Article

"Hot-Headed" Is More Than an Expression: The Embodied Representation of Anger in Terms of Heat

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Abstract

Anger is frequently referred to in terms of heat-related metaphors (e.g., hot-headed). The metaphoric representation perspective contends that such metaphors are not simply a poetic means of expressing anger but actually reflect the manner in which the concept of anger is cognitively represented. Drawing upon this perspective, the present studies examined the idea that the cognitive representation of anger is systematically related to the cognitive representation of heat. A total of 7 studies, involving 438 participants, provided support for this view. Visual depictions of heat facilitated the use of anger-related conceptual knowledge, and this occurred in tasks involving lexical stimuli as well as facial expressions. Furthermore, priming anger-related thoughts led participants to judge unfamiliar cities and the actual room temperature as hotter in nature. The results are discussed in terms of their implications for embodied views of emotion concepts and their potential social consequences.

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... For instance, skin temperature and blood pressure increase in angry people and these bodily experi- ences are the basis for the emergence of an "anger is heat" metaphor. Supporting this view, Wilkowski, Meier, Robinson, Carter and Feltman (2009) found that the processing of anger cues is facilitated when the concept of heat is primed by related words or pictures. ...
... More generally, recent research also shows that top-down processes may impact on the perceptual integration of facial features (Hugenberg & Corneille, 2009;Michel, Corneille, & Rossion, 2007. Based on this prior literature, we deemed it reasonable to hypothesize that such top-down effects may also result from the metaphorical representation of happiness and sadness (e.g., for a related demonstration on anger and heat, see Wilkowski et al., 2009). ...
... These results confirm that the vertical happy-sad mapping can influence the speeded recognition of mild facial emotions. To our knowledge, only one study has examined the influence of metaphors in the processing of emotional cues or facial expressions (the heat representation of anger; Wilkowski, et al., 2009). Therefore, our results constitute the first evidence for the verticality metaphor impacting the processing of facial emotions. ...
Article
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The present research focuses on the verticality metaphor that distinguishes happy and sad emotional concepts in mental representation, and its influence on the recognition of facial expressions for these emotions. Study 1 showed that people represent happiness and sadness concepts higher and lower in space, respectively Study 2 extended these findings to the spatial representation of facial expressions of emotions. Given the prominence of this conceptual mapping, a congruent spatial positioning was predicted to facilitate the recognition of mild facial expressions of happiness and sadness. As predicted, Study 3 found reduced recognition times for spatially congruent presentations of these facial expressions. However, the effect was present for female participants only. Study 4, a replication of the second study, showed that women but not men display the happy-sad vertical positioning. The contribution of the present findings is discussed in the context of gender differences, simulation theory, and the polarity argument.
... In the heat manipulation condition, participants were asked to "recall a time when they felt uncomfortably hot." To help participants in the recall task and consistent with prior studies using pictures to prime temperature, they were also provided with several pictures of people suffering from heat (e.g., Halali, Meiran & Shalev, 2016;Wilkowski, Meier, Robinson, Carter, & Feltman, 2009). ...
... We measured participants' levels of perceived fatigue and affective states multiple times during the study. For the first measurement we adapted Rosenhan and colleagues' (1981) research design, asking participants to indicate the extent to which they remembered experiencing various affective, cognitive and physical states during the event/the day they had recalled (see also Wilkowski et al., 2009). To separate the affect and fatigue measures and to ensure that participants would not be able to guess our hypotheses, in the next portion of the study they were asked to solve five easy trivia questions along with some filler questions. ...
Article
Building on the conservation of resources model, we conducted three studies to explore the link between ambient temperature and individual prosocial behavior. In Study 1, analyzing the two-wave field data from a chain of retail stores in Eastern Europe, we find that, in hot, as opposed to normal temperatures, employees are less likely to act in a prosocial manner. In Study 2, we replicate and extend these findings in a randomized controlled experiment by identifying mechanisms underlying the relationship between hot ambient temperature and helping behavior. Specifically, we find that heat increases fatigue that leads to reduction in positive affect and subsequently reduces individual helping. Finally, in Study 3, we replicate these findings in a field experiment. Taken together our study helps to explain how and through what mechanisms ambient temperature influences individual helping. The theoretical and practical implications of our findings are discussed.
