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Analysis of social networking sites: A study on effective communication strategy in developing brand communication

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Internet is the emerging information technology with the credibility of immediacy and fastness, thus, it brings globalization in every aspects of communication. Communication through internet is more specified, with effective interactive strategy among its users. In recent days, internet advertising has taken new forms which have more advantages over the traditional mediums like print media, television and radio. Marketing communication is becoming precise, personal, interesting, interactive and social. Different strategies of communication are followed in various social networking sites like Face book, Twitter and Orkut. They not only create impact over the audience but also make them interact with the marketing statistics created. People get attached to brand communication in social networking sites than usual banner and pop up ads. These networking sites bring more interactive communication with advertising. Social networking sites will become the primary arena for highly targeted marketing and advertising. Therefore, it is necessary to study the effectiveness of brand communication strategy followed in social networking sites which are mainly accessed by Indian users. This research attempts to find the effectiveness of brand communication strategy in promoting and advertising their brand in social networking sites. The effectiveness is determined with the help of survey from people who use these sites, and the content of three social networking sites is analyzed.
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Journal of Media and Communication Studies Vol. 3(7), pp. 234-242, July 2011
Available online http://www.academicjournals.org/jmcs
ISSN 2141 2545 ©2011 Academic Journals
Full Length Research Paper
Analysis of social networking sites: A study on
effective communication strategy in developing brand
communication
P. Sri Jothi*, M. Neelamalar and R. Shakthi Prasad
Department of Media Sciences, College of Engineering, Anna University, Guindy, Chennai, 600 025, India.
Accepted 18 March 2011
Internet is the emerging information technology with the credibility of immediacy and fastness, thus, it
brings globalization in every aspects of communication. Communication through internet is more
specified, with effective interactive strategy among its users. In recent days, internet advertising has
taken new forms which have more advantages over the traditional mediums like print media, television
and radio. Marketing communication is becoming precise, personal, interesting, interactive and social.
Different strategies of communication are followed in various social networking sites like Face book,
Twitter and Orkut. They not only create impact over the audience but also make them interact with the
marketing statistics created. People get attached to brand communication in social networking sites
than usual banner and pop up ads. These networking sites bring more interactive communication with
advertising. Social networking sites will become the primary arena for highly targeted marketing and
advertising. Therefore, it is necessary to study the effectiveness of brand communication strategy
followed in social networking sites which are mainly accessed by Indian users. This research attempts
to find the effectiveness of brand communication strategy in promoting and advertising their brand in
social networking sites. The effectiveness is determined with the help of survey from people who use
these sites, and the content of three social networking sites is analyzed.
Key words: Social networking sites, brand, communication, strategy, social media.
INTRODUCTION
In its current form, internet is primarily a source of
communication, information and entertainment, but
increasingly, it also acts as a vehicle for commercial
transactions. Since the explosion of the web as a
business medium, one of its primary uses has been for
marketing. Soon, the web could become a critical
distribution channel for the majority of successful
enterprises. One among them is marketing and spreading
brand communication through Social networking sites
(Thompson, 2002).
*Corresponding author. E-mail: sreejoonline@gmail.com or
sree.shanmugam@yahoo.com Tel: 044-2235 8245/8247 or 91
+ 9094001911.
Social networking websites are online communities of
people who share interests and activities or who are
interested in exploring the interests and activities of
others. They typically provide a variety of ways for users
to interact, through chat, messaging, email, video, voice
chat, file-sharing, blogging and discussion groups. As
World Wide Web grew in popularity, social networking
moved to web-based applications. In 2002, social
networking era really started. In 2006, anyone with an
email address could sign up in social networking sites
(Zarrella, 2010).
Now advertisers target more over to these media due
to high rush in varsity of audiences. So they hire this as
the ideal platform to communicate their brand and create
an effective brand identity through highly effective and
interactive communication strategy. Most of the
advertisers present their ads in interactive form so that
people tend more to check them and gain a little
knowledge about the product. There are various forms of
brand communication available in social networking sites.
The effective way of brand communication present in
these networking sites would be the main aim of the
study.
Social media
Social media advertising is a paid form of brand, service
or business promotion and requires a proper and planned
communicative message and budget. Advertising is
customer centric in nature. Customers play an important
role in any major or minor communication because they
are the one who are going to decide the fate of the
advertising communication. Some benefits of social
network advertising include:
1. Popularizing your brand, idea or service to the target
group.
