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Efficacy of a Morinda citrifolia Based Skin Care Regimen

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A six week clinical trial of a Morinda citrifolia (noni) based skin care regimen was conducted with 49 women, ages 38 to 55 years. Daily application of three product formulations to the face and neck resulted in significant reductions in lateral canthal fine lines and wrinkles (crow's feet), as measured by technician scoring and digital image analysis. Use of the regimen also improved skin elasticity and firmness Cutometer® measurements. No evidence of skin irritation was present in any participant at any time during the trial. A study questionnaire revealed that the measured improvements were visibly perceptible to more than 90% of the participants. The trial results substantiate traditional uses of the noni plant to improve skin health.
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Current Research Journal of Biological Sciences 4(3): 310-314, 2012
ISSN: 2041-0778
© Maxwell Scientific Organization, 2012
Submitted: January 19, 2012 Accepted: February 08, 2012 Published: April 05, 2012
Corresponding Author: Brett J. West, Research and Development Department, Morinda, Inc., American Fork, Utah, USA Tel.:1
(801) 234-3621 310
Efficacy of a Morinda citrifolia Based Skin Care Regimen
Brett J. West and Rachel A. Sabin
Research and Development Department, Morinda, Inc., American Fork, Utah, USA
Abstract: A six week clinical trial of a Morinda citrifolia (noni) based skin care regimen was conducted with
49 women, ages 38 to 55 years. Daily application of three product formulations to the face and neck resulted
in significant reductions in lateral canthal fine lines and wrinkles (crow’s feet), as measured by technician
scoring and digital image analysis. Use of the regimen also improved skin elasticity and firmness Cutometer®
measurements. No evidence of skin irritation was present in any participant at any time during the trial. A study
questionnaire revealed that the measured improvements were visibly perceptible to more than 90% of the
participants. The trial results substantiate traditional uses of the noni plant to improve skin health.
Key words: Clinical trial, Morinda citrifolia, noni, skin care
INTRODUCTION
Morinda citrifolia, commonly known as noni, is a
widely distributed tropical tree. It grows on the islands of
the South Pacific, Southeast Asia, Central America,
Indian subcontinent, and in the Caribbean. The fruit and
leaves of this tree have a history of use both as food and
for the promotion of health (Morton, 1992). The leaves
were found by indigenous people to be particularly useful
in treating various types of inflammation and poisonous
fish and insect stings (Cambi and Ash, 1994; Dittmar,
1993). The leaves are reported to have been one of the
leading plants used in the Marquesas Islands to treat
topical inflammation, as well as in Rotuma for burns
(Brown, 1935; McClatchey, 1993). In a clinical trial, noni
leaf extracts have been shown to provide protection to the
skin against ultraviolet light induced erythema (West et
al., 2009). Such anti-inflammatory activity could help
prevent premature aging of the skin. Noni fruits were also
used by Pacific Islanders to treat skin conditions, such as
boils and ulcerated sores (Whistler, 1992; Weiner, 1970).
The fruit was also used to treat a condition described as
“spreading dark spots on the skin” and as an emollient
(Dittmar, 1993).
All of the aforementioned properties indicate
potential utility of noni fruit and leaf derived ingredients
in skin care products. Potential benefits may include
prevention or reduction of the appearance of facial
wrinkles and improvement in skin elasticity. However,
such skin care properties, as constituted in a format that is
useful to consumers, have not been adequately evaluated
in a human trial. The purpose of our investigation was to
evaluate both the safety and efficacy of a skin care
regimen involving the use of three noni based products
formulated to improve the appearance of facial fine lines
and wrinkles, as well as improve skin elasticity.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Noni fruits were harvested in French Polynesia and
allowed to fully ripen. The fruit was then processed into
a puree by mechanical removal of the seeds and skin,
followed by pasteurization at a good manufacturing
certified fruit processing facility in Mataiea, Tahiti. Noni
seeds were collected from discarded material from the
noni fruit finishing process on the island of Tahiti. Seeds
were washed and dried. Following drying the seeds were
cracked and ground to 2-20 mm particle size. The flaked
seeds were then pressed in a screw press to expel the oil,
followed by an additional oil extraction. Fresh noni leaves
were collected from the Society Islands of French
Polynesia and shipped to the main island of Tahiti. There,
the leaves were pressed in a cloth copra press to extract
the juice. These ingredients were incorporated into three
investigational products to be used as a skin care regimen.
