A loss-of-function nonsynonymous polymorphism in the osmoregulatory TRPV4 gene is associated with human hyponatremia

Article (PDF Available)inProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 106(33):14034-9 · September 2009with24 Reads
DOI: 10.1073/pnas.0904084106 · Source: PubMed
Abstract
Disorders of water balance are among the most common and morbid of the electrolyte disturbances, and are reflected clinically as abnormalities in the serum sodium concentration. The transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 (TRPV4) channel is postulated to comprise an element of the central tonicity-sensing mechanism in the mammalian hypothalamus, and is activated by hypotonic stress in vitro. A nonsynonymous polymorphism in the TRPV4 gene gives rise to a Pro-to-Ser substitution at residue 19. We show that this polymorphism is significantly associated with serum sodium concentration and with hyponatremia (serum sodium concentration < or =135 mEq/L) in 2 non-Hispanic Caucasian male populations; in addition, mean serum sodium concentration is lower among subjects with the TRPV4(P19S) allele relative to the wild-type allele. Subjects with the minor allele were 2.4-6.4 times as likely to exhibit hyponatremia as subjects without the minor allele (after inclusion of key covariates). Consistent with these observations, a human TRPV4 channel mutated to incorporate the TRPV4(P19S) polymorphism showed diminished response to hypotonic stress (relative to the wild-type channel) and to the osmotransducing lipid epoxyeicosatrienoic acid in heterologous expression studies. These data suggest that this polymorphism affects TRPV4 function in vivo and likely influences systemic water balance on a population-wide basis.
A loss-of-function nonsynonymous polymorphism
in the osmoregulatory TRPV4 gene is associated
with human hyponatremia
Wei Tian
a,f
,YiFu
a,b
, Anna Garcia-Elias
c
, Jose
´
M. Ferna
´
ndez-Ferna
´
ndez
c
, Rube
´
n Vicente
c
, Patricia L. Kramer
d
,
Robert F. Klein
b,e
, Robert Hitzemann
b,f
, Eric S. Orwoll
b,e
, Beth Wilmot
g
, Shannon McWeeney
g
, Miguel A. Valverde
c
,
and David M. Cohen
a,b,1
Department of Medicine, Divisions of
a
Nephrology and Hypertension, and
e
Endocrinology and Metabolism,
d
Departments of Neurology,
f
Behavioral
Neuroscience, and
g
Public Health and Preventive Medicine, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, OR 97239;
b
Portland VA Medical Center,
Portland, OR 97239; and
c
Laboratory of Molecular Physiology and Channelopathies, Department of Experimental and Health Sciences, Universitat
Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona, Spain
Edited by Maurice B. Burg, National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute, Bethesda, MD, and approved June 30, 2009 (received for review April 14, 2009)
Disorders of water balance are among the most common and
morbid of the electrolyte disturbances, and are reflected clinically
as abnormalities in the serum sodium concentration. The transient
receptor potential vanilloid 4 (TRPV4) channel is postulated to
comprise an element of the central tonicity-sensing mechanism in
the mammalian hypothalamus, and is activated by hypotonic stress
in vitro. A nonsynonymous polymorphism in the TRPV4 gene gives
rise to a Pro-to-Ser substitution at residue 19. We show that this
polymorphism is significantly associated with serum sodium con-
centration and with hyponatremia (serum sodium concentration
<135 mEq/L) in 2 non-Hispanic Caucasian male populations; in
addition, mean serum sodium concentration is lower among sub-
jects with the TRPV4
P19S
allele relative to the wild-type allele.
Subjects with the minor allele were 2.46.4 times as likely to
exhibit hyponatremia as subjects without the minor allele (after
inclusion of key covariates). Consistent with these observations, a
human TRPV4 channel mutated to incorporate the TRPV4
P19S
poly-
morphism showed diminished response to hypotonic stress (rela-
tive to the wild-type channel) and to the osmotransducing lipid
epoxyeicosatrienoic acid in heterologous expression studies. These
data suggest that this polymorphism affects TRPV4 function in vivo
and likely influences systemic water balance on a population-wide
basis.
association study osmoregulation sodium
transient receptor potential cell volume regulation
S
ystemic osmolality is among the most tightly regulated of
physiological parameters. In humans, aberrant water balance is
associated with neurological dysfunction and death. Even subtle
changes in systemic osmolality cause reversible defects in coordi-
nation and cognition (1, 2). Clinically, water balance is reflected in
the serum (or plasma) sodium concentration. Water excess relative
to total body sodium content results in hyponatremia, the most
prevalent electrolyte abnormality in hospitalized patients (reviewed
in refs. 3 and 4).
In mammals, systemic water balance is regulated via the renal
water-conserving role of the hormone arginine vasopressin. Re-
lease of arginine vasopressin from the posterior pituitary into the
circulation is governed by the hypothalamic sensor(s) of systemic
osmolality. Ample evidence suggests that the transient receptor
potential channel, TRPV4, comprises an element of the central
sensor of low osmolality. TRPV4 is the mammalian ortholog of a
C. elegans osmosensing protein (5, 6). In rodents, the channel is
expressed in the osmosensing nuclei of the brain (5), among other
sites. In vitro, TRPV4 is activated by hypotonicity (5–7) and by a
number of lipid agonists, including phorbol e ster derivatives (8); the
channel also participates in cell regulatory volume decrease (9, 10).
Osmotic and mechanical sensitivity of TRPV4 is ultimately con-
ferred by the arachidonic acid metabolites and epoxyeicosatrienoic
acids (EET), following phospholipase A
2
activation (11–13). Other
signaling pathways involving inositol trisphosphate (14, 15), SRC-
family tyrosine kinases (16, 17), and sensitization by coapplication
of different stimuli (18, 19) also impact the TRPV4 response to
osmotic and mechanical stimulation. In vivo, TRPV4 participate s in
the regulation of arginine vasopressin release in mouse, where
targeted deletion of the TRPV4 gene gives rise to aberrant systemic
osmoregulation (20, 21).
