventral portion of the eye down
across the upper lip; the second posterior to the first from the eye across the posterior part of the upper jaw; the
third from under the center of the eye down posterior to the jaws continuing down under the head; the fourth
extends from the posteroventral margin of the eye across the cheek onto the branchiostegal membrane. Cheek,
operculum and nape also covered with narrow irregular red-orange lines. A black occipital spot present above
preopercle. Scale pockets with bold red-orange pigment, the pigment on the belly scale pockets smaller, looking
like spots on a white background. Five dark subcutaneous marks between anal-fin origin and caudal-fin base, each
mark extending up onto the body forming lighter subcutaneous bars: the first above the first two soft rays of the
anal fin; the second over rays six and seven; the next three evenly spaced along the caudal peduncle. A black
rectangular spot over the ural centrum above its midpoint. Pectoral and pelvic fins sky blue. Anal fin heavily
peppered with melanophores. Caudal fin with a red-orange crescent across its base, followed by a clear sky blue
area. Remainder of caudal fin heavily peppered with melanophores, with larger black spots on basal half. First and
second dorsal fins with red-orange spots along basal one-quarter with dense melanophores between them. Distal
margins of both fins with a dark peppering of melanophores, the space in the center relatively clear. Color in life
agrees with color of fresh holotype (Fig. 4). One paratype (OMNH-P. 34238) has more red-orange pigmentation on
the fins and body than other paratypes (Fig. 5).
FIGURE 3. Color of fresh holotype of Eviota nigramembrana, OMNH-P. 35642. Photograph by T. Suzuki.
Distribution. Amami-oshima Island, Miyako-jima Island and Yayama Islands, the Ryukyu Islands, Japan
(Akihito et al. 2002; Hayashi et al. 1990; Senou et al., 2004; in this study). Philippine Islands: Negros Oriental,
Siquijor Island and Apo Island; Zamboanga del Norte, Allibay and Solino Islands; Palawan province, Tagauayan
island.
Etymology. The specific epithet is an adjective combining the Latin nigra (black) and membrana (membrane),
referring to the distinctive black pigment on the opercular membrane.
Comparisons. Of the 27 described species of Eviota belonging to the cephalic sensory-pore pattern group I
(Greenfield & Suzuki, 2012), only three (E. nebulosa Smith, E. nigripinna Lachner and Karnella, and E.
winterbottomi Greenfield and Randall) have the following characters shared with E. nigramembrana: a dorsal/anal
formula almost always 8/8; 5th pelvic-fin ray absent or rudimentary; five or fewer dark internal spots or bands
between anal-fin origin and caudal fin; no distinct markings on pectoral-fin base; and similar moderately deep
body. Eviota nigramembrana has a dark internal mark above the midline of the ural centrum whereas it is on the
Zootaxa 3637 (2) © 2013 Magnolia Press · 173
EVIOTA NIGRAMEMBRANA
middle of the centrum in E. nigripinna and over the entire centrum in E. winterbottomi. The spinous dorsal fin is
light in E. nigramembrana whereas it is black in nigripinna and has broad dark and light bars in E. nebulosa.
Eviota nigramembrana also differs from all three in live coloration: E. nigripinna has four narrow red bars across
the nape that are lacking in E. nigramembrana; E. winterbottomi has large red spots on the side of the head and six
broad dark bars on the side of the body that are lacking in E. nigramembrana; and E. nebulosa has two red bars on
the cheek under the eye whereas E. nigramembrana has several narrow red bars under the eye.
FIGURE 4. Underwater photograph of Eviota nigramembrana, Kasari-wan Inlet, Amami-oshima Island, the Ryukyu Islands,
Japan, 6 m depth, 29 Aug. 2005, Photograph by Hiroyuki Kanehara.
FIGURE 5. Color of fresh paratype of Eviota nigramembrana, OMNH-P. 34238. Photograph by T. Suzuki.
GREENFIELD & SUZUKI
174 · Zootaxa 3637 (2) © 2013 Magnolia Press
Remarks. We have restricted our type material to the Ryukyu Islands, Japan because we have information on
live and fresh color from there. The preserved material from the Philippine Islands agrees with preserved material
from Japan in distinguishing characters, including the distinctive dark opercular membrane (Fig. 6); however, we
do not have information on live coloration. There are differences in the coloration of preserved specimens from the
type series with the Philippine specimens having more small melanophores on the cheeks and nape and the scale
pockets more heavily pigmented (Fig. 7). Until future DNA studies determine otherwise, we consider the
Philippine specimens to be E. nigramembrana.