These included a cream for the skin surrounding the eyes
(referred to as an eye treatment), an emulsion (referred to
as a serum) to apply to cleansed facial skin, and a cream
to be applied to the face at night (referred to as a night
cream). The eye area treatment included (in order of
predominance) noni fruit juice, noni seed oil, and noni
leaf juice. The facial serum included noni leaf juice and
noni seed oil. The night cream contained noni fruit
juice and noni seed oil. All products contained
Curr. Res. J. Biol. Sci., 4(3): 310-314, 2012
311
other functional ingredients in addition to the noni based
ingredients.
Forty-nine women, ages 38 to 55 years, were enrolled
in and completed the clinical trial. Two of the participants
were Hispanic. The remaining women were Caucasian.
Inclusion criteria were: a fine line and wrinkle score of
five (noticeable) or greater in the lateral canthi (crow’s
feet areas), ability to give written informed consent, and
ability to complete the study. Exclusion criteria were
visible skin disease, sunburn or suntan during the study,
participation in concurrent research trial involving the
face, use of medication which may interfere with the
study, dermabrasion or laser resurfacing on the face
within the previous 2 years, chemical face peel within the
previous year, superficial peel in the past two months, or
surgical cosmetic procedures within the previous 10
years. Exclusion criteria also included the presence of
acne, psoriasis, or active eczema, history of cancer,
current treatment for asthma or diabetes, and known
sensitivities to cosmetics or personal care products.
All women were provided with investigational
products, were given instructions on the use of the
products, and were provided with a daily diary.
Participants were instructed to record in the diary the
dates and times the products were used, as well as any
comments they had while using the products. They were
also instructed to abstain from using any new skin care or
cosmetic products. They were also asked to refrain from
using any other anti-aging treatments, serums, eye
treatments, or eye creams during the trial. For six weeks,
the participants were to follow a daily skin care regimen.
This regimen involved applying the eye treatment, every
morning and night, to the cleansed skin surrounding the
eyes. It also involved applying the serum, every morning
and night, over the cleansed face and neck, with an
upward and outward motion. This step was to be
completed prior to applying moisturizer. The final step in
the daily regimen was to massage the night cream onto
the cleansed face and neck, with an upward and outward
motion, every evening.
Baseline evaluations of the participants were made
just prior to the in-use phase of the trial. Evaluations were
made with participants having freshly washed faces, with
no cosmetic or skin care products applied to the eye and
facial areas. The same evaluation procedures were
followed after two, four, and six weeks of following the
skin care regimen. A trained technician scored lateral
canthal wrinkles according to a semi-quantitative scale, as
follows: 0 = none; 1 to 3 = slight; 4 to 6 = noticeable; and
7 to 9 = very noticeable. Digital images of the face from
the front, right and left side views were also taken of each
participant during each visit. Parallel and cross-polarized
lighting were used to obtain digital images. Images were
also obtained with fluorescent lighting. To standardize the
evaluation of the images, each participant was draped in
black cloth around the shoulders and wore a black
headband to cover and pull hair away from the face.
Digital images were analyzed with Image-Pro® software
(Media Cybernetics, Bethesda, MD, USA) to determine
changes in lateral canthal mean wrinkle score. This was
done by calculating the mean wrinkle width, in pixels, for
each image obtained at baseline and weeks two, four, and
six. Percent changes from baseline of both the semi-
quantitative and digital image derived wrinkle scores were
compared with Student’s t-test and the Wilcoxon signed-
rank test.
The elasticity and firmness of the skin, in mm vertical
deformation under controlled partial vacuum, was
measured on the face of each participant with a
Cutometer® (Courage+Khazaka, Cologne, Germany), a
device that is widely used in skin health research (Dobrev,
2002). Percent increases from baseline in skin elasticity
and firmness were compared with Student’s t-test and the
Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Irritation of the facial skin was
also evaluated visually at each visit by a trained
technician. Visible evidence of irritation was scored
accordingly: 0 = no irritation; + = irritation barely
perceptible; 1 = mild irritation; 2 = moderated irritation;
3 = marked irritation; 4 = severe irritation. At the end of
six weeks, each participant completed a questionnaire,
summarized in Table 1, concerning the perceived efficacy
of the skin care regimen.