2. Informing target audience about your brand or
service’s presence in the market.
3. Encouraging healthy competition in the market.
4. Providing social benefits for the brand.
5. Making the audience to interact and keep them intact
with the brand.
Advertising in internet provides a major contribution to
brand competition in the market. Advertising here not
only provides information about a product or service but
also promotes innovation. Besides it also facilitates
consumer satisfaction. Big and small companies,
individuals of all walks of life, major and minor events,
concepts, etc., nowadays lay their base on social network
advertising to get recognized in the market (Zarrella,
2010).
With over 200 million active users, Face book, Twitter
and Orkut have become a personal, product and
corporate branding hub in India. Every brand that exists
on social networking sites has the same core features
and benefits, such as the ability to create a page, share
resources, add multimedia and much more (Eric, 2008).
The effective brand communication strategies are
analyzed to find the impact among the users.
Social networking sites
A social networking site creates network communication
among the user community. Though social networking
site serves for communication purposes among special
interest groups, the marketing strategy has also entered
this medium for its reach. People get exposed to various
kinds of brand communication through this media. They
Jothi et al. 235
tend to interact with the brand and also get awareness
about the brand and its service in an interesting way
(Nicole, 2007). Hence, there is a need to study the
effective way of communication in branding the product in
social networking sites and analyze its reach among the
people and their perceptions in this research.
In recent trend of marketing in social networking sites,
various brand communications are widely used to attract
targeted leads. So, this study would help to know the
effectiveness of communication and strategy done
through social networking sites which make the target
audience to participate in this kind of advertising. This is
mainly studied on networking sites which are popular
among Indian users were Face book, Twitter and Orkut.
This study would help the advertisers to understand the
effective communication strategy to communicate their
brand among the users.
Objectives of the study
1. To analyze the effective communication strategy
through social networking sites.
2. To study the effectiveness of brand communication
through social networking sites from its users and
communicators.
3. To find the impact of interaction through these
communication among Indian users (with reference to
Face book, Twitter and Orkut).
LITERATURE REVIEW
Scott (2009) states the reasons for brand promoters
preferring online web for marketing is that the tools,
techniques and content are constantly evolving. The
buyers reward creativity by responding to the online
efforts like:
If you are open to trying out new things, you can be first
in your industry to use something new to communicate to
your buyers.
Marketing in some social networking websites are still the
most popular in their niche. Shih (2009) says that there
are hundreds of millions of active users across sites like
Face book, Hi5, Orkut and MySpace. 2.6 billion min are
spent on Face book each day. These websites are
enabling brands to engage the right people in the right
conversation at right time. Marketing the brands through
social media is becoming precise, personal, interesting,
interactive and social.
Weber (2009) says promoting a community is just like
as promoting a new brand product or service to the
consumers. Social media is used to communicate people
in the promotional aspect and inclined to involve the
236 J. Media Commun. Stud.
people. Traditional advertising and direct marketing in
social media is to send people to the digital community to
be informed, entertained and heard. Users find
appealing, a value high enough to encourage them to
participate.
Borges (2009) finds that today's buyers want to be
engaged differently than in years past and many
traditional marketing tactics simply do not work anymore.
Social media marketing is a revolutionary way to build
solid relationships with buyers. Low cost, brand building,
staffing advantages, loyalty and level playing field are key
benefits of social networking sites as a successful
marketing media.
Zarrella (2010) says the roots of online social
networking can be traced to the 1980s bulletin board
systems (BBS). These systems allowed the users to
create personal profiles, helps to share information by
sending private messages, public messages and post
events at low speed connectivity. After emanation of
social networking technology in the internet world, it grew
higher and popular among the internet user.
Lacy and Hernandez (2009) says Twitter gives the
ability to share nearly 140- characters thoughts in a split
second, where user can easily share links to press
releases and stories about their business, service or
product. Making tweets interesting and diverse, there is a
more possibility of increasing the followers, by consider
with news sharing and stories about the industry that they
serve.
The rules of marketing had to change and the web has
proved a catalyst in bringing the changes forward and
amplifying their scale. The sudden emergence of the
Web 2.0 marketing techniques demand additional
approaches, while most marketers are still wrestling with
the first generation, savvy brands are exploring the
landscape that social media and social networks create
for marketers. These techniques are allowing much
deeper drivers in social change to be unleashed, with a
profound impact on planning customer connections. The
new generation of relationship marketing responds to the
additional challenges of digital media literacy and in the
right hands can trigger a rebuild of the entire marketing
mix through different strategies. Relationship marketing
for the Face book generation demands both thinking and
acting differently (Chaffey 2003).