Exceedingly rare Mendelian gene defects in the kidney collecting
duct-specific water channel (aquaporin-2; AQP2 gene) and arginine
vasopressin receptor-2 (AVPR2 gene) cause profound water wasting
(22, 23) or water retention (24), although without major repercus-
sion at the population level. To date, no human mutation in an
osmosensing TRP channel has been shown to impact osmoregula-
tion, and no polymorphisms impacting systemic water balance have
been reported for any gene. We hypothesized that a nonsynony-
mous polymorphism in the human TRPV4 gene might impact water
balance on a population-wide basis.
Results
We tested for an association between serum sodium concentration
and a nonsynonymous single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in
the TRPV4 gene. This polymorphism, rs3742030, gives rise to a
nonconservative amino acid substitution (i.e., Pro-to-Ser) at residue
19; it was the only TRPV4 nonsynonymous SNP for which minor
allele frequency was reported in the International HapMap data set
at the time these studies commenced (25). Banked genomic DNA
from a panel of healthy elderly subjects (the Healthy Aging cohort)
in the National Institutes on Aging-funded Layton Aging and
Alzheimer’s Disease Center database at Oregon Health and Sci-
ence University (26) was genotyped for the presence of this allele
(see Methods). Characteristics of this cohort are presented in Table
1. Among non-Hispanic Caucasian subjects in this cohort (n 219
successful genotypes), the TRPV4
P19S
allele appeared to be over-
represented in subjects with the lowest serum sodium concentra-
tions (Fig. 1A). A similar phenomenon was observed in the African
American subjects from this cohort (Fig. 1B; n 72). Of note, the
prevalence of the heterozygous state for this allele in Caucasian
Author contributions: A.G.-E., J.M.F.-F., R.H., M.A.V., and D.M.C. designed research; W.T.,
Y.F., A.G.-E., J.M.F.-F., R.V., and D.M.C. performed research; P.L.K., R.F.K., and E.S.O.
contributed new reagents/analytic tools; W.T., A.G.-E., J.M.F.-F., B.W., S.M., M.A.V., and
D.M.C. analyzed data; and M.A.V. and D.M.C. wrote the paper.
The authors declare no conflict of interest.
This article is a PNAS Direct Submission.
1
To whom correspondence should be addressed at: Mailcode PP262, Divisionof Nephrology
and Hypertension, Oregon Health and Science University, 3314 SW U.S. Veterans Hospital
Road, Portland, OR 97239. E-mail: cohend@ohsu.edu.
This article contains supporting information online at www.pnas.org/cgi/content/full/
0904084106/DCSupplemental.
14034–14039
PNAS
August 18, 2009
vol. 106
no. 33 www.pnas.orgcgidoi10.1073pnas.0904084106
subjects (i.e., Utah residents with ancestry from northern and
western Europe; CEU) and in the Yoruba in Ibadan, Nigeria
(YRI), in the International HapMap Project data set (25) is 0.017
and 0.100, respectively.
Prevalence of hyponatremia (serum sodium concentration 135
mEq/L) by genotype and ethnicity is shown in Fig. 1E. Hypona-
tremia was associated with the TRPV4
P19S
allele (P 0.05 and 0.01
for the non-Hispanic Caucasian and African American populations,
respectively, via Pearson’s
2
analysis). For each cohort, the mean
ser um sodium concentration was sign ificantly lower in the
TRPV4
P19S
-positive subjects (by 1.6 and 2.4 mEq/L; P 0.05 and
0.014 for the non-Hispanic Caucasian and African American
populations, re spectively, by t test; Fig. 1F). We sought to further
quantify the effect of this allele upon systemic water balance in the
larger non-Hispanic Caucasian population using the covariates of
age, sex, and serum glucose concentration; glucose exerts an
osmotic effect independent of serum sodium concentration (27)
and age may be associated with hyponatremia (28). The strength of
association between serum sodium concentration (as a continuous
variable) and rs3742030 genotype was determined by linear regres-
sion using the above covariates. Pre sence of the rs3742030 minor
allele (i.e., the TRPV4
P19S
allele) was significantly associated with
serum sodium concentration for males (P 0.0024) but not for
females (P value 0.40). Prevalence ratio calculations indicated
that male subjects with the minor allele were 6.45 times as likely to
exhibit hyponatremia as male subjects without the minor allele
(95% CI: 1.22–34.25; P value 0.029) after inclusion of the
covariates; for female subjects, the prevalence ratio was 1.76 (95%
CI: 0.52–6.0; P value 0.37; Table 2).
A larger male population was sought for replication of these
findings. Banked genomic DNA was obtained from subjects en-
rolled in the Osteoporotic Fractures in Men Study (MrOS; see
Methods), a prospective U.S. cohort study of 5,995 community-
dwelling men aged 65 years and over (29). Subjects with abnormal
kidney function (i.e., serum creatinine 1.3 mg/dL) and serum
glucose 150 mg/dL were excluded because renal insufficiency and
marked hyperglycemia independently impact serum sodium con-
centration (27, 30). In addition, the majority of participants in
MrOS were non-Hispanic Caucasian; only subjects of this self-
reported ethnicity were selected for the replication study. Charac-
teristics of these subjects (n 4305) are shown in Table 3. Serum
sodium concentration followed a roughly normal distribution (Fig.