All statistical analyses were conducted with JMP®
statistical software (SAS Institute, Cary, NC, USA). The
study complied with the regulations governing good
clinical practices, as described in the U.S. Code of Federal
Regulations, Title 21, Part 50. Written informed consent
was obtained from each participant in the study.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
The methods used to assess fine lines and wrinkles
are typical of those reported in previous publications
(Callaghan and Wilhelm, 2008). Technician scored lateral
canthal lines (crow’s feet) were significantly reduced with
use of the skin care regiment, Table 2. This decrease
appeared to occur within the first two weeks of product
use, as mean scores remained constant through the
remainder of the trial. The more sensitive digital image
analysis also revealed significant wrinkle reductions due
to the skin care regimen, Table 2. But unlike the
technician scored values, mean lateral canthal line widths
continued to decrease throughout the entire trial period.
By the sixth week, participants experienced a 7.4%
average decrease in crow’s feet lines and wrinkle widths.
The percentage of participants experiencing a reduction in
fine lines and wrinkles, based on the image analysis,
increased throughout the trial to 96% by the end of six
weeks.
Curr. Res. J. Biol. Sci., 4(3): 310-314, 2012
312
Table 1: Participant questionnaire prompts, statements and possible answers
Graded prompts Possible responses to graded prompts
Lessening of the appearance of crow's feet fine lines/wrinkles Extremely noticeable change
Improved skin firmness -- skin has become more firm. Very noticeable change
Improved skin elasticity. Noticeable change
Lessening of the appearance of age spots/skin discolorations. Slight change
Skin tone appears more "even". No change
Skin appears "healthier" since applying the product.
Skin appears “younger” since applying the product.
Statements of agreement Possible responses to statements
After using the product, the overall quality of my skin improved. Agree
After using the product, I would purchase it if it were available on the market. Disagree
After using the product, I would recommend it to a friend.
Fig. 1: Reduction in lateral canthal fine lines and wrinkles (crow’s feet) of a 52 year old female
Table 2: Lateral canthal wrinkle scores (mean±standard deviation)
Mean % decrease
Week Mean score from baseline
Technician evaluation
0 (baseline) 6.2±1.2 -
2 5.7±0.7* 4.9
4 5.7±0.7* 5.3
6 5.7±1.2* 5.3
Digital image analysis
0 (baseline) 7.0±0.5 -
2 6.8±0.4** 3.7
4 6.7±0.5** 5.3
6 6.5±0.4** 7.4
*: Statistically significant difference from baseline (p<0.05); **:
Statistically significant difference from baseline (p<0.001)
Table 3:Cutometer® measurements, in mm of vertical deformation
(mean±standard deviation), of facial skin elasticity/firmness
No. of individuals
Week Mean score improved from baseline
0 (baseline) 0.559±0.145 -
2 0.651±0.128* 32
4 0.624±0.182* 30
6 0.613±0.142 27
*: Statistically significant difference from baseline (p<0.05)
An example of the reduction in fine lines and wrinkles of
one of the participants, a 52 year old female, is
presented in Fig. 1. Skin elasticity and firmness improved
throughout the trial period, Table 3. Mean Cutometer®
measurements were significantly greater by the second
week of following the skin regimen. Week two and four
average elasticity/firmness readings were, respectively,
42.4 and 33.8% greater than baseline values. At the
end of the trial, mean facial skin elasticity/firmness was
greater than prior to the start of the study, but not as great
as during the previous two visits. However, 55% of
participants had measureable increases in elasticity and
firmness by the end of the trial. The data suggest that the
greatest improvement occurs within the first two weeks of
product use.
The skin care regimen was found to be non-irritating.
In fact, no signs of facial irritation were observed in any
participant and any time during the trial. This finding is
consistent with a previously reported repeat insult patch
test of extracts made from noni leaves (West et al., 2009),
as well as the traditional uses of the plant to sooth
inflamed skin.
Responses to the questionnaire provide some insight
into the perceived efficacy of the products in the skin care
regimen, Table 4. Consistent with the results of the
technician scored and digital image analyses, at least 92%
of the participants reported some degree of change in the
reduction of the appearance of fine lines and wrinkles,
while 96% reported increased skin firmness and elasticity.