Stroud (2007) says that the ability of social networking
sites to generate these huge volumes of web traffic is
proof of their huge popularity. Google, Yahoo and News
International have bought themselves a presence in the
social networking arena. The detailed rationale for these
acquisitions differs but all have a common theme of
wanting access to the enormous audiences.
Ricadela (2007) says, Coca-Cola has been running
promotions on MySpace for the past two years for brands
including Cherry Coke and Fanta and has promoted Diet
Coke and other drinks on Google's YouTube.
Smith (2010) says that Face book is becoming one of
the great internet communications of people time now
days. Whereas many companies have tried to emulate
Face book’s success or challenge it in one geography or
another, Face book has proven that the core asset on
which all of its services are built - the social graph - is
much more defensible and powerful than many others
once anticipated.
Visitors to social networking sites are significantly more
likely than average to visit leisure-oriented retail site
categories, such as music, jewelry/luxury goods/
accessories, consumer electronics and apparel. Heavy
social networking visitors are defined as the top 20% of
visitors based on time spent on social networking sites.
People typically enjoy sharing their experiences with
these products, whether it is to talk about their new
iPhone or the pair of designer jeans they just bought.
Social networking sites offer the venue for those
conversations to occur. Social media advertising is ideal
for promoting brand recognition, although click-through
rates are not so strong. Still, there is no doubt that
advertising via social media sites is an effective way to
increase your overall revenue stream (Brinlee, 2007).
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
To analyze and find the effectiveness of communication strategy in
developing brand, communication through social networking sites
was done with the survey method and content analysis in the
research.
Methods of data collection
The survey method helped to identify the reach of the brand among
its target audience, ways of impact, usage of these social
networking sites and access to these form of communication. And
the content analysis is another method used to analyze the
communication strategy of different social networking sites with
certain parameters among top three Indian social networking sites
which are tabulated with results.
Research design
This research study adopted survey and content analysis in order to
find the effectiveness and the impact of communication in branding
any product or the service among the target market through social
networking sites like Face book, Twitter and Orkut.
Survey
Survey was conducted randomly among Face book, Twitter and
Orkut user community, by sending questionnaire through online to
collect the individual opinion from the respondents.
Sampling
Non probability sampling technique is used to collect the opinion
Jothi et al. 237
Table 1. Usage of internet.
S/N
Once a week(%)
2 to 3 days a week (%)
1 or 2 hours a day (%)
More than 3 hours a day(%)
1
12
19
30
39
Table 2. Awareness of social networking sites.
S/N
Yes (%)
1
98
from the online respondents. The total population is social
networking user community, but to collect the effective data the
sampling is constrained to the target population like young adults,
graduates within the age of 16 years to 30 years. The sampling size
is hundred.
Content analysis
In content analysis, the following three popular social networking
sites were selected to find the effective brand communication
among its users (Face book, Twitter and Orkut).
Parameters and units of analysis
1. Target group: category of audience visiting these sites.
2. Types of advertisements: what are the types of brand
communication followed by them?
3. Ads placement: how do these sites place their ad in their pages?
4. Communication strategy: kinds of brand promotion used by them.
5. Visual appealing factors: regarding the appearance of these
sites.
6. User Interaction: kinds of participation with the brand.
7. Accessibility: how legibly they present themselves.
8. User interest: the forms of expectations from users in these sites.
9. Customization: the factors that the users could create by
themselves.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Usage of internet by the user
It has been found that 12% of audience use internet once
a week, 19% of the respondents use 2 to 3 days a week.
30% of the respondents use 1 or 2 h a day and the
remaining 39% of users are accessing internet more than
3 h a day. It is understood that the new media and its
technology is an emerging trend in communication which
attracts almost all the people, if they have knowledge of
computers. So this digital media has more snatchers
towards its communication and internet is becoming part
of necessary communication among the students and
professionals, etc (Table 1).
Awareness of social networking sites
From this result, it is observed that nearly 98% of the
internet users are aware of social networking sites and
only 2% of them are clueless. Although the concept of
computer-based communities dates back to the early
days of computer networks, only some years after the
advent of the internet online social networks have met
public and commercial in a successive manner. At the
most basic level, an online social network is an internet
community where individuals interact, often through
profiles that represent their selves to others (Donath and
Boyd, 2004). Social networks have grown rapidly, and
some like face book, orkut, have achieved the mass
market and penetrated in a few months since their
inception, such applications have infringed their users in
different strategy to interact with more people (Table 2).