1D). All subjects with the lowest serum sodium concentration (i.e.,
138 mEq/L, corresponding to the lowest decile, or 1.5SDunits
below the population mean) and highest serum sodium concentra-
tion (i.e., 145 mEq/L, approximating the highest decile, or 1.5
SD units above the population mean) were genotyped for the
TRPV4
P19S
allele, as was as a random selection of subjects with
sodium concentration approximating the sample mean (141–142
mEq/L; see Methods). This approach was adopted to ensure max-
imal representation of the population extremes, vis-a`-vis serum
sodium concentration; note that not all members of the ‘‘low’’
sodium MrOS group have hyponatremia (i.e., serum sodium con-
centration 135 mEq/L), and our subsequent analysis takes this
into account. Characteristics of the se subgroups are shown in Table
3. Prevalence of the TRPV4
P19S
allele expressed as a function of
serum sodium concentration is shown in Fig. 1C; prevalence of the
TRPV4
P19S
allele in the ‘‘low,’’ ‘‘mean,’’ and ‘‘high’’ serum sodium
concentration groups in this cohort was 6.1% (n 444), 4.2% (n
448), and 3.7% (n 408), respectively (Fig. 1D Inset). Mean serum
sodium concentration was 0.9 mEq/L lower in subjects with the
TRPV4
P19S
allele (Fig. 1F; P 0.04 via t test). Serum sodium
c oncentration was again significantly associated w ith the
TRPV4
P19S
allele (P 0.019), as determined by linear regression
analysis using the covariates of age, serum glucose, ser um
creatinine, and recruitment center (Table 2). Subjects with the
minor allele were 2.43 times as likely to exhibit hyponatremia as
subjects without the allele (95% CI: 1.17–5.06; P value 0.017)
after inclusion of the covariates in this exclusively male population
(Table 2).
We sought to establish that the aberrant water balance associated
with the TRPV4
P19S
allele was not attributable to another poly-
morphism in tight linkage disequlibrium. All TRPV4 exons and
exon-intron boundaries were resequenced from 10 hyponatremic
subjects with the TRPV4
P19S
minor allele; no other synonymous or
otherwise functional polymorphisms were detected. In addition, no
polymorphisms in strong linkage disequilibrium with rs3742030
impacting coding or splicing were identified in haplotype analysis
(http://www.hapmap.org/; International HapMap Project, release
21) (25). Of note, no subjects with 2 copies of the rs3742030 minor
(TRPV4
P19S
) allele were identified in the Healthy Aging or MrOS
populations.
In aggregate, these data suggested that the TRPV4
P19S
allele may
be causal for hyponatremia in the study cohorts. We hypothesized
that the variant channel would be less responsive to hypotonicity in
vitro; decreased sensitivity of a hypotonicity sensor in vivo would be
permissive with respect to water excess. Therefore, we set out to
functionally evaluate the impact of the TRPV4
P19S
polymorphism
in a heterologous expression system. We first tested the subcellular
distribution of TRPV4
WT
and TRPV4
P19S
by confocal immunoflu-
orescence microscopy in HEK293 cells transiently transfected with
a cDNA coding for full-length wild-type human TRPV4, or with a
cDNA mutated to incorporate the TRPV4
P19S
polymorphism.
TRPV4
WT
and TRPV4
P19S
showed similar levels of expression and
localization to the plasma membrane, as determined via confocal
immunofluorescence microscopy (supporting information (SI) Fig.
S1) and via cell surface biotinylation experiments (Fig. S2). No
Table 1. Characteristics of the Healthy Aging cohort and of the non-Hispanic Caucasian and African American subjects who were
successfully genotyped
n Ethnicity % Male Age Serum Na
Serum glucose
Healthy Aging (total) 465 80.9% Non-Hispanic Cauc. 37.6 80.7 9.1
a
138.2 2.7 105 33
18.1% African American
0.4% Asian
0.4% Native American
0.2% Hispanic
Healthy Aging 219 100% non-Hispanic 37 81.8 9.2
a
138.5 3.2 101 23
Genotyped non-Hispanic Caucasian Caucasian
Healthy Aging 72 100% African American 24 72.8 6.5 137.7 2.3 118 58
Genotyped African American
Characteristics of the Healthy Aging cohort and of the successfully genotyped non-Hispanic Caucasian and African American subjects, including number of
subjects per group (n), self-reported ethnicity, percent of subjects that were male, age (mean SD), and laboratory values (mean SD). Not all subjects were
genotyped, owing to availability of genomic DNA. Subgroups include (i) all successfully genotyped non-Hispanic Caucasian subjects and (ii) all successfully
genotyped African American subjects.
a
Two subjects were excluded from these calculations because a numerical value for age was not reported. Serum creatinine was not determined in this cohort.
Tian et al. PNAS
August 18, 2009
vol. 106
no. 33
14035
MEDICAL SCIENCES
TRPV4 was immunodetectable in HEK293 cells transfected only
with GFP (Fig. S3).
Whole-cell cationic currents recorded from HEK293 cells ex-
posed to a mild hypotonic shock (corresponding to a 15% reduction
in osmolality) were markedly diminished in the TRPV4
P19S
trans-
fectants relative to cells transfected with the wild-type TRPV4 (Fig.