The questionnaire also revealed that 92% of the
participants felt that a decrease in the appearance of age
spots/skin discolorations had occurred. The perceived
reduction in skin discoloration is of particular interest, as
bioactive constituents of noni have been reported to
inhibit the process of melanogenesis (Masuda et al.,
2012). The percentage of subjects who felt that some
improvement had occurred in skin tone, appearance of
healthy skin, and appearance of younger skin was 84,
Curr. Res. J. Biol. Sci., 4(3): 310-314, 2012
313
Table 4: Questionnaire responses at completion of skin care regimen trial. Results are expressed as percentages of the total responses for each prompt
or statement Percentage of responses
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Extremely noticeable Very noticeable Noticeable change Slight change No change
change change
Lessening of the appearance of 10.2 18.4 38.8 24.5 8.2
crow's feet fine lines/wrinkles
Improved skin firmness -- skin 12.2 22.4 36.7 24.5 4.1
has become more firm
Improved skin elasticity 14.3 18.4 38.8 20.4 8.2
Lessening of the appearance of 6.1 16.3 32.7 36.7 8.2
age spots/skin discolorations
Skin tone appears more "even" 2.0 34.7 30.6 16.3 16.3
Skin appears "healthier" since 16.3 28.6 34.7 16.3 4.1
applying the product
Skin appears "younger" since 8.2 22.4 30.6 30.6 8.2
applying the product Agree Disagree
After using the product, the 87.8 12.2
overall quality of my skin improved.
After using the product, I would purchase 87.8 12.2
it if it were available on the market.
After using the product, I would 87.8 12.2
recommend it to a friend.
96 and 92, respectively. Generally, the largest group of
participants felt that these changes were “noticeable”,
with a smaller number reporting “very noticeable” or
“extremely noticeable” changes. All but a small
fraction of study participants felt that the skin care
regiment improved the overall quality of the skin and
indicated that they would use the product, or
recommend it to a friend, if available on the market.
CONCLUSION
The results of the six week clinical trial of the
safety and efficacy of a noni based skin care regimen
appear to substantiate the traditional uses of the noni
plant for the improvement of skin health. Significant
improvements in the appearance of fine lines and
wrinkles and skin elasticity and firmness were evident.
These benefits appeared within two weeks of product
use. Consistent with traditional use and previous safety
tests of noni leaf extract, the products of the regimen
were nonirritating. The current trial has demonstrated
the safety and potential utility of noni derived
ingredients for the improvement of skin health and
appearance.
ACKNOWLEDGMENT
Support for this study was provided by Tahitian
Noni International, Inc. Study conduct was carried out
under the direction of Annemarrie Hollenback, Essex
Testing Clinic, New Jersey, U.S.A. The investigational
products (Defy brand Face Lifting Night Cream, Age
Erasing Serum, and Renewing Eye Treatment) were
provided by Tahitian Noni International, Inc.
REFERENCES
Brown, F.B.H., 1935. Flora of Southeastern Polynesia.
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Cambie, R.C., and J. Ash, 1994. Fijian Medicinal
Plants. CSIRO, Canberra, Australia, pp: 257-258.
Callaghan, T.M. and K.P. Wilhelm, 2008. A review of
ageing and an examination of clinical methods in
the assessment of ageing skin. Part 2: Clinical
perspectives and clinical methods in the evaluation
of ageing skin. Int. J. Cosmet. Sci., 30: 323-332.
Dittmar, A., 1993. Morinda citrifolia L-Uses in
Indigenous Samoan Medicine. J. Herbs Spices
Med. Plants, 1: 77-92.
Dobrev, H.P., 2002. A study of human skin mechanical
properties by means of cutometer. Folia Med.
(Plovdiv), 44: 5-10.
Masuda, M., K. Itoh, K. Murata, S. Naruto, A. Uwaya,
F. Isami and H. Matsuda, 2012. Inhibitory effects
of Morinda citrifolia extract and its constituents on
melanogenesis in murine B16 melanoma cells.
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McClatchey, W.C., 1993. Studies on the ethnobotany
of the island of Rotuma. M.S. Thesis, Brigham
Young University, Provo, Utah, USA.
Morton, J.F., 1992. The ocean-going noni, or Indian
Mulberry (Morinda citrifolia, Rubiaceae) and
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Weiner, M.A., 1970. Secrets of Fijian Medicine.
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... Preparations from the noni M. citrifolia are used for treating a long list of ailments ranging from wounds, sores, burns, sprains, and dislocations to diabetes mellitus, high blood pressure, AIDS, and malignant neoplasms [153][154][155]. More recently, clinical studies found that noni leaf extracts protected the skin from erythema caused by ultraviolet light [155], and that noni seed oil had meaningful antiinflammatory activity in acne [156]. ...