Number of profiles in social networking sites
The study found that all the respondents that is, 100% of
respondents have profiles on Face book. And also, 88%
respondents of the same group have profiles on Orkut,
62% respondents have connected to twitter and 37% of
users have account on other social networking sites. The
users can create many accounts in different social
networking site. Face book is useful for communication,
self-promotion, to know about friends’ community and to
find the missed out school and college mates. The peers
use the Face book, Orkut and Twitter for the same
reasons to share the information and communication.
Due to this reasons, Face book, Orkut and Twitter were
more popular among the internet users of youth
population comparatively with other social networking
sites (Table 3).
Ads in different social networking sites
From the earlier mentioned, it is found that 45% of the
users find Face book as a well communicated social
networking sites, which promotes more brands and
238 J. Media Commun. Stud.
Table 3. Number of profiles in social networking sites.
S/N
Facebook
Orkut(%)
Twitter (%)
Others(%)
1
100
88
62
37
Table 4. Ads communicated in these social networking sites.
S/N
Facebook (%)
Orkut (%)
Twitter (%)
Others (%)
1
45
28
12
15
Table 5. Exposure of different kinds of ads.
S/N
Web banners (%)
Pop ups(%)
Flash ads(%)
Video ads(%)
Others(%)
1
32
8
31
22
7
Table 6. Communication creates trust on ads.
S/N
Agree (%)
Neutral (%)
Disagree (%)
1
38
51
11
advertisements, gives information about product and
service which is useful for the young user community in
an interactive way to learn more about the particular
brands, 12% user suggests Twiiter, please follow one
pattern all here small words has effective communication
of advertisements. 28% of users find Orkut as the second
option in communicating brand advertisements (Table 4).
Exposure of different kinds of ads
From the data, it is found that 32% of respondents have
come across web banner ads in these social networking
sites like Face book, Twitter and Orkut; whereas 8% cut
across pop up ads and flash ads in various websites and
31% of users found video ads in YouTube and in other
sites. Google, Yahoo and News International have
bought themselves a presence in the social networking
arena with different communication strategy to have
innovative appearance in content and display (Stroud,
2007). The detailed rationale for these acquisitions
differs, but all have a common theme of essential access
to the enormous audiences of these sites (Table 5).
Communication creates trust on ads
From the survey data, it is understood that 38% of user
agreed and satisfied with ads appearing in social
networking sites, whereas 11% of the user disagreed and
unsatisfied with certain communication of information.
Only 51% of the respondents found it neutral. The web
has proved a catalyst in bringing the changes forward
and amplifying their scale in creating trustworthiness
(Table 6).
Accessibility of ads
Only 8% of the total samples say that they have never
accessed or shown interest to the ads displayed in social
networking sites, while browsing internet for other
communication purposes. And 36% of the respondents
use to access often and were interested to listen to the
advertisements of various brands, 35% user says they
listen to the brand communication and also link to the
brand sites to gather more information and 21% of the
user access according to the way of communication it
appears, because sometimes the brand promotion could
be in the form of display ads, interactive feedback forms
or as interactive games, accessing of advertisements
information differs sometimes according to the format of
brand communication . Today's customers want to be
engaged differently than in years past and many
traditional marketing tactics simply do not work anymore.
Social media marketing is a revolutionary way to build
solid relationships with customers long before first
contact with fun, attractive messages and interactions
Jothi et al. 239
Table 7. Access of these ads.
S/N
Often (%)
Sometimes (%)
Never (%)
Depends (%)
1
36
35
8
21
Table 8. Brand Communication that attracts the users.
S/N
Interactive fan
pages (%)
Flash ads
(%)
Banner ads
(%)
Games, quiz or
updates (%)
Video ads
(%)
1
26
20
12
28
14
Table 9. Impact of communication.
S/N
Agree(%)
Neutral (%)
Disagree(%)
1
67
24
9
(Borges, 2009) (Table 7).
