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From Multichannel to "Omnichannel" Retailing: Review of the Literature and Calls for Research



The continuously changing retail practices and consumer behavioural patterns mainly attributed to the wide diffusion and adoption of innovative technologies and applications for retail purposes, call for research initiatives that should investigate this topic through multiple perspectives and approaches. The paper provides a thorough literature review and implications for research and practice on the evolving retailing landscape, emphasizing on the transformation of multichannel to omnichannel retailing. Multidisciplinary research approach mainly positioned on the Marketing, Electronic Commerce and Information Systems domains is adopted aiming to explore the crucial role of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) in current business and consumer practices. The review of the literature is mainly displayed in a chronological sequence in accordance to multichannel-omnichannel concepts, so as to highlight the evolution of the research attempts and corresponding business initiatives on that topic and provide an integrated view of the available research insights. Also, it is attempted to present, discuss and synthesize available definitions, terms and concepts in order to further clarify the critical issues derived through the various disciplines/domains that are actively involved in that topic. A collection of relevant research calls, along with corresponding practical implications derived through the review of the existing literature, are thoroughly discussed.
From Multichannel to “Omnichannel” Retailing:
Review of the Literature and Calls for Research
C. Lazaris*, A. Vrechopoulos
ELTRUN The E-Business Center
Department of Management Science and Technology,
Athens University of Economics and Business, Greece, 76, Patission St.
The continuously changing retail practices and consumer behavioural patterns mainly attributed to the wide diffusion
and adoption of innovative technologies and applications for retail purposes, call for research initiatives that should
investigate this topic through multiple perspectives and approaches. The paper provides a thorough literature review
and implications for research and practice on the evolving retailing landscape, emphasizing on the transformation of
multichannel to omnichannel retailing. Multidisciplinary research approach mainly positioned on the Marketing,
Electronic Commerce and Information Systems domains is adopted aiming to explore the crucial role of Information
and Communication Technologies (ICT) in current business and consumer practices. The review of the literature is
mainly displayed in a chronological sequence in accordance to multichannel-omnichannel concepts, so as to highlight
the evolution of the research attempts and corresponding business initiatives on that topic and provide an integrated
view of the available research insights. Also, it is attempted to present, discuss and synthesize available definitions,
terms and concepts in order to further clarify the critical issues derived through the various disciplines/domains that
are actively involved in that topic. A collection of relevant research calls, along with corresponding practical
implications derived through the review of the existing literature, are thoroughly discussed.
Keywords: Multichannel Retailing, Omnichannel Retailing, Literature Review, Research Calls
Τhe increasing diffusion and adoption of alternative business-to-consumer retail channels through both traditional and
innovative retail settings has transformed retail practices and consumers’ shopping processes, as well as has created
several interesting research issues in the context of the fast evolving multichannel retail environment. Today, the
capability of the simultaneous use of several consumer-store interaction channels (e.g. use of mobile internet access
within the physical retail store to search for product information and/or compare product prices) constitutes the
dominant characteristic of the “omnichannel” retailing phenomenon, which builds on the well established multichannel
retail infrastructure, mainly developed since the commercial exploitation of the World Wide Web. Omni” is a Latin
word meaning all, universal”. This new term originates from business practitioners, but recently also gained
attention among academia. The first encounter of the term was at IDC’s Global Retail Insights research unit reports,
where Parker & Hand (2009) and Ortis & Casoli (2009) suggested that the "omnichannel" shopper is an evolution of the
multichannel consumer who instead of using channels in parallel, he uses them all simultaneously. Since then, the term
remained a buzzword until it started to gain increased attention in recent years by both the academic community and
practitioners. Rigby (2011, p.4) was the first to mention the term in academic literature by defining omnichannel
retailing as: “an integrated sales experience that melds the advantages of physical stores with the information-rich
experience of online shopping”. We observe that the definition was extended to the point that it involved not just the
simultaneous use of channels, but the experience that derives from the integrated combination of them. The last attempt
to define the term was by Levy, et al. (2013, p.67), who introduced “omniretailing” as: “a coordinated multichannel
offering that provides a seamless experience when using all of the retailer’s shopping channels”. They all agree that the
prevalent notions are integrated/seamless experience using all channels.
By studying the available academic literature we admit that these concepts are not new. In fact, they have appeared at
multiple disciplines and research areas since the very beginning of the e-commerce era. The following sections of this
paper aim to conduct a thorough review of the existing literature on this emerging and highly promising topic, as well as
provide some directions for empirical research designs. Specifically, the paper attempts to clarify the main differences
observed between multichannel and omnichannel retailing, placing particular emphasis on the role of Information and
Communication Technologies (ICT). Also, the paper presents through a structured manner the main academic works
that have focused on the omnichannel retailing phenomenon. Similarly, except the presentation of the available
theoretical definitions and frameworks, the study thoroughly depicts the existing empirical studies that have been
conducted in the context of omnichannel retailing settings by discussing their specific objectives, the research
methodology followed and their main findings, conclusions and implications as well as their calls for future research.
