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Medicinal properties of Elettaria cardamomum

Authors:
  • ICAR-Indian Institute of Spices Research, Kozhikode, India

Abstract

Cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum Maton), a native of high ranges of Western Ghats of India, is an ecofriendly plantation spice crop. Apart from its use as a flavoring agent in food preparations, confectioneries and cosmetics, cardamom is used both in ancient and modem medicines. An attempt is made in this paper to cover the geo-ecological requirements, area and production, ancient uses and history, modern use, medicinal properties, aromatic constituent's etc.
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... It's famous with the name of queen of spices [1]. The cardamom also divided into two main categories small and large cardamom, cardamom is a type of dried fruit found on perennial herbaceous plant, (Elettaria cardamomum Maton) belong to family zingiberaceae [2]. The potential health benefits of cardamom have found in many diseases and in some health problems. ...
... Health benefit of Cardamom is also found in NAFLD (nonalcoholic fatty liver disease) [3]. The cardamom also uses as windiness and stomachic carminative, aromatic stimulant to prevent unpleasant smell in mouth, in nausea and also in vomiting, to prevent pyrosis (excessive watering in mouth) [2] in study it has found cardamom has also effect on nervous system [2] major production of cardamom is occurs in North Sikkim. Cardamom has different-2 according to locality for example Alainchi in Neplai, Elaichi in Hindi, Bhadraila in Sanskrit, Bara llachi in Bengal, kattelam and perelam in Tamil Nadu [4]. ...
... Health benefit of Cardamom is also found in NAFLD (nonalcoholic fatty liver disease) [3]. The cardamom also uses as windiness and stomachic carminative, aromatic stimulant to prevent unpleasant smell in mouth, in nausea and also in vomiting, to prevent pyrosis (excessive watering in mouth) [2] in study it has found cardamom has also effect on nervous system [2] major production of cardamom is occurs in North Sikkim. Cardamom has different-2 according to locality for example Alainchi in Neplai, Elaichi in Hindi, Bhadraila in Sanskrit, Bara llachi in Bengal, kattelam and perelam in Tamil Nadu [4]. ...
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The cardamom is very common spices in India its mainly two type Amomum subulatum and Elettaria Cardamomum belongs to the family zingiberaceae Amomum subulatum is also known as "Badi Elaichi". It's traditionally uses as mouth freshener or digestive agent.it is very common spices in Indian food. Its main chemical constituent is α-terpinyl acetate, 1,8-cineole, α-terpineol, limonene, α-pinene, β-pinene main chemical is alpha terpinyl acetate in cardamom. Its have many pharmacological activity like antiseptic (pulmonary), antispasmodic (neuromuscular), aphrodisiac, expectorant, anthelminthic, antibacterial (variable), cephalic, cardiotonic, diuretic, emmenagogue, sialagogue and stomachic. It's also act as a stimulant of nervous system some research said that it is also work as a antidote in some venom. According to recent research, required a further study on large scale because some unidentified chemicals are present in their alcoholic extract.
... The use of the cardamom plant by humans dates back to the fourth century BC and is still used for various purposes today (Korikanthimathm et al., 2000). Commonly used parts of the plant are the capsule fruits and seeds. ...
... It is one of the most widely used spices in Moroccan cuisine, especially to flavor Moroccan tajines. In addition, in India, which is known as the world's largest producer, consumer and exporter of spices, cardamom spice has been used frequently since ancient times and is known as the "Queen of all Spices" (Korikanthimathm et al., 2000;El Malti et al., 2007). It is the third most expensive spice after saffron and vanilla (Paniagua-Zambrana et al., 2020). ...
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Brown Dwarfs Review article
... The use of the cardamom plant by humans dates back to the fourth century BC and is still used for various purposes today (Korikanthimathm et al., 2000). Commonly used parts of the plant are the capsule fruits and seeds. ...
... It is one of the most widely used spices in Moroccan cuisine, especially to flavor Moroccan tajines. In addition, in India, which is known as the world's largest producer, consumer and exporter of spices, cardamom spice has been used frequently since ancient times and is known as the "Queen of all Spices" (Korikanthimathm et al., 2000;El Malti et al., 2007). It is the third most expensive spice after saffron and vanilla (Paniagua-Zambrana et al., 2020). ...
... Cardamom has a pleasant flavour and aroma that makes it the most popular condiments for tea, coffee and cool drinks (Lim, 2013;Anwar et al., 2016). They also trust this to aid in digestion (Korikanthimathm et al., 2000). The cardamom preparation, Eladigana is commonly used to cure arthritis, congestion and itching. ...