2 A and B), whereas the response to the synthetic TRPV4 agonist
4
-phorbol 12,13-didecanoate (4
PDD) was unaffected by the
polymorphism (Fig. 2 A and B). Plots of current-voltage relation-
ship obtained at the indicated time points in Fig. 2 A and B are
shown in Fig. 2 C and D, respectively. Whole-cell cationic currents
activated by 4
PDD (in TRPV4
WT
- and TRPV4
P19S
- expressing
cells) and 15% hypotonicity (in TRPV4
WT
cells) presented outward
rectification similar to that previously de scribed for TRPV4 (6, 8,
31). In aggregated data, mean current density in response to the
mild hypotonic stre ss was significantly less in the TRPV4
P19S
variant
allele than in wild-type TRPV4 (Fig. 2E). Interestingly, the re-
sponses to a more pronounced degree of hypotonicity (correspond-
ing to a 30% reduction in medium osmolality; Fig. 2E) did not differ
significantly between the 2 alleles. Exposure to 30% hypotonic
solution did not activate significant whole-cell cationic currents in
GFP-transfected HEK293 cells (Fig. S4). Import antly, the
TRPV4
P19S
allele exerted a dominant negative effect with respect
to the wild-type allele. When cotransfected in a 1:1 ratio (i.e.,
mimicking a human subject heterozygous for the TRPV4
P19S
allele
of this autosomal gene), the variant allele suppressed the response
of the wild-type allele to 15% hypotonicity (Fig. 2E).
TRPV4
P19S
channels also showed a decreased response to the
osmotransducing messenger, epoxyeicosatrienoic acid (156 nM;
Fig. 2 F and G). These data indicate that the TRPV4
P19S
allele codes
for a variant channel that exhibits reduced responsivene ss to mild
hypotonic stress (i.e., such as that likely to be encountered in vivo)
and to the intracellular lipid messenger, epoxyeicosatrienoic acid,
but not to more-pronounced hypotonic stress or to the synthetic
agonist 4
PDD.
Discussion
We find that a nonsynonymous polymorphism in the central sensor
of hypotonicity, TRPV4, is associated with hyponatremia (i.e.,
relative water excess) and with serum sodium concentration in 2
male non-Hispanic Caucasian cohorts. Subjects with the minor
allele were 6.45 or 2.43 times as likely to exhibit hyponatremia as
subjects without the minor allele (after inclusion of key covariates).
Mean serum sodium concentration among subjects with one copy
of the minor allele was significantly lower (by 0.9–2.4 mEq/L). No
other functional polymorphisms in linkage disequilibrium with
rs3742030 were identified. Consistent with these data, the variant
allele was associated with loss of channel function in response to
modest reductions in osmolality and to the osmotransducing lipid
messenger epoxyeicosatrienoic acid, but not to marked hypotonic-
ity or the synthetic agonist 4
PDD. In addition, insofar as oli-
gomerization is required for TRPV4 channel function (31), our data
further suggest a dominant-negative effect of the variant
TRPV4
P19S
allele.
We infer that this nonsynonymous polymorphism is likely to be
causal for hyponatremia, potentially via reducing the hypothalamic
osmolality set point. It is unclear why such an association would be
stronger in male subjects. Little is known about the relationship
between sex and water balance. In one study, male sex was
associated with mild or moderate hyponatremia at presentation to
hospital or during hospitalization (32); however, women may be
more susceptible to permanent brain damage in response to acute
hyponatremia (33). It is conceivable that sex hormones influence
TRPV4 function in vivo, as has been observed for TRPM6 in
vitro (34).
Although mammalian osmoregulation is incompletely under-
stood, abundant data point to a role for TRPV4 as a component of
the central osmosensing mechanism. TRPV4 was cloned on the
basis of its homology with the C. elegans neural tonicity-sensing
channel OSM-9 (5, 6). TRPV4 is activated by hypotonicity in vitro,
and perturbations of even a few mOsmol/kg H
2
O were sufficient to
achieve this effect (5–7); such exquisite sensitivity closely parallels
the in vivo mechanism whereby a change of only a few mOsmol/kg
H
2
O influences release of arginine vasopressin. In rodents, TRPV4
is expressed in the blood–brain barrier-deficient central osmosens-
ing nuclei (5, 35), and targeted deletion of the TRPV4 gene give s
rise to aberrant osmoregulation in murine models (20, 21). In
addition, an as-of-yet unidentified splice variant of the closely
related TRPV1 channel likely represents the central sensor of
hypertonicity (36). In aggregate, these data strongly support a role
for TRPV4 in the regulation of systemic water balance.
With respect to the TRPV4 gene, association of a loss-of-function
allele specifically with hyponatremia warrants comment. This would
115 120 125 130 135 140 145 150 155
0
200
400
600
800
Serum [Na+], mEq/l
Number of subjects
0
2
4
6
SNP prevalence
Low Mean High
Cauc AA MrOS
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
P19S-positive
P19S-negative
Percent with hyponatremia
Healthy Aging
Cauc AA MrOS
134
136
138
140
142
144
146
Serum [sodium]
Healthy Aging
*
*
*
133 134 135 136 137 138 All
0
10
20
30
Serum [Na+] less than or equal to
SNP Prevalence
Healthy Aging - Cauc
133 134 135 136 137 138 All
0
10
20
30
40
50
Serum [Na+] less than or equal to
SNP Prevalence
Healthy Aging - AA
A
C
B
132 133 134 135 136 137 138 All
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
Serum [Na+] less than or equal to
SNP Prevalence
MrOS - Cauc
D
F
E
P19S-positive
P19S-negative
Fig. 1. Presence of the TRPV4
P19S
allele is associated with hyponatremia.
Prevalence of the TRPV4
P19S
allele among genotyped non-Hispanic Caucasian
(Cauc) (A) and African American (AA) (B) subjects in the Healthy Aging cohort
from the Layton Center for Aging and Alzheimer’s Disease, and from the
genotyped non-Hispanic Caucasian subjects in the Osteoporotic Fractures in
Men Study (MrOS) (C), expressed as a function of serum sodium concentration.
Depicted is the prevalence of the heterozygous genotype as percent of total
number of subjects with serum sodium concentration at or below the indi-
cated level. ‘‘All’’ denotes prevalence for the entire genotyped population.