... In this study, we used the concept of bodily weight as a proxy for valence. Besides bodily weight, other metaphors have also been related to emotions, such as body temperature (warm vs. cold), pressure, comfort/discomfort, tension, or enhancement (e.g., Barbosa Escobar et al., 2021;Bergman et al., 2015;Borhani et al., 2017;Kövecses, 1990;Rolls et al., 2008;Waggoner, 2010;Wilkowski et al., 2009). Thus, weight is only one form in which valence can be grounded in the body, and our choice of using bodily weight limits the generalizability of our findings. ...
... Future research should consider alternative ways to capture valence by BSMs to better understand which emotion is best captured by which concept, and whether similar BSMs can be found for different valencerelated concepts. Regarding body temperature, it should be noted, however, that both positive and negative emotions (e.g., love, anger) have been associated with warmth (e.g., Kövecses, 2003;Lakoff & Kövecses, 1987;Wilkowski et al., 2009), suggesting that body temperature might not be a straightforward proxy for valence across different emotions. ...
Article
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Bodily sensation mapping (BSM) is a recently developed self-report tool for the assessment of emotions in which people draw their sensations of activation in a body silhouette. Following the circumplex model of affect, activity and valence are the underling dimensions of every emotional experience. The aim of this study was to introduce the neglected valence dimension in BSM. We found that participants systematically report valence-related sensations of bodily lightness for positive emotions (happiness, love, pride), and sensations of bodily heaviness in response to negative emotions (e.g., anger, fear, sadness, depression) with specific body topography (Experiment 1). Further experiments showed that both computers (using a machine learning approach) and humans recognize emotions better when classification is based on the combined activity-and valence-related BSMs compared to either type of BSM alone (Experiments 2 and 3), suggesting that both types of bodily sensations reflect distinct parts of emotion knowledge. Importantly, participants found it clearer to indicate their bodily sensations induced by sadness and depression in terms of bodily weight than bodily activity (Experiment 2 and 4), suggesting that the added value of valence-related BSMs is particularly relevant for the assessment of emotions at the negative end of the valence spectrum.
... Recently, researchers have extended this line of research from ambient temperature to other heat-related stimuli. For instance, visual depictions of heat were found to significantly facilitate the use of anger-related conceptual knowledge (Wilkowski, Meier, Robinson, Carter, & Feltman, 2009), and words associated with heat have been shown to activate aggressive thoughts and hostile perceptions (Dewall & Bushman, 2009). A recent study demonstrated that sitting on a heated pad could generate more aggressive cognitions and behaviours than did a neutral temperature (sitting on an unheated pad) (Fay & Maner, 2014). ...
... Exceptions are two studies conducted by Maner (2014, 2015), which demonstrated that the contextual situation moderated the effect of primed heat on hostility (Fay & Maner, 2014) as well as the relationship between physical warmth and affiliative motivation (Fay & Maner, 2015). To our knowledge, however, no previous study has attempted to reconcile the two lines of research linking warm temperature to interpersonal warmth (Fay & Maner, 2012;IJzerman et al., 2013;Kang et al., 2011;Williams & Bargh, 2008;Williams et al., 2009) and hostility/aggression (Bushman et al., 2005;Butke & Sheridan, 2010;Dewall & Bushman, 2009;Reifman et al., 1991;Wilkowski et al., 2009) by examining potential moderators of these relationships. By emphasizing the interactive effect of social context and temperature on interpersonal outcomes, the current research elaborates on the well-established link between concrete experiences and abstract, high-level processes. ...