... Cardamom is used to prevent nausea and vomiting. Cardamom is invariably used as a cardiac stimulant, according to Korikanthimathm et al. (2000). ...
Book
This reference book is based on the history, cultivation, processing, breeding, protection, phytochemistry, and pharmacological importance of cardamom. Cardamom is scientifically known as Elettaria cardamomum (L.) Maton and is a member of the Zingiberaceae family. It's a shade-loving plant that grows well at an altitude between 600 and 1400 metres above sea level, with annual rainfall ranging from 1300–4000 mm and temperatures ranging from 10 to 35°C. Cardamom is highly cross-pollinated and depends on honeybees for pollination. Cardamom is classified into three types based on the nature of the panicles, namely, Malabar (prostrate panicle), Mysore (erect panicle) and Vazhukka (semi-erect panicle), a natural hybrid between Mysore and Malabar varieties. In India, currently, six research institutions, namely, Cardamom Research Station (CRS), Pampadumpara (Kerala Agricultural University, Kerala), ICAR-Indian Institute of Spices Research (IISR), Kozhikode, Kerala; Cardamom Research Centre, Appangala, Karnataka; Indian Cardamom Research Institute (ICRI), Myladumpara, Kerala and its Regional Research Station, Sakleshpur, Karnataka and Regional Research Station, Mudigere (University of Agricultural and Horticultural Sciences) are engaged in research for the improvement of cardamom farming. These research institutions have begun doing routine surveys to exploit desirable genes using a variety of traditional and modern crop improvement techniques. Also, these research centres/institutes are holding enormous genetic wealth of different accessions. Recently, many researchers have used various biotechnological approaches to conduct studies on micropropagation, assess the diversity in germplasm collections, and elucidate the biotic and abiotic stress tolerance mechanisms in cardamom. Fungal, bacterial and viral diseases pose severe threats to the successful cultivation of this crop. Major pests of cardamom include thrips, shoot and capsule borer, root grub, and whiteflies. Injudicious pesticide applications to manage pests and diseases rises the residue levels in the cured product, limiting its export value. Bio-pesticides control pest in an eco-friendly manner and are considered as the best alternatives to synthetic pesticides. It includes the effective utilization of microbials (bacteria, fungi, virus, and nematodes), macrobials (predators, parasitoids, and parasites), botanicals, organic amendments, semiochemicals, endophytes, and reduced risk pesticides in managing pest and diseases. Cardamom is grown in the throughout tropical mountains mainly for its capsules and its essential oil. Cardamom capsules/seeds accumulate essential oil and other bioactive metabolites, which contribute to their distinctive aroma and are used in the functional food, pharmaceutical, and nutraceutical industries. More than 100 secondary metabolites have been identified from cardamom essential oil. The essential oil of cardamom capsules possesses predominantly monoterpene constituents, such as 1,8-cineole, α-pinene, α-terpineol, linalool, linalyl acetate and nerolidol and the ester constituent α-terpinyl acetate all of which have therapeutic benefits including antioxidant, anticancer, antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, antifungal, antiviral and gastroprotective activities. Cardamom capsules contain substantial concentration of flavonoids like catechin, myricetin, kaempferol and quercetin. Lutein is said to be the most abundant carotenoid in small cardamom. According to recent investigations, cardamom phenolic constituents’ flavonoids, alkaloids, terpenoids, and anthocyanins are being used to treat cardiovascular, pulmonary, kidney, and lung disorders. Cardamom capsules are a nutraceutical and functional food that can protect humans from several chronic diseases when taken daily. Cardamom oil is a new potential natural source for food, aroma, cosmetics, and pharmaceuticals. Since the 4th century BC, Indian Ayurvedic physicians, as well as Greek and Roman doctors, have used small cardamom capsules to treat bronchitis, asthma, and constipation, as well as colds, coughs, diuretics, carminatives, teeth and gum infections, urinary and kidney disorders, congestion of the lungs, pulmonary tuberculosis, irritation of the eyelids, cataract, nausea, and diarrhoea. Cardamom was used to treat constipation, stomach aches, bladder infections, and dysentery in children in traditional Chinese medicine. Cardamom is also used in Ayurvedic medicine to cure food sickness. Cardamom oils are being employed in the production of plant-based hand lotions and soaps. Digestive problems can be treated with powdered cardamom capsules mixed with pulverised cloves, ginger, and caraway. In addition, using cardamom capsules helps to relieve inflammation and headaches. This reference book entitled “Cardamom [Elettaria cardamomum (L.) Maton]: Production, Breeding, Management, Phytochemistry and Health Benefits” is comprises of twelve chapters contributed by different authors and provide complete information about this wonderful herb. Its occurrence, history, cultivation, post-harvest processing, botany, crop improvement, biotechnology, protection, ethnopharmacological uses, phytochemistry and pharmacological activities are well described with supporting references. The book contains latest information pertaining to cardamom and its cultivation. The information provided in this book will be very useful for students, academicians, researchers, and scientists, as well as others interested/involved nutraceutical and pharmaceutical industries.