Note the change in y-axis scale in A–C.(D) Distribution of serum sodium
concentration (binned as integers) for all Caucasian subjects in the MrOS
cohort with creatinine 1.3 mg/dL and glucose 150 mg/dL (n 4,409).
Prevalence of the TRPV4
P19S
polymorphism is shown in the inset bar graph,
where Low corresponds to [Na
] 138 mEq/L (lowest decile), Mean is [Na
]
141 or 142 mEq/L, and High represents [Na
] 145 mEq/L (highest decile);
bars are keyed to the frequency distribution via shading (see Methods). (E)
Prevalence of hyponatremia, defined as serum sodium concentration 135
mEq/L, among subjects with one (P19S-positive) or no (P19S-negative)
TRPV4
P19S
alleles in non-Hispanic Caucasian (Cauc; n 219) and African
American (AA; n 72) subjects in the Healthy Aging cohort, and in non-
Hispanic Caucasian MrOS subjects (n 1,300). (F) Mean serum sodium con-
centration (SD) in the 3 cohorts, expressed as a function of the presence or
absence of one TRPV4
P19S
allele. Sodium concentration was significantly lower
(by 0.9–2.4 mEq/L) in all 3 groups of TRPV4
P19S
-positive subjects relative to
TRPV4
P19S
-negative subjects; P 0.05, 0.014, and 0.04 via t test for the
non-Hispanic Caucasian and African American Healthy Aging subjects and for
the non-Hispanic Caucasian MrOS cohort, respectively.
14036
www.pnas.orgcgidoi10.1073pnas.0904084106 Tian et al.
be the expected phenotype, based upon the in vitro hypotonicity
responsivene ss of both heterologously expressed (5–7) and natively
expressed (37, 38) TRPV4 channels. Reduced sensitivity to sys-
temic hypotonicity would fail to trigger corrective measures (i.e.,
release of arginine vasopre ssin). However, TRPV4-null mice ex-
hibit a variable phenotype. Mizuno et al. (20) noted no difference
in plasma sodium concentration or in circulating levels of arginine
vasopressin in TRPV4
/
mice, relative to their wild-type litter-
mates. Provocative testing with water loading (via gavage) also
failed to uncover a defect. Hyperosmotic challenge in this model—
via simultaneous water restriction and i.p. propylene glycol—
resulted in an enhanced arginine vasopre ssin response (20). Liedtke
and Friedman (21) similarly noted no gross difference in plasma
osmolality in TRPV4-null mice, compared with wild-type; however,
when mice were single housed and fluid deprived, the TRPV4
/
mice exhibited a 5 mOsmol/kg H
2
O increment in plasma osmolality
(21). Opposite the findings of the Mizuno group, the se investigators
noted a blunted arginine vasopressin re sponse to osmotic challenge
(albeit with a different stimulus, i.p. hypertonic NaCl) (21). Im-
portantly, during chronic treatment with exogenous vasopressin
analog, the TRPV4
/
mice exhibited a much more robust drinking
response and much more dramatic fall in blood osmolality; the net
effect was hypotonicity in the TRPV4
/
mice, relative to both their
own baseline and that of their wild-type littermates (21). In sum,
they drink too little in the absence of unregulated vasopressin and
too much in the presence of unregulated vasopressin. Therefore,
hypofunctioning of the TRPV4 allele(s) predisposes to hyponatre-
mia in the presence of constitutive vasopressin action. These data,
coupled with our own, suggest that pre sence of the TRPV4
P19S
allele may synergize with human conditions marked by chronically
upregulated vasopressin level or vasopre ssin effect in promoting
hyponatremia.
The molecular mechanism through which the Pro-to-Ser substi-
tution at residue 19 reduce s osmoresponsiveness of the human
TRPV4 channel is unclear. Because introduction of this serine gives
rise to a high-probability context for protein phosphorylation
(NetPhos prediction server; http://www.cbs.dtu.dk/services/
NetPhos/) (39), it is tempting to speculate that this residue under-
goes posttranslational modification only in the variant allele.
In the present cohorts, the presence of hyponatremia was as-
signed based upon serum sodium concentration; no asse ssment had
been made as to whether subjects were symptomatically hyponatre-
mic at the time their laboratory studies were performed. Although
the rate of change in serum sodium concentration may impact the
development of symptoms (40), even modest ‘‘stable’’ hyponatre-
mia leads to impaired functioning of the central nervous system
(e.g., refs. 1 and 2). Screening for the presence of the TRPV4
P19S
allele may be justified in human subjects as an index of propensity
to aberrant water balance, irrespective of their present serum
sodium concentration. Although we have no direct evidence that
the presence of this allele synergize s with environmental risk factors
in the development of overt hyponatremia, screening may be
valuable in subjects predisposed to hyponatremia by virtue of their
postoperative state, medication usage, or recreational activities (4).
Of note, the greater frequency of this allele among the Yoruba of
Nigeria (25) and among African American subjects (present data)
may reflect the selective advantage of a mode st water exce ss (i.e.,
a lower set point for systemic osmolality) in conferring protection
from symptomatic water deficit in hot environments in which water
access may be unpredictable.
Methods
Genotyping: Healthy Aging Cohort. Banked genomic DNA was obtained from the
Healthy Aging cohort of the National Institutes on Aging-funded Layton Aging
and Alzheimer’s Disease Center database at Oregon Health and Science Univer-
sity (26). Individuals in this Healthy Aging cohort represented nondemented
control subjects for longitudinal studies of the determinants of Alzheimer’s
disease and other dementing conditions in the elderly (26). Genomic DNA was
subjected to phi29-based whole-genome amplification (REPLI-g kit; QIAGEN).