Article
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The concrete experience of physical warmth has been demonstrated to promote interpersonal warmth. This well-documented link, however, tells only half of the story. In the current study, we thus examined whether physical coldness can also increase interpersonal warmth under certain circumstances. We conducted three experiments to demonstrate that the relationship between the experience of physical temperature and interpersonal outcomes is context dependent. Experiment 1 showed that participants touching cold (vs. warm) objects were more willing to forgive a peer's dishonest behaviour. Experiment 2 demonstrated the fully interactive effect of temperature and context on interpersonal warmth: Participants touching cold (vs. warm) objects were less likely to assist an individual who had provided them with good service (positive social context), but more likely to assist an individual who had provided them with poor service (negative social context). Experiment 3 replicated the results of Experiment 2 using the likelihood to complain, a hostility-related indicator, as the dependent variable: In a pleasant queue (positive social context), participants touching cold objects were more likely to complain and those touching warm objects were less likely to complain compared with the control group. This pattern was reversed in an annoying queue (negative social context). © 2015 The Authors. British Journal of Social Psychology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of British Psychological Society.
... Uncomfortably warm participants were not only more likely to be hostile themselves than comfortable participants (thereby replicating similar effects found in but also perceived the video clip interactions as containing more hostility and aggression. This effect works not only when participants are hot themselves, but also when they are only primed with the idea of heat (e.g., Wilkowski et al., 2009). They found that participants who were exposed to images related to heat were more likely to judge neutral facial expressions as aggressive and were more likely to have aggressive thoughts than control condition participants. ...
... Now, consider some basic psychological findings that also underpin the heat/aggression relation. The first comes from embodied cognition research, which suggests that humans are incredibly responsive and susceptible to the stimuli in their environment, which ultimately influences how we think and feel (Wilkowski et al., 2009). Research shows that hot temperatures produce discomfort and irritability, and then we can clearly see how being in an uncomfortably hot environment can yield biases in aggression-related precursors such as hostile perceptions, hostile feelings, and aggressive inclinations. ...
Book
Much of the current rhetoric surrounding climate change focuses on the physical changes to the environment and the resulting material damage to infrastructure and resources. Although there has been some dialogue about secondary effects (namely mass migration), little effort has been given to understanding how rapid climate change is affecting people on group and individual levels. In this Element, we examine the psychological impacts of climate change, especially focused on how it will lead to increases in aggressive behaviors and violent conflict, and how it will influence other aspects of human behavior. We also look at previously established psychological effects and use them to help explain changes in human behavior resulting from rapid climate change, as well as to propose actions that can be taken to reduce climate change itself and mitigate harmful effects on humans.
... In one set of studies, participants were exposed to images related to heat (e.g., fire) or to cold (e.g., ice). Participants exposed to the heat images were more likely to think aggressive thoughts and to judge neutral facial expressions as angry (Wilkowski et al., 2009). Similarly, participants primed with thoughts of heat (as opposed to cold or neutral thoughts) were more likely to have aggressive thoughts and to interpret another person's ambiguous behavior (e.g., spilling a drink on you in a crowded bar) as an act of aggression (DeWall & Bushman, 2009). ...
... There are also a number of psychological mechanisms thought to mediate the link between temperature and aggression. For example, research on embodied cognition suggests that our body's response to environmental stimuli influences how we think, illustrated by the association between "hostility" and "heat" in cognitive studies (e.g., Wilkowski et al., 2009). Others suggest that hot temperatures produce discomfort, increasing irritability and hostile perceptions of others, both of which increase the likelihood of aggression (Anderson & Bushman, 2002;Anderson, 1989). ...
Chapter
Given the dire nature of many researchers' predictions about the effects of global climate change (e.g., rising sea levels, droughts, more extreme weather), it comes as little surprise that less attention has been paid to the subtler, less direct outcomes of rapid climate change: psychological, sociological, political, and economic effects. In this chapter we explore one such outcome in particular: the effects of rapid climate change on aggression. We begin by exploring the potential for climate change to directly affect aggression in individuals, focusing on research showing the relationship between uncomfortably hot ambient temperature and aggression. Next, we review several lines of research illustrating ways that climate change can indirectly increase aggression in individuals. We then shift our focus from individuals to the effects of climate change on group-level aggression. We finish by addressing points of contention, including the challenge that the effects of climate change on aggression are too remote and too small to be considered relevant.