... It is an ancient spice mentioned in ancient Indian Ayurvedic texts, Charaka Samhita and Sushruta samhita, written in the post-epic period 1400-600 BC (Ravindran, 2002) [11] . The ancient Greeks and Romans also used it in food, medicines and perfumes (Korikanthimath et al., 2001) [5] . The cardamom of commerce is a dried fruit (capsule) known for its sweet delicate aroma, Hence, it is considered as "Queen of spice". ...
... It is an ancient spice mentioned in ancient Indian Ayurvedic texts, Charaka Samhita and Sushruta samhita, written in the post-epic period 1400-600 BC (Ravindran, 2002) [11] . The ancient Greeks and Romans also used it in food, medicines and perfumes (Korikanthimath et al., 2001) [5] . The cardamom of commerce is a dried fruit (capsule) known for its sweet delicate aroma, Hence, it is considered as "Queen of spice". ...
... The dried capsule seeds are straw-brown to black in colour and are widely used as spice. The ancient Greeks and Romans also used cardamom in food, medicines and perfumes (Korikanthimath et al., 2001) [10] . The cardamom of commerce is a dried fruit (capsule) known for its sweet delicate aroma, Hence, it is considered as "Queen of spice". ...
... The dried capsule seeds are straw-brown to black in colour and are widely used as spice. The ancient Greeks and Romans also used cardamom in food, medicines and perfumes (Korikanthimath et al., 2001) [10] . The cardamom of commerce is a dried fruit (capsule) known for its sweet delicate aroma, Hence, it is considered as "Queen of spice". ...
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Small cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum Maton), belongs to the family Zinziberaceae is one of the important spice crops of India. Cardamom is cross pollinated crop and it is propagated through both vegetative and sexual means hence, lot of variability is noticed. The experiment on study of variability in cardamom was conducted in 2016 at Zonal Agriculture and Horticulture Research Station (ZAHRS), Mudigere. Significant differences were observed amongst different working collections of cardamom for all the morphological traits. The pooled analysis revealed that, SKP-170 produced highest number of tillers per clump (41.1) and was on par with the genotype APG-293 (40.8), M-2 recorded highest tiller height of 333.2 cm, while the lowest was recorded in APG-284 (149.9 cm) in pooled analysis, Pooled analysis over two experimental years revealed that SKP-170 recorded maximum (27.6) number of leaves and while, PV-4 and CL-622 (9.9) genotypes registered lowest number of leaves per tiller. Maximum leaf length of 71.7 cm and leaf breadth of 14.2 cm was recorded in Green Gold under pooled mean analysis, highest number of vegetative buds per clump was noticed in RR-1 (9.1) which was on par with the genotypes PDP-12 (8.8), D-168 (8.7) in the pooled mean analysis for two years data.
... Elettaria cardamomum is composed of α-pinene (1.5%), β-pinene (0.2%), sabinene (2.8%), myrcene (1.6%), α-phellandrene (0.2%), limonene (11.6%), 1,8-cineole (36.3%), γ-terpinolene (0.5%), linalool (3.0%), linalyl acetate (2.5%), terpinen-4-ol (0.9%), α-terpineol (2.6%), α-terpinyl acetate (31.3%), citronellol (0.3%), nerol (0.5%), geraniol (0.5%), methyl eugenol (0.2%), and trans-nerolidol (2.7%) [17]. ...