... Preparations from the noni M. citrifolia are used for treating a long list of ailments ranging from wounds, sores, burns, sprains, and dislocations to diabetes mellitus, high blood pressure, AIDS, and malignant neoplasms [153][154][155]. More recently, clinical studies found that noni leaf extracts protected the skin from erythema caused by ultraviolet light [155], and that noni seed oil had meaningful antiinflammatory activity in acne [156]. As a result, a host of noni-based cosmetics and cosmeceuticals have been manufactured, including hand and facial soaps, shampoos and conditioners, foot and body lotions, body powders, deodorants, ointments for treating acne, formulations to fight wrinkles, as well as eye creams, rejuvenating face masks, moisturizers, and night creams to reduce signs of aging [155]. ...
... More recently, clinical studies found that noni leaf extracts protected the skin from erythema caused by ultraviolet light [155], and that noni seed oil had meaningful antiinflammatory activity in acne [156]. As a result, a host of noni-based cosmetics and cosmeceuticals have been manufactured, including hand and facial soaps, shampoos and conditioners, foot and body lotions, body powders, deodorants, ointments for treating acne, formulations to fight wrinkles, as well as eye creams, rejuvenating face masks, moisturizers, and night creams to reduce signs of aging [155]. The antioxidant activity of flavonoids and the emollient properties of fatty acids in the fruits and leaves of the plant [153,154,[157][158][159], and the anti-inflammatory action of ingredients in the seed oil [156,159] may contribute to the beneficial effects of these products. ...
... Using herbal ingredients, different skin care products have proven to exhibit some beneficial properties, such as sunscreen, anti-aging, moisturizing, antioxidant, anti-cellulite, and antimicrobial effects [2,3]. Clinical trials in 2012 of a skin care regimen based on Morinda citrifolia L resulted in significant reductions in lateral canthal fine lines and wrinkles and improved skin elasticity and firmness [4]. These benefits appeared within 2 weeks of product use. ...
... These benefits appeared within 2 weeks of product use. In addition, the product regimen was safe and non-irritating; therefore, a skin care regimen based on M. citrifolia L has a potential utility of improving skin health and appearance [4][5][6]. Ethanolic extract of noni fruit contains ursolic acid and 3,3'-bisdemethylpinoresinol, which could prevent wrinkles [7]. ...
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Objectives: Noni fruit (Morinda citrifolia L) containing ursolic acid and 3,3’ bisdemethylpinoresinol can be useful as an anti-wrinkle agent. Thehydrogel face mask is an alternative skin care product.Methods: In this study, 0.1% ethanol extract of noni fruit was formulated with a concentration of 4% sodium alginate and 0.5% xanthan gum to formthe hydrogel face mask. Physical stability of the hydrogel face mask was evaluated using organoleptic observation, consistency rates, swelling indexmeasurements, and mechanical strength.Results: The results showed that the hydrogel face mask has good water holding capacity, a tensile strength of 35.6524±0.8842 kgf/cm2, an elongationrate of 272.00±4.47%, and remains stable in color and odor for 12 weeks.Conclusions: This study revealed that the hydrogel face mask containing an ethanol extract of noni fruit is stable and has good physical characteristics;therefore, the hydrogel face mask is satisfactory for use as a nutracosmeceutical product.
... The results of a three-month open-label longitudinal study demonstrated the potential anti-stress (adaptogenic) effect of an herbal mixture that included noni [91]. Human trials involving the topical application of noni extracts as well as noni fruit juice indicate anti-inflammatory, anti-acne, and anti-aging activities within the skin [92][93][94][95][96]. ...
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Noni juice is a globally popular health beverage that originates from the tropics. Traditional Tahitian healers believe the noni plant to be useful for a wide range of maladies, and noni juice consumers throughout the world have similar perceptions. Nevertheless, human clinical trials are necessary for an understanding of what the health benefits of noni juice truly are. A review of published human intervention studies suggest that noni juice may provide protection against tobacco smoke-induced DNA damage, blood lipid and homocysteine elevation, and systemic inflammation. Human interventions studies also suggest that noni juice may improve joint health, increase physical endurance, increase immune activity, inhibit glycation of proteins, aid weight management, help maintain bone health in women, help maintain normal blood pressure, and improve gum health. Further, these studies point to noni juice possessing notable antioxidant activity, more so than the other fruit juices that served as placebos. It is this antioxidant effect, and its interaction with the immune system and inflammation pathways, that may account for many of the observed health benefits of noni juice. However, the existing evidence does have some limitations in its application to noni juice products in general as all the peer-reviewed human interventions studies to-date have involved only one source of French Polynesian noni juice. Geographical factors and variations in processing methods are known to produce commercial noni juice products with divergent phytochemical and nutrient compositions. Therefore, other sources of noni products may have different toxicological and pharmacological profiles.