... For example, heat stress is known to stimulate aggressive behavior (e.g., Anderson, 1989;Anderson & Bushman, 1997), which is associates with impulsivity and poor cognitive control (DeBono, Shmueli, & Muraven, 2011;DeWall, Baumeister, Stillman, & Gailliot, 2007;Wilkowski, Crowe, & Ferguson, 2015). Further, Wilkowski, Meier, Robinson, Carter, and Feltman (2009) have demonstrated that visual depictions of heat facilitate the use of anger-related conceptual knowledge, while priming of anger-related thoughts lead participants to judge unfamiliar cities and the actual room temperature as hotter in nature. Other evidence suggesting that physical temperature might affect cognitive control performance includes, impaired performance in different cognitive tasks following heat stress, with more attention demanding tasks being more vulnerable than less attention demanding tasks (for a review, Hancock & Vasmatzidis, 2003). ...
... The improvement in cognitive control performance following cool compared to warm temperatures priming fits well with previous findings on temperature priming effects such as, the negative effects of visual depictions of heat on the ability to restrain implosive behavior (i.e., verbal aggressive reactions; Wilkowski et al., 2009), as well as the positive effects of cool temperature cues on Fig. 4 Mean proportion of wrong responses as a function of temperature, Experiment 2. Error bars represent .95 within-subjects confidence intervals deliberate behavior (i.e., perspective taking; Sassenrath et al., 2013). ...
Article
Full-text available
The effect of physical temperature on cognition and behavior has been the focus of extensive research in recent years, demonstrating that embodied concepts are grounded in, and shaped by, sensorimotor physical experiences. Nevertheless, less is known about how experienced and perceived temperatures affect cognitive control, one of humans core executive functions. In the present work, we primed participants with cool versus warm temperature using a between participants manipulation of physical touch experience (Experiment 1), and a within participants manipulation of seeing landscape views associated with cool vs. warm temperatures (Experiment 2). In both experiments, cool compared to warm temperatures lead to improved performance on an anti-saccade task, an established cognitive control measure. Implications are discussed.
... Several specific metaphors not mentioned in this article have received experimental attention in social psychology, including anger is heat (Wilkowski, Meier, Robinson, Carter, & Feltman, 2009), agreeable is sweet (Meier, Moeller, Riemer-Peltz, & Robinson, 2012), and out-group members are animals (Maass, Suitner, & Arcuri, 2014). An even larger body of qualitative research, including richly detailed, cross-disciplinary studies of language and culture, points to numerous metaphors that structure how individuals and groups think, feel, and interact (e.g., time is money; system failure is machine malfunction; ...
... For example, earlier we mentioned studies showing that heat is closely linked to friendliness ("I got a warm reception at NYU"; Williams & Bargh, 2008). Yet other studies show that people use hot temperature sensations to metaphorically conceive negative ideas like intensifying conflict (e.g., "This debate is really heating up!" Kövecses, 2005) and danger ("Go upstate until the heat blows over"; Wilkowski et al., 2009). How, then, should metaphorically framed messages refer to heat? ...
Article
Marketers routinely use metaphors to compare abstract concepts to concrete concepts in remote domains. For example, a tagline “Supercharge your day” compares energy to electricity. Such messages aim to change consumer attitudes and behavior, but what impact do they have? According to Conceptual Metaphor Theory, metaphors can shape thought by borrowing knowledge of a concrete concept to understand and relate to an abstraction, despite their superficial differences. Supporting this claim is growing evidence that exposure to metaphoric messages prompts recipients to construe the metaphor's abstraction in ways that are analogous to the salient concrete concept. This article presents a selective review of this literature, focusing on studies pertaining to product evaluation and consumption attitudes. Discussion looks across findings to identify questions for future research. Taken as a whole, this research illuminates how, when, and for whom metaphoric messages are persuasive, with theoretical and practical implications for marketing, design, and persuasion.