Finally, the paper identifies managerial implications that arise due to the shift to omnichannel retail practices.
From the previous section, it is evident that a literature review in omnichannel retailing should include studies from
multiple disciplines, since omnichannel refers to the use of both physical and online channels combined with the
delivery of seamless shopping experiences. To this end, Multichannel retailing/E-Commerce literature should be the
basis for such a review and should extend to the areas of Customer Relationship Management, Supply Chain
Management, Mobile Commerce and Pervasive Retailing. However, it should be noted that due to space constraints, the
present study elaborates on an indicative list of relevant key references on that topic.
2.1 Multichannel Retailing/E-Commerce Literature
Multichannel literature throughout the years has dealt with several concepts, such as: strategy, pricing, consumer
decision-making process, channel cannibalization, service quality, brand loyalty, customer satisfaction, multichannel
attribution, channel mix optimization, channel switching, customer experience, coordination, integration, synergies &
dissynergies. The last seven of them are the most relevant to omnichannel by definition.
The review of the relevant literature reveals that the origins of omnichannel arise from the notion of “click ‘n’ mortar”.
Specifically, in 2000, Otto & Chung wonder how can e-commerce techniques be combined with traditional physical
retailing, in order to enhance the value of the shopping experience. They named this concept “cyber-enhanced retailing
and propose e-commerce practices that can be used in conjunction with conventional retailing. Customer experience
was also addressed by Burke (2002). He conducted an empirical quantitative study investigating how consumers want
to shop online and offline, including 128 different aspects of the shopping experience. He found out that shoppers were
fond of shopping features that assisted them in multichannel shopping (e.g. research online purchase in store, shop
online pickup in store) and concluded that retailers should integrate channels so as to assist consumers to move
transparently between them. Similarly, Görsch, D. (2002, p.757) showed that the goal of multi-channel integration
must be to provide a superior customer experience that is consistent and seamless across channels. Also, Shankar et al.
(2011) suggested that a seamless shopping experience leads to satisfaction and shopper retain, which can be achieved
by providing the same information in the same style and tone across the channels” (p.33). Finally, last year, Nash et al.
(2013) signified the importance of enabling technologies to provide data-enabled customer interactions and advanced
analytics, in order to create enhanced customer experience, which results in increased customer satisfaction, loyalty and
greater customer lifetime value.
Regarding channel integration, synergies & coordination, Steinfield et al. (2002) underlined the importance of seamless
integration across channels and recognize that it is a difficult task. At the same year, Schoenbachler & Gordon (2002)
elaborate on the consistency of brand image and propose that advertising should maintain the consistency of image,
integrated across channels and the focus should be on customers, not channels. Also, Bendoly (2005) discovered
through a quantitative research that firms simultaneously managing both online and in-store channels should adopt
seamless & transparent channel integration, which is associated with increased loyalty. Next, Sousa & Voss (2006)
proposed “integration quality” as a component of quality in multichannel service and define it as: “the ability to provide
customers with a seamless service experience across multiple channels” (p.365), comprising of two dimensions:
channel-service configuration and integrated interactions. Chatterjee (2006) suggests that cross-channel retailers that
adopt coordinated order onlinepurchase offline strategies can be more profitable than those who employ multiple
channels independently. On the other hand, studying a different selection of online & offline shopping channels during
at home (TV, catalogs, and the web), Joo & Park (2008) discovered that there is no cross-channel synergy among in-
home channels and that firms should clarify the role of each channel and link the channels appropriately. Furthermore,
Kwon & Lennon (2009) conducted a quantitative research and underlined the significance of seamless integration and
consistent image management in multichannel environments. On the other hand, Cassab (2009) predicted the powerful
impact that the mobile channel will have in channel integration, marketing and customizing of retail mix offerings,
while Hahn & Kim (2009) concluded that consumers trust can be retained by ensuring offline to online and vice versa
seamless transactions, with minimum of hassle. To this end, Pookulangara et al. (2011) using a quantitative empirical
research discovered the importance of retailers to utilize a retailing strategy of uninterrupted flow of communication
with their consumers (p.319) through the use of blogs, customer-generated reviews and electronic word of mouth.
Finally, Yang et al. (2011) introduced the concept of perceived entitativity (“the degree to which a collection of
individual entities is perceived as belonging to a group”, p.1689) as a construct to evaluate the benefits of multichannel
seamless integration.