The TRPV4 exon of interest was PCR amplified using primers bracketing the
TRPV4
P19S
polymorphism (rs3742030); the amplicon was then subjected to se-
quencing with one of the original amplification primers in an automated se-
quencing platform (Applied Biosystems; Vollum Institute for Advanced Biomed-
Table 2. Association of serum sodium concentration with presence of the TRPV4
P19S
allele
Cohort Covariates Sex n
Association,
P value
Prevalence ratio
for hyponatremia
Healthy Aging Age, glucose M 76 0.0024 6.45 (1.22–34.25); P 0.029
F 130 0.40 1.76 (0.52–6.0); P 0.37
MrOS Age, glucose, creatinine, recruitment center M 1,300 0.019 2.43 (1.17–5.06); P 0.017
Strength of association of serum sodium concentration with presence of the TRPV4
P19S
allele in non-Hispanic Caucasian subjects genotyped
in the Healthy Aging and MrOS cohorts, as tested via linear regression analysis on available covariates (shown) and stratified by sex (see
Methods). For the Healthy Aging cohort, subjects with missing age data (n 2) were excluded from this analysis; in addition, subjects with
serum glucose 150 mg/dL (n 11) were excluded to maintain consistency with inclusion criteria for the genotyped MrOS cohort. Prevalence
ratios (and 95% confidence intervals) were calculated for the presence of hyponatremia (serum sodium concentration 135 mEq/L) as a
function of the presence of the TRPV4
P19S
allele, and incorporating available covariates. Male subjects with the TRPV4
P19S
allele in the Healthy
Aging and MrOS cohorts were 6.45 and 2.43 times as likely, respectively, to exhibit hyponatremia as were subjects lacking the allele.
Table 3. Characteristics of the MrOS cohort and of the serum sodium concentration subgroups successfully genotyped
n % Male Age Ethnicity
Serum
sodium
Serum
creatinine
Serum
glucose
BI,
%
MN,
%
PA,
%
PI,
%
PO,
%
SD,
%
MrOS Low Sodium 444 100 74.3 6.0 non-Hispanic Caucasian 136.6 2.0 0.95 0.17 102 12 10 19 18 12 19 22
MrOS Mean Sodium 448 100 73.5 5.7 non-Hispanic Caucasian 141.5 0.5 0.97 0.15 100 12 16 18 12 19 18 17
MrOS High Sodium 408 100 73.5 5.9 non-Hispanic Caucasian 145.6 1.0 0.97 0.15 100 12 25 15 12 23 12 12
All MrOS 4,305 100 73.5 5.8 non-Hispanic Caucasian 141.4 2.7 0.97 0.15 101 12 16 18 13 19 15 18
Characteristics of the MrOS cohort and of the MrOS Low, Mean, and High serum sodium concentration subgroups, including number of subjects per group
(n), percent of subjects that were male, age (mean SD), self-reported ethnicity, and laboratory values (mean SD). The last 6 columns indicate percent of
subjects from each MrOS recruitment site, where BI, MN, PA, PI, PO, and SD represent the MrOS Birmingham, Minneapolis, Palo Alto, Pittsburgh, Portland, and
San Diego recruitment sites, respectively. Subgroups include all successfully genotyped non-Hispanic Caucasian subjects; they were drawn from the All MrOS
pool based upon serum sodium concentration, as explained in Methods. All MrOS includes all subjects from the original MrOS cohort (n 5,995) who fulfilled
the following criteria: (i) serum sodium, creatinine, and glucose concentrations were determined; (ii) ethnicity was self-reported as non-Hispanic Caucasian; (iii)
serum creatinine was 1.3 mg/dL; and (iv) serum glucose was 150 mg/dL.
Tian et al. PNAS
August 18, 2009
vol. 106
no. 33
14037
MEDICAL SCIENCES
ical Research). Presence of the TRPV4
P19S
allele was detected by inspection of
electropherograms using FinchTV software (Geospiza). Genomic DNA from a
total of 299 subjects was genotyped for the presence of the TRPV4
P19S
allele. For
8 subjects, genotyping was not successful (i.e., insufficient sample), leaving 291
successful genotypes (219 Caucasian and 72 African American subjects).
Genotyping: Osteoporotic Fractures in Men (MrOS) Study. The Osteoporotic
Fractures in Men (MrOS) Study was designed to assess the determinants of
fracture in 5,995 healthy community-dwelling U.S. male subjects over 65 years of
age (29). Subjects were recruited from 6 centers (see Table 3); details were
previously published (41). Banked serum and genomic DNA were obtained by the
parent study from 5,532 subjects; all were male. Serum sodium, creatinine, and
glucose were measured in all subjects on a single instrument using thawed,
previously frozen serum (Clinical Laboratory, Portland VA Medical Center). Sub-
jects with serum creatinine 1.3 were excluded from further analysis because
abnormal renal function may lead to impaired water excretion (e.g., ref. 30).
Subjects with serum glucose 150 mg/dL were excluded because the indepen-
dent osmotic effect of hyperglycemia depresses serum sodium concentration,
rendering the measurement less reliable (e.g., ref. 27). Genomic DNA from 1,524
subjects was requested from the parent study, and 1,449 samples were received.