... While the alexithymia group interacted significantly with emotion (F 5,1030 = 2.34, p = 0.040) and state (F 11,2266 = 2.38, p = 0.006), a non-significant emotion × state × alexithymia group interaction indicated no difference in the relationship between specific states and specific emotions in individuals with and without alexithymia. Although the qualitative pattern of similarities differed numerically between the groups, therefore, it was not significantly different; individuals with alexithymia simply showed typical associations (such as associations between anger and feeling hot [39], and disgust and feeling nauseated [40]) to a greater extent. Main effects of emotion (F 5,1030 = 88.06, ...
Article
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Alexithymia is a sub-clinical construct, traditionally characterized by difficulties identifying and describing one’s own emotions. Despite the clear need for interoception (interpreting physical signals from the body) when identifying one’s own emotions, little research has focused on the selectivity of this impairment. While it was originally assumed that the interoceptive deficit in alexithymia is specific to emotion, recent evidence suggests that alexithymia may also be associated with difficulties perceiving some non-affective interoceptive signals, such as one’s heart rate. It is therefore possible that the impairment experienced by those with alexithymia is common to all aspects of interoception, such as interpreting signals of hunger, arousal, proprioception, tiredness and temperature. In order to determine whether alexithymia is associated with selectively impaired affective interoception, or general interoceptive impairment, we investigated the association between alexithymia and selfreported non-affective interoceptive ability, and the extent to which individuals perceive similarity between affective and non-affective states (both measured using questionnaires developed for the purpose of the current study), in both typical individuals (n=105 (89 female), mean age=27.5 years) and individuals reporting a diagnosis of a psychiatric condition (n=103 (83 female), mean age=31.3 years). Findings indicated that alexithymia was associated with poor non-affective interoception and increased perceived similarity between affective and non-affective states, in both the typical and clinical populations. We therefore suggest that rather than being specifically associated with affective impairment, alexithymia is better characterized by a general failure of interoception.
... Taken at its face value, the three-decade-long history of CMT in the study of emotions, spanning together a wide variety of concepts in different languages (e.g., Emanatian, 1995;Krupa, 1996;Lakoff & Kövecses, 1987;Matsuki, 1995;Ponsonnet, 2014;Taylor & Mbense, 1998), should make CMT a particularly informative linguistic paradigm for emotion research. However, with several exceptions -mostly in the psycholinguistic domain (e.g., Lakoff, 2014;Wilkowski, Meier, Robinson, Carter, & Feltman, 2009)-the results of emotion metaphor studies have not yet been properly incorporated into the affective sciences. Two major reasons seem to have hampered this integration. ...
Article
This paper focuses on the conceptualization of anger as viewed from two disciplinary perspectives: Conceptual Metaphor Theory and emotion psychology. In the first study, twenty varieties of anger lexicalized in three languages (English, Russian, and Spanish) are characterized using the Metaphorical Profile Approach, a quantitative corpus-based assessment of the meaning of emotion words in metaphorical contexts. In the second study, the same set of lexemes is analyzed using a psycholinguistic feature-rating instrument adapted to the study of near-synonyms. Our results demonstrate congruence of the two methods in unveiling the internal organization of the anger family of terms in each language, and the reasons for this organization. In particular, the metaphorical and the feature-based profiles provide consistent insight about variation in bodily heat, expressiveness, regulation, action tendencies (aggression and drive to act), regulation, and the temporal characteristics of anger experiences. To conclude, we discuss the mutual complementarity of the two profiling methodologies and their relevance for a wider research context.
... The use of bodily metaphors contextualises more complex experiences into different senses that enables better expression and greater understanding of emotions by individuals. For example, love tastes sweet (Chan et al., 2013); anger feels hot-headed (Wilkowski, Meier, Robinson, Carter, & Feltman, 2009). The concrete sensation in the tactile (touch) and gustatory (taste) domains inform the cognitive comprehension of abstract concepts, such as love and anger. ...