Channel switching, consumer decision-making & brand loyalty are subjects of utmost importance in omnichannel
environments. In relation to these, Dijk et al. (2005), through an exploratory empirical study found out that consumers
actively assess the acquired information from several channels in order to obtain the best deal offered by the channel
that suits them best at that moment. Along these lines, Van Baal & Dach (2005), defined free riding behaviour (“when
consumers use one retailer’s channel only to obtain information and evaluate products and switch to another supplier to
place their business”, p.76) and examined it in a multichannel environment. They found out that in order to deal with
such kind of behaviour, retailers should offer distinctive cross-channel benefits and also apply distribution integration
strategies, as well as apply customer relationship management practices. Furthermore, Sands et al. (2010) conducted a
quantitative survey and found out that the online channel leads to consumers’ engagement with the retailer in such a
way that can increase in-store spending. Chatterjee (2010) presents evidence via quantitative methods that price-
conscious consumers who order online & pick up in-store from a cross-channel retailer are less likely to engage in free
riding behaviour, than consumers who shop from a multiple channel retailer, that doesn’t provide such offering/service.
Schramm-Klein et al. (2011) employing a quantitative approach, proved that consumers that perceive a seamless
multichannel context, react with strong loyalty. Zhang & Oh (2013) elaborated on the notion of “showrooming“, which
is synonymous to free riding and discovered through an empirical study the factors that lead to it. Lastly, Heitz-Spahn
(2013) calls for further research on the effects of m-commerce, mobile applications and new retail formats regarding
cross-channel free-riding behaviour.
Store atmosphere in multichannel retailing is a topic not thoroughly researched. We believe that omnichannel
environments pave new grounds for scientific exploration in this direction. Verhagen & van Dolen (2009) provide
related literature, by employing quantitative methods, a linkage of store atmosphere with multichannel retailing:
multichannel store image (as an element of the store atmosphere) can be achieved by online and offline database
integration (managers can provide consumers with online offers that relate to offline purchases). Finally, Vrechopoulos
(2010) talked about a paradigm shift in multichannel retailing store atmosphere, since for the first time the consumer is
able to alter atmospheric elements utilizing emerging technologies in-store.
2.2 Pervasive/Mobile Retailing & ICT Literature
While traditional multichannel & E-Commerce literature contributed to the foundation of the omnichannel concept,
additional literature in other areas provided useful knowledge regarding the simultaneous use of channels, which is the
ultimate form of omnichannel and constitutes the prevalent behaviour of “omnishoppers” (consumers that utilize all
channels simultaneously). Indicatively, in 2001 Kourouthanassis et al. proposed a business and technology framework,
exploiting emerging ICT, mobile commerce technologies and the RFID, in order to integrate all available channels and
the supply chain, providing innovative in-store, home and on-the-move scenarios/services. Elaborating on pervasive
retailing concepts, Kourouthanassis et al. (2007) re-evaluated the 2001 concept from a user experience perspective and
found out through a field experiment that it can be greatly enhanced by pervasive retailing technologies (smart shopping
carts, RFID, etc). Then, Andersson & Nordmark (2008) bridged online and offline channels by transferring e-shop
elements into an in-store electronic kiosk and discovered that it assisted sales. Finally, van Ittersum et al. (2013)
experimented with smart shopping carts utilizing tablets and investigated if consumer spending was influenced by such
technology applications. They found out that as far as budget shoppers are concerned, shopping experience
enhancement leads to repatronage intention.
Regarding mobile commerce perspectives, van der Heijden (2006) introduced a mobile decision support system to
accommodate in-store purchase decisions, while Westerman et al. (2007) compares a similar system in-store and on the
internet. Along these lines, Xu et al. (2008) through an ethnographic study discovered that augmented reality in mobile
applications enhance the in-store shopping experience. Furthermore, Karpischek et al. (2009) test an NFC-based mobile
sales assistant for salespeople utilizing focus groups. According to their findings, the application wasn’t considered to
provide benefits for them, which was attributed to the fear of replacement by machines. Similarly, Jan-Willem et al.
(2010) applied an interdisciplinary approach in order to explore how mobile recommendation agents influence
consumer behaviour. They suggested that retailers should provide wifi access, QR codes and similar technologies in
order to gain competitive advantage and elevate the shopping experience. However, Hui et al. (2013) were the first to
combine mobile apps in conjunction with RFID inside a store in order to predict the effect of mobile promotions on
travel distance and unplanned spending. They used field experiments and their results showed that mobile promotions
targeted at increasing travel distance, resulted in significant increase in unplanned spending.