... The Morinda plant family (Rubiaceae) is composed of a large number of species, about 80 species if not more. Some of them are well-known for their biological properties such as Morinda citrifolia, also known as "noni" which showed a good efficacy in skin care regimen [7]. Noni also demonstrated anti-diabetic activity in a type 2 diabetes mellitus murine model [8]. ...
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... use of topical formulations with noni fruit juice improved the viscoelastic properties of the skin of adult volunteers. Daily application of a noni-based skin care regiment improved average skin firmness/elasticity by up to 42.4% in 49women, ages 38 to 55 years[35]. In another human trial, a cream containing an ethanol extract of noni was applied to the face of 22 adult women in the morning and evening for four weeks[36]. ...
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Noni juice is a globally popular health beverage originating in the tropics. Traditional Tahitian healers believe the noni plant to be useful for a wide range of maladies, and noni juice consumers throughout the world have similar perceptions. Nevertheless, human clinical trials are necessary for a precise understanding of what the health benefits of noni juice are. A review of published human intervention studies suggests that noni juice may provide protection against tobacco smoke-induced DNA damage, blood lipid and homocysteine elevation as well as systemic inflammation. Human intervention studies also indicate that noni juice may improve joint health, increase physical endurance, increase immune activity, inhibit glycation of proteins, aid weight management, help maintain bone health in women, help maintain normal blood pressure, and improve gum health. Further, these studies point to notable antioxidant activity in noni juice, more so than other fruit juices which served as trial placebos. It is this antioxidant effect and its interaction with the immune system and inflammation pathways that may account for many of the observed health benefits of noni juice. However, the existing evidence does have some limitations as far as its general application to noni juice products; all the peer-reviewed human interventions studies to date have involved only one source of French Polynesian noni juice. Geographical factors and variations in processing methods are known to produce commercial noni juice products with divergent phytochemical and nutrient compositions. Therefore, other sources of noni products may have different toxicological and pharmacological profiles.
... Finally they concluded the trial results validate traditional uses of the Noni plant to improve skin health. 91 Effects on serum lipid profile A study reported that drinking 29.5 to 188 ml of Noni juice per day reduces cholesterol, triglycerides, and hs-CRP. Also a decrease in LDL and homocysteine, as well as increase in HDL, among the Noni juice drinkers were observed. ...
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Background: Morinda citrifolia (Noni) has been used widely as a complementary and alternative therapy in many countries owing to its potent antioxidant activity and proven health benefits. Traditionally, it finds used as a therapeutic remedy to various diseases as an antibacterial, antitumor, anthelminthic, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, immunostimulant. Also it has proved beneficial in conditions like gastritis, skin diseases, respiratory infections, menstrual and urinary tract disorders, fever, diabetes and venereal diseases. Objective: This review emphasizes on the phytochemical and mineral profile of the different parts of Noni plant. In addition, this review corroborates the pharmacological basis for the various health benefits, traditional and medicinal applications of Noni. Materials and Methods: All the available information of Noni were collected from electronic databases such as Academic Journals, Ethnobotany, Ethnopharmacology, Springer, PubMed, Google Scholar, Science Direct and other primary and secondary sources. Results: According to our search results pertaining to scientific literature, Morinda citrifolia is used for more than 40 types of ailments worldwide. Crude extract of various parts of plant and fruit juice are reported to contain amino acids, anthraquinones, fatty acids, flavonoids, iridoids, lignans, polysaccharides, sterols, sugars, terpenoids etc. which are therapeutically useful for a broad range of pathological conditions. Fourteen human clinical trials have validated the remarkable health benefits of Noni. Conclusion: Literatures prove that Noni is pharmacologically active and is used in different forms of cancer, viz. colon, esophageal, breast, colorectal cancers; cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, arthritis, hypertension. These properties are substantiated by the preclinical or/and clinical investigations.