Brand communication that attracts the users
Games, quiz and updates of latest information are the
kind of interactive communication messages that attracts
28% of users. 26% of users are attracted to fan pages
and posts. 20% of users are pulled their interests towards
flash ads, 14% of users listened to video ads and
remaining 12% of users are interested to traditional
banner ads. Most of the social networking websites are
enabling brands to engage the right people in the right
conversation at right time (Shih, 2009). Nowadays
communication on branding in social networking sites is
more personal, contentious, fascinating and influencing
among the user community (Table 8).
Impact of communication
According to the respondents, 67% of user agreed that
the communication strategy used in brand
communication creates impact on certain brands
effectively and also which could helps them to recall the
same often and interactively. 24% of users said that it
partially creates impact and traffic of communication,
which result to confusion in users mind. The remaining
respondents almost 9%, says that it does not create
much impact on ads but still effective for other
communication purpose like sharing and chatting
information (Table 9).
Content analysis
The three social networking sites Face book, Twitter and
Orkut were chosen to analyze the units of parameters
and the presentations of data are shown in Table 10.
Results of the analysis
As seen earlier, the various brand communication factors
involve in these kinds of social media advertising and day
by day competition among the brands increase. So, to
survive brands, the communicators come up with more
and more innovative, interactive and interesting kinds of
brand communication messages which make the users to
access them and develop closeness with the different
brand communication strategy with attractive name and
its service.
1. The finding of the study states that the audiences
respond more to interactive marketing than the traditional
ads followed in internet advertising.
2. Almost everyone is communicated through social
networking sites.
3. Nearly 70% of the audience has impact through ads in
social networking sites and half of them access these ads
e.g. games, quiz, events, etc.
4. Users remember the brand by the way they advertise.
They respond to any new form of advertising which
interest them.
5. Social networking sites will become the primary arena
for highly targeted marketing and advertising. Social
networking sites present an unmatched opportunity to
build brand.
6. Users of Face book and Orkut are of same age group
and category. In twitter, people do not show much
interest because it’s just like a micro-blogging site.
7. Interaction is more in the display banners adver-
tisements in Face book and Orkut. All the networking
240 J. Media Commun. Stud.
Table 10. Layout of content analysis with parameters.
S/N
Parameters for
content analysis
Facebook
Twitter
Orkut
1.
Target Group
Nearly 54% lie in the age group
16 30. Graduates and students
of all age
16% stay updated with news,
22% for stay in touch with
friends and to update status.
Graduates > 16 yrs
53% < 25 years, 32% between
25 - 34 years. Graduates,
students of all ages
2.
Types of
Advertisements
comm.
Poll engagement ads, Video
engagement ads, Banded gift
engagement ads, Event and
hybrid engagement ads, Fan
pages
No advertisements but regular
brand follow ups and updates.
Banner ads, Ad optimization
using ad trackers
3.
Ad placements
Generally placed right hand side
corner and in wall posts
NA (Not applicable)
Right hand side top , above
the profile page e.g.: Docomo
4.
Communication
strategy
Brand promotion, To sell, users to
interact, brand identity, sharing,
fan and follow ups. Managing
online reputation.
Regular feeds from brands
and retain the brand identity
with users
Using ad tracker, particular
groups are selected and ads
are hosted, themes and fan
pages are one among the
form.
5.
User interaction
Through fan pages, posts, events
and games
To retweet and reply. Share
messages among brand
followers
Through fan pages and click
ads
6.
Visual appealing
factors
No themes, but visually appealing
with cool colors like blue and
white
Can customize the page and
can ad own contents. Usually
the designs are standard
Themes available. Usually
colorful
7.
Accessibility
Clean and clear. Ads and content
gets loaded fast. Friendly user
interface
Easy loading and no time out
Same as facebook, but
contents get loaded slower
than other two.
8.
User interest
Expect brand to be communicated
thro games, fan pages and events
Regular updates from
following brands
Usually banner ads and
optimization ads. So no
expectations
9.
Customization
People can create their own ad
and upload, sell products thro
market place option
NA (Not applicable)
Can create own fan pages and
send posts to users and can
also create their own ads.
sites have their own space in their web pages for
promoting ads.
8. Communication strategy and user interaction are
unique among each site. Face book promote and allows
user interaction, Twitter regularly feed posts regarding
the brand and Orkut promote through click ads and
promotional brand pages.
9. Face book follows a default backdrop and text whereas
twitter and Orkut can be customized.
10. Accessibility is more in Face book than others. Twitter
show importance only for text.
11. Users expect brand communication than brand
marketing in these sites.
12. People can create their own ads in Orkut and Face
book.