In general ICT literature we also observe several omnichannel-related concepts. For example, Ganesh (2004) underlined
the importance of web services & customer decision support systems in order to provide a seamless buying experience
across channels, which leads to customer relationship enhancement and retention. Similarly, Liu et al. (2005) proposed
an IS architecture in order to facilitate in-store connected consumers with seamless shopping experiences. Furthermore,
Oh & Teo (2006) realized the importance of IT (internet connectivity, data warehousing and CRM) in providing “a
seamless flow of synchronized information across channels” & of the salespeople who should “enhance customer
experiences at various touchpoints” (p.2). They concluded that service-oriented shoppers appreciate convenience in
cross-channel shopping and desire self-service in stores. Finally, Ahearne & Rapp (2010) point out a different
perspective in multichannel retailing: the role of social media, user-created content and complementary technologies
and their exploitation by salespeople.
2.3 Omnichannel Retailing Literature
Since its first appearance by Rigby (2011), the omnichannel term has been referred in academic literature in recent
years appearing as the main or a supportive subject of several studies. In parallel, the omniretailing term was first
discussed by Bodhani (2012) and defined by Levy et al. (2013, p.67) as reported in the introductory section of the
paper. Specifically, Bodhani (2012) related it to retailers-shoppers connection across multiple traditional and non-
traditional channels. Then, in 2013 she used the term in conjunction with Augmented Reality in omnichannel retailing
(Bodhani, 2013a) and with Point-of-Sales systems threatened by cybercriminals (Bodhani, 2013b). As far as
omnichannel is concerned, Aubrey & Judge (2012) discussing about brand strategy and innovation, suggested that
omnichannel strategy should be adapted in order for brands to cope with consumer preference & loyalty. At the same
year, order online pick-up in-store in the context of omnichannel was the subject of a Thesis in a Portuguese
University (Rosa, 2012). The following year, one of the most inspiring papers about omnichannel was published
(Brynjolfsson & Rahman, 2013), dealing with omnichannel concepts and strategies. Finally, at the present year several
studies were published showing the dynamics of the subject. Specifically, Bhalla (2014) attempted to clarify the
differences between multichannel and omnichannel using an applied case study approach, whereas Williams (2014)
admitted that while his focus was on social commerce, omnichannel should be taken into consideration since retail
touch points have converged into it. Moreover, Kireyev et al. (2014) elaborated on the price-matching policy aspect of
omnichannel. The interdisciplinary nature of omnichannel retailing is also indicated by a recent book chapter (Tambo,
2014) titled Omni-channel Retail Information Systems”. Last but not least, Lazaris & Vrechopoulos (2014a) provided
research directions regarding HCI in omnichannel environments and, in addition to that, they explored the omnichannel
shopper behaviour though an exploratory quantitative study (Lazaris et. al, 2014b).
It is clear that while the commercial diffusion and consumer adoption of omnishopping retailing innovations (e.g. in-
store visibility technologies, omnichannel commerce platforms, location-based retailing services, augmented reality) are
continuously increasing, relevant academic research is attempting to approach and investigate this issue through both
theoretical and empirical approaches. It should be clarified, however, that these research initiatives are not exclusively
positioned in the Marketing discipline but also vary from Information Systems integration to business processes
reengineering and organizational culture changes. In sum, it should be reminded that the main objective of the paper is
to summarize and to present through an integrated approach the relevant to the omnichannel retailing phenomenon key
studies and corresponding calls for future research, as well as to highlight some indicative managerial propositions that
deal with the “new retailing agenda”.
The approach followed by the present study is multidisciplinary in nature since the topic investigated appears in
Marketing, E-Commerce and Information Systems research outlets. The multidisciplinary nature of the topic is also
reflected on the review of the relevant literature as well as on the calls for future research reported at the present section
of the paper. Therefore, it is recommended that, due to the multiple disciplines and domains that are actively involved in
the investigation of the omnichannel concept, research initiatives on that topic should exploit concepts and methods
from all these areas following multidisciplinary research approaches. For example, when investigating the role of ICT
applications in retailing environments through an IS integration perspective, researchers should examine how these
applications influence key multichannel concepts (channel switching, free riding, pricing, attribution, loyalty, etc) in
providing a seamless consumer experience.
The study underlines the need to initially approach this topic by conducting exploratory empirical research attempts that
could support researchers to obtain important knowledge and understanding of consumer behavioural patterns and
characteristics in this emerging landscape. Then, conclusive research designs could in depth investigate a series of
important issues like the following: (a) Omnichannel Retail Store Atmosphere (ORSA) effects on shoppers, (b) Store
selection criteria in omnichannel retailing, (c) Classification and detailed profiling of shoppers according to the intensity
of using omnichannel practices, (d) Omnichannel retail personal selling techniques, (e) Strategic impact of omnichannel
retailing on retailers, (f) Customer Relationship Management (CRM) dynamics in an omnichannel retailing
environment, (g) Personalization/customization of the omnichannel retail mix, (h) Loyalty & free riding behaviour in
omnichannel settings, etc. In sum, technology enabled omnichannel retailing dynamics strongly affects both consumer
(e.g. shopping behaviour steps, free-riding behaviour, multichannel perception) and business (e.g. salesmen training for
effectively negotiating with omnichannel shoppers, necessity of universal analytics that combine online and offline
data, channel coordination, multichannel strategies) processes in various ways. Thus, some indicative implications for
practice, as derived by the present study, could be the following: (a) education and training of in-store employees (e.g.