FIGURE 6. Pigmented opercular membrane of Philippine Island specimen of Eviota nigramembrana, USNM 220062, 17.2
mm male. Photograph by D.W. Greenfield.
FIGURE 7. Eviota nigramembrana from the Philippine Islands, USNM 223063, 17.6 mm male. Photograph by K. Sandved.
Acknowledgments
We wish to express our sincere gratitude to H. Kanehara (Diving Service Amamiensis, Amami-oshima Island, the
Ryukyu Islands), A. Kawai (Iriomote-jima Island, the Ryukyu Islands), K. Hatooka (OMNH) and M. Suzuki
(Kawanishi, Japan) . We thank Susan L. Jewett for making her notes on non-type specimens of E. nigramembrana
from the Philippine islands available to us.
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EVIOTA NIGRAMEMBRANA
References
Akihito, Sakamoto, K, Ikeda,Y, & Sugiyama, K. (2002) Gobioidei, 2 vols, In: Fishes of Japan with pictorial keys to the species.
English edition. T. Nakabo (ed.). Tokai University Press, Tokyo, pp. 1139–1310, 1596–1619.
Greenfield, D.W. & Jewett, S.L. (2011) Eviota rubriceps, a new goby from the Southwestern Pacific Ocean, with comments on
E. mikiae and E. raja (Teleostei: Gobiidae). Zootaxa, 3134, 53–62.
Greenfield, D.W. & Suzuki, T. (2012) Two new goby species of the genus Eviota from the Ryukyu Islands, Japan (Teleostei:
Gobiidae). Zootaxa, 2812, 63–68.
Hayashi, M., Aizawa, M., Ito, T. & Arai, R. (1990) The marine gobiid fish fauna of Amami-Oshima Island, the Ryukyus, Japan.
Memoirs of the National Science Museum, Tokyo, (23), 123–150.
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Japan, 536 pp.
... See Greenfield and Suzuki (2013) about the nomenclature of this species. Greenfield & Suzuki, 2010 [Jn: Nadeshikoisohaze] Fusigobius duospilus Hoese & Reader, 1985 [Jn: Sehoshisankakuhaze] Glossogobius circumspectus (Macleay, 1883) [Jn: Sudareurohaze] Gobiodon rivulatus (Rüppell, 1830) [Jn: Tasujikobanhaze] Istigobius rigilius (Herre, 1953) [Jn: Madarakazarihaze] Akihito & Meguro, 1975 [Jn: Mitsuboshigomahaze] Stiphodon imperiorientis Watson & Chen, 1998 [Jn: Hayasebozuhaze] Valenciennea parva Hoese & Larson, 1994 [Jn: Himekuroitohaze] KPM-NR 97491, Kasari Bay; KPM-NR 27525, Kurasaki. ...
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Gobioidei, 2 vols, In: Fishes of Japan with pictorial keys to the species
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Akihito, Sakamoto, K, Ikeda,Y, & Sugiyama, K. (2002) Gobioidei, 2 vols, In: Fishes of Japan with pictorial keys to the species. English edition. T. Nakabo (ed.). Tokai University Press, Tokyo, pp. 1139-1310, 1596-1619.
The marine gobiid fish fauna of Amami-Oshima Island, the Ryukyus
  • M Hayashi
  • M Aizawa
  • T Ito
  • R Arai
Hayashi, M., Aizawa, M., Ito, T. & Arai, R. (1990) The marine gobiid fish fauna of Amami-Oshima Island, the Ryukyus, Japan. Memoirs of the National Science Museum, Tokyo, (23), 123-150.
A photographic guide to the gobioid fishes of Japan
  • H Senou
  • T Suzuki
  • K Shibukawa
  • K Yano
Senou, H., Suzuki, T., Shibukawa, K., & Yano, K. (2004) A photographic guide to the gobioid fishes of Japan. Heibonsha Co., Japan, 536 pp.
TERMS OF USE This pdf is provided by Magnolia Press for private/research use
  • H Senou
  • T Suzuki
  • K Shibukawa
  • K Yano
Senou, H., Suzuki, T., Shibukawa, K., & Yano, K. (2004) A photographic guide to the gobioid fishes of Japan. Heibonsha Co., Japan, 536 pp. TERMS OF USE This pdf is provided by Magnolia Press for private/research use. Commercial sale or deposition in a public library or website is prohibited.