Article
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Heaviness is a bodily metaphor used to express sadness. Building on embodied cognition theory and metaphor theory, we argue that sadness is grounded in bodily sensation of heaviness, which has important sensory marketing implications for engaging consumer senses to affect consumer decision-making and attitude formation processes. We found support for this metaphorical link between heaviness and sadness across six studies. We showed that carrying a heavy bag saddened individuals and increased the valuation of a teddy bear. Intention to donate to a charity supporting endangered tigers increased when burdened participants watched a sad video about these animals. Conversely, sadness induced physical heaviness and increased preference for an easy-to-maintain sofa. Further, sad individuals disliked an advertisement for a sports drink that figured energy-consuming actions. Our findings inform sensory marketing practice about embedding the bodily sensation of heaviness to induce sadness in marketing communication.
... burning up or feeling heated;DeWall & Bushman, 2009;Wilkowski, Meier, Robinson, Carter, & Feltman, 2009), which share a "red" component. It would be difficult to determine the origination of red-anger metaphors although one possible reason could be experiential of experiencing intense anger can be a flushing or reddening of the face and neck along with a feeling of heat ...
... Several experimental psychological studies have found a direct positive relationship between temperature and aggression-high temperatures enhance aggression and criminal tendencies (Anderson, 1989;DeWall and Bushman, 2009). Being randomly assigned to a hot room rather than a suitably warm room makes subjects more likely to be hostile and to behave more aggressively toward others (DeWall et al., 2011); presenting words or pictures associated with high temperatures also makes subjects more irritable (Wilkowski et al., 2009). In addition to studies based on experimental paradigms, many scholars have also studied the relationship between temperature and crime based on correlational data. ...
Article
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Climate change is having profound effects on natural and socio-economic systems, especially via extreme climate events. Using panel data from 129 prefectural-level cities in China from 2013 to 2019, this paper explores the effects of extreme climate on crime rates based on a climate index and manual collection of crime data. The results showed that extreme climate has a significant positive effect on crime rates, increasing by 0.035% for every 1% increase in the extreme climate index. This occurs through two mechanistic pathways: reduced agricultural output and lower employment income. The heterogeneity analysis shows that extreme climate has a greater impact on crime rates in eastern areas which are economically developed and have high levels of immigration. This study provides new perspectives on the impact of extreme climate on the economy and society, in which governments can actively participate in climate governance through environmental protection, energy conservation and emission reduction, and technological innovation to reduce crime rates by reducing the occurrence of extreme climate.
... While the alexithymia group interacted significantly with emotion (F 5,1030 = 2.34, p = 0.040) and state (F 11,2266 = 2.38, p = 0.006), a non-significant emotion × state × alexithymia group interaction indicated no difference in the relationship between specific states and specific emotions in individuals with and without alexithymia. Although the qualitative pattern of similarities differed numerically between the groups, therefore, it was not significantly different; individuals with alexithymia simply showed typical associations (such as associations between anger and feeling hot [39], and disgust and feeling nauseated [40]) to a greater extent. Main effects of emotion (F 5,1030 = 88.06, ...
Article
Full-text available
Alexithymia is a sub-clinical construct, traditionally characterised by difficulties identifying and describing one’s own emotions. Despite the clear need for interoception (interpreting physical signals from the body) when identifying one’s own emotions, little research has focused on the selectivity of this impairment. While it was originally assumed that the interoceptive deficit in alexithymia is specific to emotion, recent evidence suggests that alexithymia may also be associated with difficulties perceiving some non-affective interoceptive signals, such as one’s heart rate. It is therefore possible that the impairment experienced by those with alexithymia is common to all aspects of interoception, such as interpreting signals of hunger, arousal, proprioception, tiredness and temperature. In order to determine whether alexithymia is associated with selectively impaired affective interoception, or general interoceptive impairment, we investigated the association between alexithymia and self-reported non-affective interoceptive ability, and the extent to which individuals perceive similarity between affective and non-affective states (both measured using questionnaires developed for the purpose of the current study), in both typical individuals (N = 105 (89 female), mean age = 27.5 years) and individuals reporting a diagnosis of a psychiatric condition (N = 103 (83 female), mean age = 31.3 years). Findings indicated that alexithymia was associated with poor non-affective interoception and increased perceived similarity between affective and non-affective states, in both the typical and clinical populations. We therefore suggest that rather than being specifically associated with affective impairment, alexithymia is better characterised by a general failure of interoception.