salesmen, customer service), (b) adoption of state-of-the-art omnichannel technologies and applications both for the
business operations & for the in-store employees, (c) invest in consumer behaviour studies in order to provide the
optimum mix of the offered technologies/services depending on the business sector, culture, consumer behavioural
patterns and preferences, etc. (d) incorporate the omnichannel concept in the strategic marketing planning of the
organization (i.e. marketing plan) both as strategy and as a promising tool to implement selected strategies, (e) adopt a
multidisciplinary approach (e.g. organizational structure and processes), (f) seamlessly integrate channels (e.g. CRM,
Social Media, Web Site, Call Center, Mobile Applications, In-Store Technologies and Applications), unify all data
analytics and analyze both online & offline data, (g) focus on consumer data protection and permission Marketing
guidelines in the context of the Information Management business processes.
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... 62-63). The multichannel strategy assumes that each user prioritizes one channel to interact with a company (Lazaris & Vrechopoulos, 2014). ...
... Moreover, omnichannel aims to provide customers with a seamless retail experience (Verhoef et al., 2015;Yrjölä et al., 2018). The omnichannel strategy allows for improving the customer experience, achieving a seamless integration of channels, and delivering a consistent brand experience to customers (Lazaris & Vrechopoulos, 2014). By offering a unified and integrated customer experience across different distribution channels, from brick-and-mortar to digital (Beck & Rygl, 2015;Picot-Coupey et al., 2016), omnichannel retailing can more efficiently and personally respond to consumer needs. ...
... It allows customers to evolve from their role as consumers to that of value co-creators during each phase of their decision-making process (Huré et al., 2017;Lazaris & Vrechopoulos, 2014). ...
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Omnichannel represents a customer-oriented distribution paradigm through which retailers can deliver a seamless customer experience and create an authentic brand narrative that is communicated to customers across diverse touchpoints. Despite the increasing relevance of the omnichannel approach, research on how omnichannel can affect the customer experience remains scant. This research consists of a qualitative study and three experimental studies. Drawing from signaling theory, we contend that the signal congruency established by omnichannel-where all the channels are aligned and convey a consistent message to customers-can enhance consumers' purchase intention and perceptions of brand authenticity. We further investigate the role of brand authenticity as a mediator of the relationship between multichannel customer experience (seamless vs. non-seamless) and purchase intention, as well as of brand untrustworthiness as a moderator of the relationship between multichannel customer experience and brand authenticity. The results show that a seamless multichannel customer experience has a significant main effect on purchase intention and that participants in the seamless multichannel customer experience condition perceive the brand as more authentic than those in the non-seamless multichannel customer experience condition. Both the mediation and moderation hypotheses are supported. These findings enhance the literature on signaling theory and omnichannel. They also provide insightful implications for retailers in terms of managing the omnichannel customer experience. Overall, this study integrates the research areas of brand authenticity and omnichannel and provides valuable insights by indicating how seamlessness can boost consumers' perception of brand authenticity. Furthermore, the study advances our knowledge by investigating the impact of brand authenticity as both a result of the omnichannel customer experience and a predictor of purchase intention.
... The analysis zooms in on customer behaviour in the omnichannel market to reveal more relevant in-depth knowledge by separating customer satisfaction into product and retailer service evaluation. Specifically, in line with previous research (Butkouskaya et al., 2020;Lazaris and Vrechopoulos, 2014), this study confirmed the significance of IMC consistency for customer satisfaction with a product and with retail service. A message, packaging, image and aesthetics repeated and communicated consistently to customers through IMC channels build stronger product associations and more realistic expectations (Shi et al., 2020). ...
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Purpose This study reviewed three customer-perceived components of integrated marketing communications (IMCs): consistency, interactivity and connectivity, as predictors of positive customer evaluation (product and retail service satisfaction). Design/methodology/approach The customer data from 260 surveys were analysed using structural equation modelling (SEM). The data were collected from the emerging economy in the Moscow region (Russia). Findings The results reported that IMC consistency positively impacts product and service satisfaction. However, the effect of IMC interactivity was only significant in the case of service satisfaction. Meanwhile, IMC connectivity positively influenced only product satisfaction. Research limitations/implications The study contributes to the marketing communications theory by defining three components of omnichannel IMC. It also adds to the customer behaviour theory by confirming the diverse nature of product and service evaluation. This study focuses on the retail industry. Practical implications This research suggests that three components of IMC should be applied together towards enhancing the customer's positive post-purchase evaluation. Meanwhile, consistency enhances product and service satisfaction, interactive impacts satisfaction with the organization and connectivity with the retail service. Originality/value The shift toward omnichannel marketing requires a broader perspective on communication integration. This research reports a novelty result of estimating the separate effect of each component of omnichannel IMC (consistency, interactivity and connectivity) on product and service satisfaction.
