Conference Paper

Timber Rattlesnakes may reduce incidence of Lyme disease in the Northeastern United States

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Background/Question/Methods The role of biodiversity in regulating Lyme disease has been much debated, with empirical data and modeling showing that the diversity of host species and their identity can increase or decrease disease prevalence. We explored the role of snakes as predators on small mammals and modeled how that might affect the incidence of Lyme disease. We modeled timber rattlesnake (Crotalus horridus) prey consumption based on published snake gut contents for four localities in the northeastern United States. We determined the number of infected ticks removed from each location based on reported species-specific tick burdens. We used published energetic models and diet composition data of C. horridus to quantify annual prey consumption in adult male C. horridus diets and determined how changes in prey community composition affected the total number of ticks removed by snakes annually. In addition to quantifying the number of ticks removed from each of the four localities, we modeled tick removal from four theoretical prey communities that span the range of habitat quality in the northeastern US. Results/Conclusions Model results estimated 2,500–4,500 ticks were removed by foraging snakes per site annually.This varied among sites because of spatial variation in rattlesnake diet composition. Rattlesnakes removed more ticks from more diverse prey communities than from less diverse prey communities which are typical of disturbed habitats. Because ticks are vectors for Lyme disease in the northeastern US, snake predators may play an important role in reducing tick burden and may reduce human exposure to Lyme disease. Levi et al. (2012) showed that reduced abundance of mammal predators increased numbers of ticks which in turn resulted in increased incidence of Lyme disease in humans. Our model results suggests apex predators like many species of vipers may play important roles in regulating incidence of Lyme disease through predation on small mammals. Timber rattlesnakes populations are declining under pressure from decreasing habitat and overharvest, especially in northern and upper midwestern populations where the incidence of Lyme disease is the highest. Our research highlights the importance of biodiversity for human health and identifies several research areas on the effectiveness of ecological education and conservation efforts for these important predators.

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... (6,7). Many reptiles and amphibians are insectivores and consume various insect pests that can have negative effects on agriculture and human health. ...
The world's reptiles and amphibians are experiencing dramatic and ongoing losses in biodiversity, changes that can have substantial effects on ecosystems and human health. In 2022, the first Global Amphibian and Reptile Disease Conference was held, using One Health as a guiding principle. The conference showcased knowledge on numerous reptile and amphibian pathogens from several standpoints, including epidemiology, host immune defenses, wild population effects, and mitigation. The conference also provided field experts the opportunity to discuss and identify the most urgent herpetofaunal disease research directions necessary to address current and future threats to reptile and amphibian biodiversity.
... As generalist predators, they control populations of small mammals and therefore aid in controlling the spread of zoonotic diseases including viruses such as hantavirus and bacteria such as Lyme disease [12]. It was observed that Timber Rattlesnakes' small mammal consumption was responsible for the removal of 2500-4500 ticks per sampled site per year, which was proposed to reduce the incidence of Lyme disease in the areas where these snakes live [13]. Furthermore, healthy snake populations promote overall biodiversity, which is integral for maximizing ecosystem health and productivity [14]. ...
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... As generalist predators, they control populations of small mammals and therefore aid in controlling the spread of zoonotic diseases such as hantavirus and Lyme disease (Ostfeld and Holt, 2004). It was observed that Timber Rattlesnakes' small mammal consumption was responsible for the removal of 2500-4500 ticks per year, which would reduce the incidence of Lyme disease in the areas where these snakes live (Kabay, Caruso, and Lips, 2013). In addition, snakes are crucial to maintaining food chains in many ecosystems, as they serve as prey for higher level predators, including birds and other snakes. ...
Technical Report
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Report summarizes field and laboratory efforts to sample for snake fungal disease (Ophidiomycosis) at over 50 military installations throughout the United States and Puerto Rico.
... In Kentucky, C horridus is under no state protection, but is listed as a "species of greatest conservation need (SGCN)". C horridus plays an important predatory role in forest ecosystems, having the potential to control small mammal populations and perhaps subsequently influence disease dynamics (Clark 2002;Kabay et al. 2013). Although loss of mature forest habitat imperils C horridus populations generally, management is often focused on conservation of hibernacula, to which individuals display strong site fidelity (Brown 1993). ...
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... The perceived recent emergence of this fungal pathogen could be due to increased awareness of the disease, changing climatic variables, introduction of an exotic pathogen into a naive host population, or other uncharacterized factors. Nevertheless, snake species are of particular significance, as they are indicators of trophic dynamics and ecosystem health [68], and yield potential benefits to humans, such as the reduction of disease-carrying rodents [69]. ...
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