Conclusion
Communication about the product or service provides a
major contribution to brand competition in the market. It
not only provides information about a product or service
but also promotes creative innovation. Besides
advertising, it also facilitates consumer satisfaction. The
hidden fact is that no brand can progress without
effective communication strategy to attract their custo-
mers or users. Big and small variety of brands nowadays
laid their base on social network communication to get
recognized in the target market.
Social networking sites users of Face book, Twitter and
Orkut have become a personal, product and corporate
branding hub in India nowadays in digital era. Every brand
that exists on social networking sites has the same core
features and benefits, such as the ability to create a
page, share resources, add multimedia and much more.
Social networking sites are filled with potential users who
are mainly young adults. They spend more time in these
networking sites due to heavy commercial contents,
entertainment and social gathering. So, product or
service communicators throng their ads in these areas
with more and more interactive and with fascinating
factors so that their brand identity is developed among
the right choice of focused audience. Advertisers and
brands uses social networking sites as the major
resource for their promotion and developing brand
identity among the focused market.
SUGGESTIONS
Communication should be more preferred than
advertising: people do not prefer buying products through
social networking sites. So, if the brand is communicated
well and remembered by the audience, then it is a
greatest success to the company for their promotion
through social media.
Promotional way of advertising is best: the usual
banner ads and pop-up ads make the users to ignore
them. So advertising must be interactive, promotional and
in innovative form to hold the audience. It should target
the individuals than the mass. If an ad is hosted for a
group then that would be no advantage in delivering
specified information. Adding more multimedia elements
Jothi et al. 241
to have more interactive factors in fan pages and group
would benefit the brand user.
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APPENDIX
Appendix 1. Survey questionnaire.
A Questionnaire regarding the effectiveness of brand communication through Social Networking Sites
1. Age: _________
2. Educational Qualification: _________________________
3. How often do you use internet?
--- Once a week ---- 2 to 3 days a week ---- 1 or 2 hrs a day ---- more than 3 hrs
4. Are you aware of social networking sites?
----Yes ---- No
5. How often do you log in those networking site?
--- Daily --- 2 to 3 times a day --- once a week --- more than 3 times a day
6. How many SNS profile do you have?
---- Orkut ---- Face book ---- Twitter Others _____________
7. In which SNS do you find ads communicated well?
--- Face book ---Orkut ---Twitter ----Others
8. What kinds of ads have you come across in these sites?
--- Web banner ---Pop up ---Flash ads ---Video ads others _________
9. Do you agree ads appearing in SNS?
--- Agree --- Neutral --- Disagree
10. Have you ever accessed these ads coming on your way?
--- Often --- sometimes --- never --- depending on ads
11. What kinds of brand communication attract you in SNS?
--- Interactive --- Flash ads --- Banner ads --- Games, quiz, updates --- video ads
12. Did these kinds of ads made an impact over you?
--- Agree --- Neutral --- Disagree.
... This could lead to security flaws, for instance, using Facebook or WhatsApp groups as a formal or official method of communication within the organisation (Podins&Lavrenovs, 2018). Sharing confidential information about a company or its workers via these sites can have detrimental effects on information system security (Jothi, Neelamalar, & Prasad, 2011). It's simple for an outsider to pose as an employee, join the organisation chat groups, and gain access to all the sensitive institutional information. ...
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Information security is basically a strategy for safeguarding data against both unknown and recog-nised threats. The goal of this study was to look at the factors that affect the security of information systems in public higher learning institutions in Tanzania. Despite various organisational efforts to establish various strategies to combat information system security vulnerabilities, such as implementing security procedures, processes, policies, and information system security organisation structures to ensure data security,information system security remains a critical issue to most Tanzania's organisations. The main problem appears to be a lack of understanding of critical information security elements. Due to variances in ICT architecture, implementations, and usage, various firms have distinct security challenges. As a result, the study focuses on factors impacting the security of information systems at Tanzanian public higher learning institutions that provide bachelor's degrees or above, a total of 32 institutions. Hence, the sample size obtained from the population was eight institutions from both The National Council for Technical and Vocational 44 Education and Training (NACTE) and Tanzania Commission for Universities (TCU). A descriptive research design was applied and mixed methodology was used to determine common factors that affect the security of information systems for all public higher learning institutions in Tanzania. The study found that common factors affecting the security of information systems include demographic factors, work environment, and inadequate information systems security policies. The study proposed regular awareness and training programmes for all employees; separation of information system security policy from ICT policy; proper policy formulation and formalisation procedures; as well as management and government support. In addition, all public higher learning institutions must develop a unified information system security policy framework.