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The use of live cells to synthesize green nanoparticles (NPs) is a promising and novel bio nanotechnology method. Chemical and physical methods are utilized to synthesize NPs; however, biological approaches are preferred because they are ecologically friendly, safe, healthful, cost-effective, accessible, and effective sources of high productivity and purity. Toxic and hazardous substances, as well as the use of external reducing, stabilizing, or capping agents, are not necessary for the green synthesis of NPs. Cardamom seeds, which are little Capsules (fruits) of Elettaria cardamomum (Family (Zingiberaceae)], have been used in herbal medicine to treat a wide range of ailments, including asthma, tooth and gum infections, cataracts, nausea, diarrhea, and cardiac, digestive, and kidney problems. Cardamom capsules have a number of additional health benefits that are important from both a traditional and current pharmacological perspective. MO-NPs (metal oxide nanoparticles) have caused quite a stir in recent years due to their diverse set of properties. Elettaria cardamomum is high in polyphenolic compounds and flavonoids, making it a viable green source for large-scale, low-cost, and environmentally friendly MgO-NP production. UV-Visible spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with EDS are used to investigate the phytoassisted synthesis of MgO. (Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy). Researchers have successfully disseminated suitable MO-NPs for obtaining significant results by leveraging their numerous desirable qualities, such as those found in the pharmaceutical, ceramics, textile, electronic, and fertilizer industries.
... The nature has offered a complete store-house of the remedies to cure all the ailments of mankind. The knowledge of the drugs has collected over the thousands of years as a result of the man's curious nature so that nowadays it possess many effectual means of ensuring the health-care [2]. The cardamom oil is effectual as an antioxidant and also can increase intensities of glutathione which is a natural antioxidant in our body. ...
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The existing research study attempts to untie novel avenues for development of the medicinal exercises of Elettaria cardamomum, fashionable known as the “Queen of Spices” and locally recognized as “elaichi”. Its seeds are utilized as abortifacient, acrid, alexiteric, aromatic, sweet, cardiac tonic, cooling, carminative, digestive, diuretic, expectorant, stimulant and also tonic beneficial in the asthma, haemorrhoids, bronchitis, strangury, renal in addition to vesical calculi, anorexia, halitosis, gastropathy dyspepsia as well as burning sensation. The prime goal of this research work is to evaluate antioxidant as well as anti-inflammatory properties of the traditional Bangladeshi medicinal extracts in addition to examine these activities. The aim in present work was to screen the phytochemical profile as well as pharmacological activities of the methanolic extract of this plant’s leaves. To explore pharmacological actions DPPH scavenging test and the HRBC membrane stabilization techniques were done for the antioxidant and also anti-inflammatory test respectively. The pharmacological works revealed that plant extracts might have noteworthy antioxidant effect which is possibly mediated by the inhibition of DPPH free radical which is accountable for oxidation. The IC50 values by the DPPH scavenging test observed for the standard and the leaves were 106.38µg/ml & 594.47µg/ml respectively. There is also moderate anti-inflammatory activity. The IC50 values for anti-inflammatory activity by standard & leaves were 35.04µg/ml and 944.0 µg/ml respectively.
... In Carrageenan-induced rat paw oedema the oil extract of Elettaria cardamomum seeds, in doses of 175 and 280 microliters/kg were found to reduce the inflammation. [13] The hexane extract of Elettaria repens is rich in polyphenols, flavonoids, and terpenoids. It also seen to be effective against carrageenan-induced acute inflammation and paw edema in rats. ...
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The extensive convenience and approval of synthetic compounds for addressing human health have quite a few side effects in addition to higher prices. Exploring natural bioactive compounds is of utmost interest and demand. Cardamom has been used traditionally for numerous therapeutic benefits and are relevant in the light of modern pharmaceutical perspective. This review inspects and presents consolidated information on the the phytochemical profile of cardamom seed and leaf extracts and superficially addresses the common extraction methods adapted in literature. An online survey was conducted on the traditional uses, phytochemical composition, and bioactive components of cardamom seed and leaf extract. Pertinent data were obtained from several electronic scientific databases (Science Direct, Elsevier, Web of Science, PubMed, Springer, ACS publications, Taylor and Francis, Wiley On-line Library and Google Scholar), and additional information was obtained from textbooks and local prints and scripts. Studies on the chemical composition and physico-chemical properties of the seed and leaf extracts of cardamomum depict a higher yield extract value from seeds than their leaves. Both seed and leaf extracts are known to have numerous therapeutic benefits as anti-bacterial, anti-microbial, anti-carcinogenic, anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-ulcerogenic and gastro-protectory agents. Modern pharmacology researchers have made attempts in establishing many traditional uses of Cardamom. However, systemic studies on the phytocompounds which may possess new biological activities are lacking. Thus, more studies on the pharmacological mechanisms of its main active compounds need to be conducted keeping in mind therapeutic aspects, toxicity and adverse effects.
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