... Although it is typical to associate certain emotions with non--affective interoceptive states (such as feeling hot while experiencing anger (39), or experiencing nausea while feeling disgusted (40)), it is possible that individuals with alexithymia, due to interoceptive confusion, perceive these states as more similar than is typical, or perceive similarity between states that are not typically associated. ...
Article
Full-text available
Alexithymia is a sub-clinical construct, traditionally characterised by difficulties identifying and describing one’s own emotions. Despite the clear need for interoception (interpreting physical signals from the body) when identifying one’s own emotions, little research has focused on the selectivity of this impairment. While it was originally assumed that the interoceptive deficit in alexithymia is specific to emotion, recent evidence suggests that alexithymia may also be associated with difficulties perceiving some non- affective interoceptive signals, such as one’s heart rate. It is therefore possible that the impairment experienced by those with alexithymia is common to all aspects of interoception, such as interpreting signals of hunger, arousal, proprioception, tiredness and temperature. In order to determine whether alexithymia is associated with selectively impaired affective interoception, or general interoceptive impairment, we investigated the association between alexithymia and self-reported non-affective interoceptive ability, and the extent to which individuals perceive similarity between affective and non-affective states (both measured using questionnaires developed for the purpose of the current study), in both typical individuals (N = 105 (89 female), mean age = 27.5 years) and individuals reporting a diagnosis of a psychiatric condition (N = 103 (83 female), mean age = 31.3 years). Findings indicated that alexithymia was associated with poor non-affective interoception and increased perceived similarity between affective and non-affective states, in both the typical and clinical populations. We therefore suggest that rather than being specifically associated with affective impairment, alexithymia is better characterised by a general failure of interoception.
... This research extends the literature by demonstrating that visually perceived warmth (via manipulation of interior colors and materials) can affect individuals. While previous scholars have shown similar effects of warmth using visual stimuli (e.g., a photo of burning logs in a fireplace) (e.g., Murphy & Standing, 2014;Wilkowski, Meier, Robinson, Carter, & Feltman, 2009), their mechanism has yet been verified via priming. Distinguishing from the standard theories of cognition related to semantic memory, our research reveals that visually perceiving certain colors or materials without a warmth-related theme (e.g., a fireplace) can still influence temperature estimates, and in turn, store intimacy. ...
... Meier et al. (2015) replicated the main results of . Other researchers have found that emotion can be represented through temperature (Wilkowski et al., 2009), suggesting that the temperature clue "hot" could contribute to the representation of knowledge related to anger. People typically overestimate the surrounding temperature when priming the emotion stimulus of anger. ...
Article
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People often express emotion in language using weight (e.g., a heavy heart, light-hearted, light humor, or heavy-handed), but the question remains whether these expressions of emotion are rooted in the body. Six experiments used a priming paradigm to explore the metaphoric relation between weight perception and emotional words. Experiments 1 and 2 investigated the influence of weight perception on judgments of emotional words and the influence of emotional words on judgments of weight, respectively. A significant difference between the consistent condition (e.g., lightness corresponds to positive words and heaviness corresponds to negative words) and the inconsistent condition (e.g., lightness corresponds to negative words and heaviness corresponds to positive words) was found in Experiment 1 but not in Experiment 2. Experiments 3, 4, and 5 were conducted to exclude potential confounds. Experiment 6 was a repeated-measures study that was conducted to verify the weight-emotion effect. The study confirmed that weight perception affected judgments of emotional words. The results contribute to the growing literature on conceptual metaphor theory and embodied cognition theory.
... For example, happiness is often discursively equated with lightness and anger with tightness or heat (Lupton, 1998). Research has found that placing people in a heated environment increases the availability of anger-related conceptual knowledge, while exposing them to anger-related emotional primes produces higher estimations of the temperature of their environment (Wilkowski, Meier, Robinson, Carter, & Feltman, 2009). Similarly, drawing on the metaphorical equation of spatial location and affect (e.g. ...