... Confusion could arise from multidisciplinary terminology in social marketing (Akbar et al., 2021c;French & Apfel, 2015;Lee, 2020;Peattie & Peattie, 2003), drawn from competing disciplines such as behavioral economics, public health, psychology, and commercial marketing (Kassirer et al., 2019). Jothi et al. (2011) andWymer (2011) maintain that social marketing planning may be limited by over-reliance on commercial marketing tactics and an overemphasis on individual behavior change because of a lack of holistic understanding of social marketing applications. The criticisms from round 2 were deemed valid, resulting in changes in the 'Expert Consultation' stage and actions aiming to minimize the risk of failure of social marketing programs (Akbar et al., 2021b;Simiyu-Wakhisi et al., 2011), which is supported by the next stage, 'Consumer Insight.' Uniquely, this proposed framework includes the 'Expert Consultation' stage, which is important because of its capacity to guide every step of planning, thereby creating relevant linkages. ...
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This paper presents the GPDS (Getting Started, Planning, Design, and Sustainability) Planning Framework for Social Marketing. A qualitative research design was employed. Data were collected from social marketing experts using the Delphi method and analyzed using the thematic analysis approach. The proposed framework includes key strengths of existing Social Marketing Planning (SMP) approaches. It also embeds emerging social marketing principles in the planning process, such as ‘Continuous Consumer Research and Feedback Loop’ (embracing key aspects of monitoring and evaluation) and ‘Expert Consultation’ to overcome the lack of clarity on the interdisciplinary language used in the field. Importantly, the critical aspect of ‘Sustainability’ in the changed behavior is incorporated, aligning with the global consensus definition of social marketing and the United Nations’ (UN) Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) focus on sustainable outcomes. Both theory and practice have been applied to the development and verification process of the proposed framework. The framework has consensus from 23 social marketing experts worldwide, drawing on current best practices and experts’ opinions/experience in the field. The GPDS Planning Framework for Social Marketing offers a comprehensive list of sources in the accompanying toolkit, including various activities for insight, design, implementation, and evaluation. This enables practitioners to prepare, plan and deliver social marketing programs to sustain behavioral outcomes. This research informs those working in social marketing, social policy, behavioral insight/design, public health, health communication, and service-user experience. These disciplines deploy social marketing practices in the design and delivery of interventions.
... İletişim etkinlik değişkeninin düzeyi, özellikle çevrimiçi işbirlikçi araç kullanıldığında değişebilir ve Jothi ve diğerlerine göre, çevrimiçi işbirlikçi medyada izlenen iletişim stratejisinin etkinliğini incelemeye ihtiyaç vardır [16]. Bu nedenle, aşağıdaki hipotezler önerilmektedir: Gerçek etkinlik (actual effectiveness) ("aeffect"): ÇİA'ların kullanıldığı gözden geçirme toplantılarında doğru şekilde toplanan görevlerin sayısını temsil eder. ...
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Yazılım geliştirme süreci için takım toplantıları olmazsa olmaz aktivitelerdendir. Bu toplantılar, genellikle, yüz yüze yapılsa da COVID-19 salgını gibi değişen küresel koşullar, yazılım geliştirme takvimini kesintiye uğratmadan başka türlü çözümlerin sürece acilen dahil olmasını gerektirmektedir ve bu konudaki literatür henüz yeterince olgunlaşmamıştır. Bu çalışmada, Yazılım Mühendisliği uygulamalarına çevrimiçi işbirlikçi araçların entegrasyonunu etkileyen faktörleri, gözden geçirme toplantıları özelinde değerlendirilmesi hedeflenmektedir. Bu amaçla, geleceğin yazılım profesyonelleri olarak nitelenen 73 ikinci ve üçüncü sınıf Yazılım Mühendisliği öğrencisinin önceden tanımlanmış senaryolar üzerinden deneysel gözden geçirme toplantılarına katılımı sağlamıştır. Çalışmanın sonucunda, çevrimiçi işbirlikçi araç kullanımının katılımcıların gerçek performanslarına olumlu etki ettiği ve takım üyeleri arasındaki etkileşimi yüz yüze toplantılara nazaran geliştirdiği, katılımcıların bu tür platformları gelecekteki kariyerlerinde kullanma niyetlerine olumlu katkı sağladığı saptanmıştır.