These represented subjects in 1 of 3 groups, based upon serum sodium concen-
tration (see Fig. 1D). The ‘‘low’’ sodium concentration group was designed to
include all subjects with serum sodium concentration 138 mEq/L, and the ‘‘high’’
sodium concentration group included all subjects with sodium 145 mEq/L. These
groups approximated the lowest and highest deciles (or 1.5 SD units) of the
MrOS population, in terms of serum sodium concentration. The population mean
for serum sodium concentration in nonexcluded non-Hispanic Caucasian MrOS
subjects (Table 3) was 141.4 mEq/L; for the ‘‘mean’’ group, we genotyped every
third subject when subjects with serum sodium concentration of 141 and 142
mEq/L were ordered by serum sodium concentration, and then by coded alpha-
numeric identifier (sodium concentrations were ‘‘binned’’ as integers at the time
of reporting by the clinical laboratory). Banked genomic DNA was subjected to
phi29-based whole-genome amplification and genotyped for the presence of the
TRPV4
P19S
allele in a blinded fashion using a custom-designed real-time PCR-
based assay directed against SNP rs3742030 (Applied Biosystems). Of 1,449 sam-
ples obtained from the parent study, 26 samples could not be genotyped (i.e.,
insufficient quantity of DNA). The successfully genotyped non-Hispanic Cauca-
sian subjects (n 1,304) were used for replication.
For both Healthy Aging and MrOS, All genotyping studies using human DNA
were approved by the Institutional Review Board of the Portland VA Medical
Center, or were deemed exempt by this body under Code of Federal Regulations,
Title 45—Public Welfare, Department of Health and Human Services; Part 46
Protection of Human Subjects; Paragraph 46.101(b)(4)—i.e., Exemption 4.
Statistical Analysis. Unadjusted association between one copy of the variant
allele and the presence of hyponatremia was determined via
2
contingency table
Fig. 2. The TRPV4
P19S
allele is hypofunctioning in
vitro. Time courses for whole-cell currents at 100 mV
and 100 mV in HEK293 cells transfected with human
TRPV4
WT
(A) and TRPV4
P19S
(B) exposed to 15% hypo-
tonicity and then 4
-phorbol 12,13-didecanoate
(4
PDD; 10
M). (C and D) Corresponding whole-cell
current/voltage relationships recorded at the times
indicated by the color-coded boxes in A and B, respec-
tively. (E) Mean current density (expressed as pA/pF at
100 mV) of TRPV4
WT
(WT) and TRPV4
P19S
(P19S) and
of an equimolar ratio of the 2 alleles (WT:P19S) upon
exposure to mild (i.e., 15%; Left) and more pro-
nounced (i.e., 30%; Right) hypotonicity. (F) Represen-
tative current/voltage relationship at peak (maximum)
currents from TRPV4
WT
and TRPV4
P19S
transfectants
loaded with 156 nM epoxyeicosatrienoic acid (EET) in
the pipette solution, and the mean responses (G). Data
are expressed as the mean SEM of the number of
experiments shown in brackets. *P 0.05, relative to
other transfectants in presence of 15% hypotonicity,
via one-way ANOVA and Tukey post hoc.
14038
www.pnas.orgcgidoi10.1073pnas.0904084106 Tian et al.
analysis with the Fisher exact probability test (see figure legends). In the case of
the MrOS cohort, the Yates correction for small cell number was applied because
of the large size of the population. Comparison between mean serum sodium
concentration in the presence and absence of the TRPV4
P19S
allele was performed
via two-tailed t test for the Healthy Aging populations (non-Hispanic Caucasian
and African American), and via one-tailed t test for the confirmatory MrOS
population. Hyponatremia was defined as serum sodium concentration 135
mEq/L. Prevalence ratios were calculated in SAS using all covariates (see below)
using a binomial distribution with a log link function for the MrOS cohort, and a
Poisson distribution with a log link function for the Healthy Aging cohort (where
there was a lack of converge with the Poisson distribution).
For linear regression analysis to test the association between serum sodium
concentration as a continuous variable and rs3742030 genotype in the non-
Hispanic Caucasian Healthy Aging cohort, the data set was filtered to eliminate
genotyped subjects with glucose 150 mg/dL (n 11) to preserve consistency
with the tested MrOS samples (where subjects with serum glucose 150 mg/dL
were excluded). In addition, 2 subjects were missing data on age; therefore, the
final numbers for analysis were 76 males and 130 females. Covariates for linear
regression included sex, age, and serum glucose concentration; the latter 2 may
impact serum sodium concentration (27, 28). Note that there was no serum
creatinine determination for this data set. For female subjects, age and glucose
concentration were significantly associated with serum sodium concentration
(P 0.0001 and P 0.006, respectively); for male subjects, age was associated
with serum sodium concentration (P 0.0045).
In the non-Hispanic Caucasian subset of the MrOS cohort, the unadjusted
association between hyponatremia (sodium 135 mEq/L) and the low, mean, and
high sodium groups did not reach statistical significance (P 0.22, Pearson’s
2
test). For linear regression analysis in this cohort, no subjects with serum glucose
150 mg/dL were genotyped, and hence none required exclusion from the final
analysis. Covariates for linear regression included age, serum glucose concentra-
tion, serum creatinine concentration, and recruitment center. Age and creatinine
level were significantly associated with hyponatremia (P value 0.026 and
0.0001, respectively). One recruitment center (BI, Birmingham) was associated
with hyponatremia (P 0.022), whereas glucose concentration and other re-
cruitment centers were not significantly associated with hyponatremia.
No adjustment was made for multiple comparisons because rs3742030 was the
only polymorphism genotyped in these populations. Of note, no subjects ho-
mozygous for the TRPV4
P19S
allele were identified in any study population,
although only approximately 3 would be expected by Hardy-Weinberg equilib-
rium using the allelic frequency in the largest population (MrOS).
