C1q nephropathy in a child presenting with recurrent gross hematuria
C1q nephropathy is a rare glomerular disease characterized by mesangial immune deposits with dominant or codominant staining for C1q. The exact pathogenesis leading to the mesangial immune deposits of C1q remains unknown. C1q nephropathy often presents with proteinuria in the nephrotic range, with an unpredictable or poor response to corticosteroid therapy. It is seen more commonly in older children and young adults and is more common in African Americans compared with Caucasians. We present a 4-year-old African American girl who presented with recurrent gross hematuria in the absence of proteinuria or hypertension and whose renal biopsy demonstrated dominant mesangial deposits of C1q. We conclude that C1q nephropathy should be considered in patients who present with recurrent gross hematuria.