Chapter
People from worldwide have been using plant-based substances (Natural Products) to enhance the appearance since the existence of mankind. In the ancient Egypt, around 3000 BC, there is evidence of using cosmetics, and their usages have been a necessary part in our everyday life in all cultures. Initially, natural products have been used for beauty products; occasionally augment with paints and dyes. Natural products have approached back with present trend cosmetic products which are mainly derived from plant sources. Since from longer time, plant products (Natural Products) are source of food and medicines. A broad range of natural products is used in cosmetics preparations, skin care such as treatment of dryness, treatment of eczema and acne, as well as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-aging, hair care products such as hair growth imputes, hair color, scalp complaints like dandruff, and skin protection, and also toiletry preparations. Essential oils are major source of plants; essential oils have been used in preparation of perfumes, hair care substances, emollient of the skin. For example, natural products have been used in cosmetic industry avoiding side effects with traditional preparations for herbal beauty such as Emblica officinalis (Amla), Acacica concinna (Shikakai), and Callicarpa macrophylla (Priyangu) have been used strongly in skin care and hair care. Moreover, Indian women are still using natural products such as Pterocarpus santalinus L. and Curcuma longa (skin care), Lawsonia inermis L. (hair color), and natural oils such as coconut, olive, shea butter, jojoba, and essential oils in perfumes for their bodies. The present book chapter represents the importance of natural products in cosmetics.
Thesis
Le terme « superfruits » désigne aujourd’hui un ensemble de fruits dont les teneurs en nutriments et/ou en composés phytochimiques (notamment les anti-oxydants) sont considérables. Parmi eux, la baie de Gogi ( Lycium barbarum L. ), utilisée depuis des millénaires dans la médecine traditionnelle chinoise, jouit d’une popularité grandissante dans le monde occidental. Les études scientifiques sur Lycium barbarum L. mettent en évidence sa forte densité nutritionnelle et permettent de le classer parmi les fruits les plus riches en antioxydants (polysaccharides essentiellement), utiles dans la prévention de pathologies liées au vieillissement (stress oxydatif), telles que la dégénérescence maculaire liée à l’âge, les complications du diabète de type II, certaines maladies neurodégénératives ou encore dans les dysfonctionnements hépatiques.
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Morinda citrifolia Linn. (Rubiaceae) leaves have been used in tropical folk medicine to treat topical inflammation and burns. A carbomer gel base, containing the ethanol extract and juice pressed from the leaves, was evaluated for potential allergenic properties in a repeat-insult patch test in 49 volunteers. To investigate the topical photo-protective properties, the combined ethanol extract and leaf juice were evaluated in a UVB-induced erythema model in 25 volunteers. The crude ethanol extract of M. citrifolia leaves was also evaluated in vitro for potential anti-inflammatory activity in a histamine H-1 receptor antagonism assay. There was no evidence of allergenic potential in the repeat-insult patch test. When the combination of ethanol extract and leaf juice was applied, the UVB dose required to induce erythema was almost 3.5 times greater than with untreated skin (P<0.001). In the histamine H-1 receptor-binding assay, the crude ethanol extract of M. citrifolia leaves inhibited receptor binding by 57%. These results suggest that M. citrifolia leaves are safe for topical use and may be useful in mitigating UVB-induced injury to the skin.
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The objective of this study was to examine the effects of Morinda citrifolia (noni) extract and its constituents on α-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH)-stimulated melanogenesis in cultured murine B16 melanoma cells (B16 cells). A 50% ethanolic extract of noni seeds (MCS-ext) showed significant inhibition of melanogenesis with no effect on cell proliferation. MCS-ext was more active than noni leaf and fruit flesh extracts. Activity guided fractionation of MCS-ext led to the isolation of two lignans, 3,3'-bisdemethylpinoresinol (1) and americanin A (2), as active constituents. To elucidate the mechanism of melanogenesis inhibition by the lignans, α-MSH-stimulated B16 cells were treated with 1 (5 μM) and 2 (200 μM). Time-dependent increases of intracellular melanin content and tyrosinase activity, during 24 to 72 h, were inhibited significantly by treatment with the lignans. The activity of 1 was greater than that of 2. Western blot analysis suggested that the lignans inhibited melanogenesis by down regulation of the levels of phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, resulting in suppression of tyrosinase expression.
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Cutometer is a commercially available non-invasive suction skin elasticity meter. The present study discusses some aspects of the biological informativeness and interpretation of the results obtained in studying skin mechanical properties with cutometer. We analyze the results of previously published studies on the mechanical properties of healthy and diseased skins and their changes after external influences. Studying human skin using cutometer gives objective and biologically meaningful information about the mechanical properties of healthy and diseased human skin.