... Omnichannel is more than just using concurrent channels. Rather, it is a company-wide integration of all available channels [24]. Additionally, Levy, Weitz, and Grewal (2013) describe omnichannel as a synchronous product that leverages all store channels to deliver a consistent customer experience. ...
... retailers and customers (McCormick et al., 2014;Lazaris and Vrechopoulos, 2014). However, such channels mostly perform independently and in isolation and undoubtedly this independency has raised a significant issue regarding the cannibalisation of sales through retailing channels (Melacini et al., 2018;Picot-Coupey et al., 2016). ...
Conference Paper
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The impact of technological advances and continued digitalisation and notably the COVID-19 pandemic on changes in consumer behaviour, market development and interactions between businesses and consumers has led to a formulation of multiple integrated channels (Asmare and Zewdie, 2022). Nonetheless, it is obvious that there is a scarcity of research into omnichannel consumer behaviour in retailing from the perspective of customers. The present study is expected to provide literature-based evidence on omnichannel consumer behaviour literature by applying flow theory (Csikszentmihalyi, 1977), namely the conceptualisation of omnichannel shopping challenge and skill as the antecedents of flow. This study aims to systematically review the extant literatures regarding omnichannel consumer behaviour and flow experience (flow state) in the research context of online and offline shopping environments. The selected articles were reviewed and analysed to extract important information after a screening. The result shows that there is a strong need for a theory-driven research and qualitative approach into determining omnichannel shopping challenge and skill, and the flow state that customers experience during their shopping trip in an omnichannel retail environment.
... Service should be of similar experience to every option and every channel used by the end user so that customer experience CX is common and uninterrupted. Omnichannel delivery is becoming a necessary model adaptation (Zhou et al. 2020), where the sale experience and service are seamless and meld the advantages of physical stores with the information-rich experience of online accessing, irrespective of the device, Lazaris and Vrechopoulos, (2014) and Saprikis et al. (2022). The branch remains centrealthough COVID-19 has done a lot to weaken that notion (see Bechlioulis and Karamanis 2022 for example)-with the belief that all customers can use it, not everybody has access, understanding or interest in specific channels for example e-mobile (customer "branch skills" vs customer "digital skills", Panzarino, pp 59). ...
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This paper examines the stages of the digital transformational path that lies in front of incumbent banks in their conversion into digitally driven institutions and contributes by providing clarity in the parameters that define each stage and the key metrics to be tracked. It is a general review paper, with main tools employed the relevant scholar and grey literature & field observations. The paper identifies three phases for banking institutions’ digital transformation and proceeds with defining the characteristics of the phases and the distinct actions required for an institution to progress through them, employing a set of proposed key tracking indicators. The outcome adds to the, rather limited, academic literature on the subject and can be applied to all relevant banking institutions. Research needs further insides to articulate better the findings and expand them on a cross-examination of relevant theories and approaches. This paper aims at contributing to a growing, contemporary discussion, hopefully assisting in greater collaboration between practitioners and academics.
... First, this paper is aimed at the recently launched trading environment, O4O. Extant studies have mainly focused on multichannel, omnichannel, and O2O [5,10,15,[23][24][25][26]. This research can derive success factors for offline stores, which have been relatively shrunk due to the rapid growth of e-commerce. ...
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Recently, a number of companies have started to implement commerce platforms that maximize the profits of offline stores by using online information. This kind of commerce is called online for offline (O4O). This research proposes a research framework to clarify the precursors of recommendation and loyalty in the context of O4O-commerce platforms. Data was gathered from consumers who had experienced O4O. This study conducted partial least squares structural equation modeling to test hypothesized paths. The findings revealed the fact that relative advantages are affected by channel accessibility, perceived multichannel quality, and customization. The analysis results validated the fact that relative advantages do not affect recommendation intention and loyalty. Price fairness impacts both recommendation intention and loyalty. Reputation is significantly related to loyalty. This study is of academic significance in that it approaches O4O as distinct from traditional O2O, by introducing contextual variables. In addition, this paper derives managerial implications for omnichannel companies that operate mainly in offline stores.