... Tingginya jumlah pengguna media sosial, khususnya Instagram di Indonesia, menjadi pemicu bagi para produsen barang dan jasa untuk berlomba-lomba mengiklankan serta memasarkan produk yang dimiliki melalui platform media sosial. Oleh karena itu, seiring meningkatnya jumlah pengguna media sosial, dapat dikatakan bahwa media sosial dapat menjadi wadah yang tepat untuk para produsen membangun citra produk yang baik dengan cara pemasaran produk melalui influencer (Jothi et al, 2011). ...
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Tingginya jumlah pengguna Instagram menyebabkan banyak produsen barang dan jasa memilih untuk mempromosikan produknya melalui jasa endorsement yang dilakukan oleh influencer media sosial. Strategi marketing menggunakan influencer ini dianggap penting karena dapat membantu produsen barang dan jasa untuk menciptakan citra positif produk dari mulut ke mulut serta dapat memenuhi tujuan bisnis antar kedua belah pihak. Berdasarkan fenomena tersebut, penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui strategi marketing yang digunakan oleh Influencer Arief Muhammad dan Tasya Farasya, serta melakukan komparasi jumlah likes dan comment dalam video endorsement yang diunggah di Instagram Feeds terhadap penggunaan tiga jenis strategi marketing, yaitu boasting of company, discount code, dan use of product, baik secara verbal maupun non verbal. Penelitian ini mengamati sebanyak 57 konten video endorsement yang diperoleh dari perhitungan rumus slovin, serta pengujian hipotesis dilakukan dengan metode analisis isi kuantitatif deskriptif dan statistik inferensial non-parametrik. Pengumpulan data pada penelitian ini dilakukan dengan mengamati unggahan video endorsement influencer terhadap penggunaan strategi marketing di Instagram Feeds yang kemudian dikodekan menggunakan coding book.
... It is the newest internet based digital advertising system and has gained popularity around the globe due to the development of social networking sites like Facebook, LinkedIn and other (Hadija, Croatia, and Barnes, 2012;Rehman, 2019). Advertising through social networking sites is often known as social advertising and is the paid form planned promotion of a business (Bakshy et al., 2012), and a source of promoting brands in cheaper cost (Chan, 2012;Esther, Emmanuel, and Okey, 2015).It became an ever-growing platform for advertising around the world (Soares and Pinho, 2014), and a customer centric communication system to get a cheerful response from targeted customers (Jothi, Neelamalar, and Prasad, 2011). Particularly, social advertising has become an interesting promotional trend in Malaysian society. ...
... Advertising is customer-centric; that is, customers play a very vital role in the advertisement because they are the ones who are going to determine the fate of the product being advertised. Some importance of social network advertising includes (Jothi et al., 2011): ...
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Social marketing uses brands and other marketing tools to influence individual behavior in ways that benefit both the individual and society. Branding has played a prominent role in social marketing interventions for public health for nearly 50 years and across more than 100 countries of all income levels, including among audiences that are not a primary target of commercial brands. Social marketing interventions brand categories of products and services, individual products and services, and communications campaigns. Social marketing interventions are designed, implemented and monitored following a process that includes key decision making points for brand development and management. This chapter describes that process beginning with audience insight and ending with evaluation. Each step in brand development and management is illustrated through a case study of condom social marketing in Mozambique.
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Participants in social network sites create self-descriptive profiles that include their links to other members, creating a visible network of connections — the ostensible purpose of these sites is to use this network to make friends, dates, and business connections. In this paper we explore the social implications of the public display of one's social network. Why do people display their social connections in everyday life, and why do they do so in these networking sites? What do people learn about another's identity through the signal of network display? How does this display facilitate connections, and how does it change the costs and benefits of making and brokering such connections compared to traditional means? The paper includes several design recommendations for future networking sites.
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Since the explosion of the Web as a business medium, one of its primary uses has been for marketing. Soon, the Web will become a critical distribution channel for the majority of successful enterprises. The mass media, consumer marketers and advertising agencies seem to be in the midst of Internet discovery and exploitation. Before a company can envision what might sell online in the coming years, it must ® rst understand the attitudes and behaviour of its potential customers. Hence, this study examines attitudes toward various aspects of online shopping and provides a better understanding of the potential of electronic commerce for both researchers and practitioners.
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