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The genus Morinda embraces about 80 species, mostly of Old World origin.M. citrifolia L. (southern Asia Australia), noted as a source of dye and edible leaves, has buoyant seeds that float for many months and commonly appears in the Pacific and also in tropical America where M. royoc L., piña de ratón, is indigenous, inhabits inland hammocks and pinelands as well as seacoasts, and is also one of the floating-seed morindas. There are brief references to its use for dyeing in the Cayman Islands and Yucatan. BothM. citrifolia andM. royoc have sundry folk-remedy uses.M. parvifolia Bartl. has antitumor/antileukemic activity. High intake of selenium byM. reticulata Benth. has poisoned horses in Australia. In the Philippines, there is new interest in the wood ofM. citrifolia. It is hard and of beautiful grain. El género Morinda abarca alrededor de 80 especies. La mayoría se origina en el Viejo Mundo.M. citrifolia (sur de Asia hasta Australia) conocida como fuente de tinte y hojas comestibles. Tiene semillas boyantes que flotan por muchos meses y comúnmente aparecen en el Pacífico como también en América tropical dondeM. royoc L., piña de ratón, es indígena; habita en hamacas y bosques de pino poco adentro del país, como también en ciertas costas del mar. Es una de las morindas de semillas-flotantes. Hay notas breves en la literatura sobre su uso en tintorería en las Cayman Islands y Yucatan. LaM. citrifolia y laM. royoc ambos poseen algunos usos en medicina folklórica. LaM. parvifolia posee actividad antitumor/antileukemico. La alla absorción de selenio en laM. reticulata ha causado envenenamiento en caballos en Australia. En las Filipinos hay nuevo interés en modera de laM. citrifolia. Es dura y de fibra bonita.
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With the advancement of skin research, today's consumer has increased access to technological information about ageing skin and hair care products. As a result, there is a rapidly increasing demand for proof of efficacy of these products. Recognizing these demands has led to the development and validation of many clinical methods to measure and quantify ageing skin and the effects of anti-ageing treatments. Many of the current testing methods used to research and evaluate anti-ageing product claim to employ sophisticated instruments alongside more traditional clinical methods. Intelligent use of combined clinical methods has enabled the development of technologically advanced consumer products providing enhanced efficacy and performance. Of non-invasive methods for the assessment and quantification of ageing skin, there is a plethora of tools available to the clinical researcher as defined by key clinically observed ageing parameters: skin roughness and surface texture; fine lines and wrinkles; skin pigmentation; skin colour; firmness and elasticity; hair loss; and proliferative lesions. Furthermore, many clinical procedures for the evaluation of ageing skin treatments are combined with invasive procedures, which enable added-value to claims (such as identification and alteration of biochemical markers), particularly in those cases where perception of product effect needs additional support. As discussed herein, clinical methods used in the assessment of skin ageing are many and require a disciplined approach to their use in such investigations.
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The ageing process is noticeable within all organs of the body and manifests itself visibly in the skin. Skin ageing is influenced by several factors including genetics, environmental exposure, hormonal changes and metabolic processes. Together these factors lead to cumulative alterations of skin structure, function and appearance. The functioning of the central nervous, immune, endocrine and cardiovascular systems, as well as the skin is also impaired with age. Chronologically, aged skin is thin, relatively flattened, dry and unblemished, with some loss of elasticity and age-related loss of architectural regularity. General atrophy of the extracellular matrix is reflected by a decrease in the number of fibroblasts. Reduced levels of collagen and elastin, with impaired organization are primarily because of decreased protein synthesis affecting types I and III collagen in the dermis, with an increased breakdown of extracellular matrix proteins. Oxidative stress is considered of primary importance in driving the ageing process. The original free radical theory of ageing purported that the molecular basis of ageing was derived from a lifetime accumulation of oxidative damage to cells resulting from excess reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced as a consequence of aerobic metabolism. Although the skin possesses extremely efficient anti-oxidant activities, during ageing, ROS levels rise and anti-oxidant activities decline. The ROS are necessary in multiple MAP kinase pathways and the induction of AP-1, in turn, up-regulates expression of matrix-metalloproteinases providing a plausible mechanism for the increased collagen degradation in aged human skin.
Morinda citrifolia L-Uses in Indigenous Samoan Medicine
  • A Dittmar
Dittmar, A., 1993. Morinda citrifolia L-Uses in Indigenous Samoan Medicine. J. Herbs Spices Med. Plants, 1: 77-92.
Studies on the ethnobotany of the island of Rotuma
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McClatchey, W.C., 1993. Studies on the ethnobotany of the island of Rotuma. M.S. Thesis, Brigham Young University, Provo, Utah, USA.
Secrets of Fijian Medicine
  • M A Weiner
Weiner, M.A., 1970. Secrets of Fijian Medicine. University of California, Berkeley, California, pp: 93-94.