... In this concept, offerors guarantee the customer's ability to order and take the commodity in all the channels (Taylor, Brockhaus, Knemeyer, & Murphy, 2019). Sometimes, it is also said that based on the preferences in terms of all channel usage, the typologies of customers are built, and they show the omnichannel customers separately (Lazaris & Vrechopoulos, 2014;Gregor & Gotwald-Feja, 2018). Omnichannel is sometimes also treated as a path to deliver customer value, which became crucial during the Coronavirus Disease-19 (COVID-19) pandemic. ...
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Omnichannel as a concept was introduced to the business practice due to the development of multichannel actions and their integration. This paper aims to identify processes and phenomena occurring in an omnichannel environment in the past years (2020-2022) and their evaluation based on the literature. We used the literature review method, focusing mainly on two professional journals: Total Retail and Multichannel Merchant. Based on the literature studies, we can say that in the analysed period, the major issues discussed were the extension of customer experience and personalisation of contact, development of offered ways of delivery (including the curbside delivery or 'dock and load') and payment methods (including m-payments), the need for more frequent actualisation of POS solutions, changes in the way in which stock and supplier relations are managed, implementation of new technologies (such as headless e-commerce and Progressive Web Application [PWA]), development of contact-less shopping and further development of sustainable commerce. Key words: customer behaviour, omnichannel, new marketing trends, COVID-19
Live commerce uses digital communication technology (e.g., social media) to enable viewers to purchase featured products on their devices while watching a livestream. The purpose of this study is to clarify the considerations and decisions that managers should reflect upon before implementing live commerce as part of their business models. Taking a qualitative approach to investigating three live commerce cases, this chapter builds a theory of the managerial implications of using live commerce as part of a company's business model. The theory consists of 10 sub-dimensions that are connected to three dimensions of live commerce: 1) strategic integration, 2) the live event in practice, and 3) host and viewer alignment. Each sub-dimension includes key considerations that companies can use as a starting point for strategic reflection and discussions prior to implementing live commerce.
Conference Paper
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This study explores omnichannel shoppers’ behaviour through an online questionnaire with 1324 respondents executed in November 2013 in Greece. The study classifies shoppers according to their “omnichannel retailing intensity” and tests whether the resulted groups differ in terms of a series of relevant to the omnichannel retailing phenomenon key behavioural patterns. The results indicate that omnichannel retailing intensity affects the frequency of mobile Internet usage, the research online - purchase offline behaviour, the importance shoppers attach to the offline retail stores’ assisting technologies and the research offline - purchase online behaviour. The paper provides implications for practice and future research.
Multichannel retailing has created several new strategic choices for retailers. With respect to pricing, an important decision is whether to offer a “self-matching policy,” which allows a multichannel retailer to offer the lowest of its online and store prices to consumers. In practice, we observe considerable heterogeneity in self-matching policies: There are retailers who offer to self-match and retailers who explicitly state that they will not match prices across channels. Using a game-theoretic model, we investigate the strategic forces behind the adoption (or non-adoption) of self-matching across a range of competitive scenarios, including a monopolist, two competing multichannel retailers, as well as a mixed duopoly. Though self-matching can negatively impact a retailer when consumers pay the lower price, we uncover two novel mechanisms that can make self-matching profitable in a duopoly setting. Specifically, self-matching can dampen competition online and enable price discrimination in-store. Its effectiveness in these respects depends on the decision-making stage of consumers and the heterogeneity of their preference for the online versus store channels. Surprisingly, self-matching strategies can also be profitable when consumers use “smart” devices to discover online prices in stores. Our findings provide insights for managers on how and when self-matching can be an effective pricing strategy. The online appendix is available at .
In the current multi-channel circumstances, in-home shopping channels (TV, catalogs, and the Internet) have been receiving more attention from academicians and practitioners. This study examines the relationship between information-search and purchase-channel choice behavior across in-home shopping channels. Specifically, we investigate whether an information-search channel is also selected as a purchase channel (channel lock-in) and whether purchase-channel choice is influenced by other information-search channels (cross-channel synergy). We collected the channel-choice (information-search and purchase) data over one month period from a survey of 346 randomly selected housewives. Based on a multivariate probit (MVP) analysis, we discovered that as the channel is selected for information search, the possibility that the channel is chosen for purchase will increase and the synergy between information search and purchase across channels does not exist. In addition, we found that, in terms of purchase channels, TV is a substitute for catalogs and the Internet. Our research has implications for helping firms managing multiple channels to coordinate and integrate across channels and to build multi-channel customer relationships.