Cell Transfection, Immunodetection, and Electrophysiological Recordings. Hu-
man TRPV4 cDNA was amplified from human kidney mRNA, cloned (with its
native stop codon intact) into the mammalian expression vector pcDNA3.1/V5-
His-TOPO, and confirmed by complete sequencing. The TRPV4
P19S
polymorphism
was introduced via site-directed mutagenesis (QuikChange; Stratagene), and the
entire cDNA was confirmed by sequencing. Cationic currents were registered
using the patch-clamp technique in whole-cell configuration. Full details are
provided in SI Methods.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS. These studies were supported by grants from the Na-
tional Institutes of Health (R21AG029968 to D.M.C. and P30AG08017 to P.L.K.),
the American Heart Association (D.M.C.), the Department of Veterans Affairs
(D.M.C.), and the Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation (Grants SAF2006
13893-C02–02, SAF2006 04973, red HERACLES FIS RD06/0009 to M.A.V. and
J.M.F.), Marato´ de TV3 (Grants 061331 and 080430), and Generalitat de Catalu-
nya. M.A.V. is an ICREA Academia researcher. Data obtained from the Layton
Center and the Healthy Aging Study were supported by grants from the National
Institutes of Health (P30 AG008017 and P50 AT00066), the Department of Vet-
erans Affairs (OBAS), and the Oregon Clinical and Translational Research Institute
(OCTR), grant number UL1 RR024140 from the National Center for Research
Resources (NCRR), a component of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), and
NIH Roadmap for Medical Research. The Osteoporotic Fractures in Men (MrOS)
Study is supported by the National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and
Skin Diseases (NIAMS), the National Institute on Aging (NIA), the National Center
for Research Resources (NCRR), and the National Institutes of Health Roadmap for
Medical Research Grants U01 AR45580, U01 AR45614, U01 AR45632, U01
AR45647, U01 AR45654, U01 AR45583, U01 AG18197, U01-AG027810, and UL1
RR024140.
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no. 33
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    • "The presence of this mutant probably predisposes the carriers to COPD as a consequence of air pollution (e.g., diesel exhaust particles) because of a reduced airway clearance due to decreased cilia activity, which is supposed to be a TRPV4-dependent mechanism [96]. The same mutation/polymorphism can also cause hyponatremia [97]. TRPV5 and TRPV6, the two close relatives showing the highest Ca 2+ selectivity in the TRP superfamily, function as Ca 2+ (re)absorption channels in the kidney. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: TRP channels are important in the maintenance of the normal cellular homeostasis, monitor the external and internal environment sensing various physical and chemical stimuli, and also play a significant role in the pathomechanism of various acquired and inherited diseases. In the last decade, an emerging number of mutations in the 28 mammalian TRP channel coding genes were described as a primary cause of hereditary diseases called TRP channelopathies. In this review, we not only focus on those primary TRP channelopathies but also discuss the potential etiological role of TRP channels in various additional hereditary diseases.
    Article · Dec 2015 · Vnitr̆ní lékar̆ství
    • "Within the vanilloid subfamily of TRP channels, the heatactivated TRPV1 and TRPV4 channels present a high degree of similarity in their sequence and biophysical properties (Owsianik et al., 2006). The TRPV4 cationic channel is widely distributed and participates in the transduction of osmotic (Arniges et al., 2004; Liedtke et al., 2000; Tian et al., 2009), mechanical (Andrade et al., 2005; Liedtke et al., 2003; Suzuki et al., 2003), heat (Garcia-Elias et al., 2013; Gü ler et al., 2002; Watanabe et al., 2002a), and UVB stimuli (Moore et al., 2013). TRPV1 is expressed primarily on nociceptive neurons and can be activated by capsaicin, noxious heat, and protons (Caterina et al., 1997). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Functional transient receptor potential (TRP) channels result from the assembly of four subunits. Here, we show an interaction between the pre-S1, TRP, and the ankyrin repeat domain (ARD)-S1 linker domains of TRPV1 and TRPV4 that is essential for proper channel assembly. Neutralization of TRPV4 pre-S1 K462 resulted in protein retention in the ER, defective glycosylation and trafficking, and unresponsiveness to TRPV4-activating stimuli. Similar results were obtained with the equivalent mutation in TRPV1 pre-S1. Molecular dynamics simulations revealed that TRPV4-K462 generated an alternating hydrogen network with E745 (TRP box) and D425 (pre-S1 linker), and that K462Q mutation affected subunit folding. Consistently, single TRPV4-E745A or TRPV4-D425A mutations moderately affected TRPV4 biogenesis while double TRPV4-D425A/E745A mutation resumed the TRPV4-K462Q phenotype. Thus, the interaction between pre-S1, TRP, and linker domains is mandatory to generate a structural conformation that allows the contacts between adjacent subunits to promote correct assembly and trafficking to the plasma membrane. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Article · Jun 2015
    • "Najčastejšími príčinami SIAD sú malobunkové karcinómy pľúc, karcinómy tráviaceho traktu, zápaly pľúc, ochorenia CNS a lieky ako selektívne inhibítory spätného vychytávania serotonínu, antiepileptiká , chemoterapeutiká, analógy vazopresínu [32] . Nedávno boli zistené aj genetické poruchy spôsobujúce SIAD [33]. Pri sekundárnej adrenálnej insuficiencii nie je zníženie aldosterónu tak výrazné ako pri primárnej forme, a preto nie sú dôvodom hyponatriémie straty sodíka obličkami, ale hypokorticizmus pri nedostatočnej sekrécii adrenokortikotropného hormónu. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hyponatraemia is the most common electrolyte disbalance in clinical practice, which is associated with increased patients morbidity and mortality. At present the pathophysiology of hyponatraemia is explored in more details, antidiuretic hormone and osmoregulation play the major roles. This article informs about relatively new classification of hyponatraemia for clinical practice based on the severity of clinical symptoms and based on the effective serum osmolality. It also offers diagnostic and treatment guidelines of hyponatraemia, which are based on current recommendations of the world experts and on the evidence based medicine.Key words: diagnosis - hyponatraemia - pathophysiology - treatment.
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