Information Systems in the context of retailing is often overlooked as one of the most complex systems in the corporate information landscape alone from its geographical and probably also cultural span across nations, traditions, fiscal systems and work force regimes. When retail information systems are expanded into being able to handle, consistently, the same information, but seamlessly across different sales channels, trading platforms, consumers group and logistical systems, then the complexity is increased by yet a magnitude. Cross-channel or multi-channel retailing has normally reflected sales of physical or non-physical goods in stores and at internet-based shops. It has also reflected conceptually similar channels, e.g. the physical store could also be a concept store, a shop-in-shop, a trade fair booth, and the virtual store could e.g. also be a TV-shop and a mobile commerce platform. Recently the concept of omni-channel retailing has been introduced. Omni-channel retailing is covering the idea that anything can be sold anywhere with consistent marketing, reasonable efficiency of the supply chain channels, and responsible customer service. To support omni-channel retailing, retail information systems must be re-considered with much stronger emphasis on the distributed character of information and service platforms. This can be accomplished using a highly service-oriented architecture (SOA), a big data orientation towards consumer behaviours, context and activity, and flexible system approaches, where lack of data can be as valid as strong data. The omni-channel retail information systems are characterised by a breadth of management, information and logistical technologies; such as: - Product management with or without awareness of the omni-channel character of the sales activity - Free or controlled information access - Access to relevant warehouses and shipping operations - DAM - Flexibility regarding logistical and information scalability also encompassing e.g. seasonality, ramp-up/down, product portfolio change - Interrelational tools between consumer identity, context and consumer behaviour which e.g. can be found in social media intelligence tools and big data mining - Idealised common consumer identity management This article is discussing requirements for and character of information systems to support omni-channel retailing. This article is reviewing a case of a sporting goods company, where over relatively short time numerous sales platforms were established mostly without the knowledge of the company.
Conference Paper
The increasing availability of electronic applications in physical retail stores has created a series of interesting research opportunities with challenging managerial implications for practitioners. Since the graphical user interface design constitutes a critical user-consumer influencing factor in the context of a multichannel retailing environment, there are several multidisciplinary research initiatives that could add value towards an integrated investigation of this topic. To this end, the paper discusses the promising role of combining Information Systems and Marketing disciplines for conducting behavioural studies in the context of multichannel/omnichannel retailing, approaching humans both as users of information systems and consumers of retail stores. Similarly, the paper treats the screen of the electronic applications available in online and offline retail stores both as a graphical user interface of an information system and as the atmosphere/servicescape of a retail store. The paper provides several future research directions and practical implications for this fast evolving topic.
A decade after the dot-com implosion, traditional retailers are lagging in their embrace of digital technologies. To survive, they must pursue a strategy of omnichannel retailing—an integrated sales experience that melds the advantages of physical stores with the information-rich experience of online shopping. Retailers face challenges in reaching this goal. Many traditional retailers arenʼt technology-savvy. Few are adept at test-and-learn methodologies. They will need to recruit new kinds of talent. And theyʼll need to move away from analog metrics like same-store sales and focus on measures such as return on invested capital. Traditional retailers must also transform the one big feature internet retailers lack—stores—from a liability into an asset. They must turn shopping into an entertaining, exciting, and emotionally engaging experience. Companies like Disney, Apple, and Jordanʼs Furniture are leading the way. Artwork: Rachel Perry Welty, Lost in My Life (wrapped books), 2010, pigment print Photography: Rachel Perry Welty and Yancey Richardson Gallery, NY Itʼs a snowy Saturday in Chicago, but Amy, age 28, needs resort wear for a Caribbean vacation. Five years ago, in 2011, she would have headed straight for the mall. Today she starts shopping from her couch by launching a videoconference with her personal concierge at Danella, the retailer where she bought two outfits the previous month. The concierge recommends several items, superimposing photos of them onto Amyʼs avatar. Amy rejects a couple of items immediately, toggles to another browser tab to research customer reviews and prices, finds better deals on several items at another retailer, and orders them. She buys one item from Danella online and then drives to the Danella store near her for the in-stock items she wants to try on. As Amy enters Danella, a sales associate greets her by name and walks her to a dressing room stocked with her online selections—plus some matching shoes and a cocktail dress. She likes the shoes, so she scans the bar code into her smartphone and finds the same pair for $30 less at another store. The sales associate quickly offers to match the price, and encourages Amy to try on the dress. It is daring and expensive, so Amy sends a video to three stylish friends, asking for their opinion. The responses come quickly: three thumbs down. She collects the items she wants, scans an internet site for coupons (saving an additional $73), and checks out with her smartphone.
The pivotal role of mobile apps turns up the pressure on brands and organizations to anchor business applications on mobile platforms. This article explains why monitoring and managing app performance is essential to delivering apps and experiences that do what users expect — even demand.
Scholarly inquiry within the domains of social commerce has grown rapidly and seems destined to be a goldmine of future research opportunities. However, it is now time to reflect and assess these independent and spiraling contributions using a meta-theoretical approach. This captures and establishes the similarities occurring concurrently within the domains and highlights the linkages between them. This produces a firmer conceptual underpinning for future first-order theory building in social commerce and highlights the need to rethink fundamental concepts, definitions, and traditional research approaches.