Article
Recent developments in the psychological and social sciences have seen a surge of attention to concepts of embodiment. The burgeoning field of embodied cognition, as well as the long-standing tradition of phenomenological philosophy, offer valuable insights for theorising how people come to understand the world around them. However, the implications of human embodiment have been largely neglected by one of the key frameworks for conceptualising the development of social knowledge: Social Representations Theory. This article seeks to spark a dialogue between Social Representations Theory and embodiment research. It outlines the position the body occupies in the existing theoretical and empirical social representations literature, and argues that incorporating concepts gleaned from embodiment research may facilitate a more comprehensive account of the aetiology of social representations. The value of analytic attention to embodiment is illustrated with reference to a recent study of social representations of neuroscience, which suggested that embodied experience can shape the extent to which people engage with certain topics, the conditions under which they do so, and the conceptual and affective content of the ensuing representations. The article argues that expanding Social Representations Theory's methodological and conceptual toolkit, in order to illuminate the interplay between embodied experience and social communication in the development of common-sense knowledge, promises productive directions for empirical and theoretical advancement.
... Participants are better at categorizing anger-related word when presented with a background involving heat, compared to a cold, or neutral background image. Further, participants primed with anger provided higher estimates of average annual temperature for unfamiliar cities than participants primed with fear, or neutral words (Wilkowski, Meier, Robinson, Carter, & Feltman, 2009). The reverse relationship also holds: Priming participants with heat activates thoughts related to anger and aggression (DeWall & Bushman, 2009). ...
... It has been suggested that emotion concepts are represented in language (Lindquist & Gendron, 2013) and that metaphors reflect their cognitive representation (Wilkowski et al., 2009). Nevertheless, it remains unclear how the metaphorical meaning that links red with anger developed. ...
Preprint
Past studies have shown that higher levels of anger are inferred from faces that show increased facial redness (red-anger effect). However, all previous research in support of this effect has used within-subjects designs with varying levels of facial redness. We hypothesized that very frequent random changes in facial redness paired with limited options to respond to such changes can induce demand characteristics. As the color red has also been found to be strongly associated with anger, it may be obvious for participants that they are expected to respond to facial redness by indicating higher levels of perceived anger. In a preregistered close replication (Study 1, N = 40) conducted online, we observed the red-anger effect but were able to show that approximately one fifth of the participants were suspicious about the purpose of the study. If the effect is independent of demand characteristics, it should also emerge when facial redness is manipulated between-subjects. In a preregistered conceptual replication (Study 2, N = 329), we found the red-anger effect in a within-subjects design condition but not in a between-subjects design condition. We conclude that past findings of the red-anger effect were (at least partially) due to demand characteristics. Future research should (a) attend to demand characteristics, (b) use a broader diversity of methodological approaches, and (c) develop and test explanations about processes that are related to color in emotion perception.
... Many behavioral studies have demonstrated a link between the metaphorical use of language and sensory or motor processes, including novel sensory metaphors (the past is heavy) (e.g., Slepian and Ambady, 2014), conventional sensory metaphors (anger is heat) (Wilkowski et al., 2009), or conventional motion metaphors (love is a journey) (Gibbs, 2013b). Sensory motor regions of the brain have recently been shown to be activated in response to not only sensory-motor words but to those words used metaphorically (e.g., Cacciari et al., 2011;Lacey et al., 2012;Desai et al., 2013). ...
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While many links have been established between sensory-motor words used literally (kick the ball) and sensory-motor regions of the brain, it is less clear whether metaphorically used words (kick the habit) also show such signs of "embodiment." Additionally, not much is known about the timing or nature of the connection between language and sensory-motor neural processing. We used stimuli divided into three figurativeness conditions-literal, metaphor, and anomalous-and two modality conditions-auditory (Her limousine was a privileged snort) and motion (The editorial was a brass-knuckle punch). The conditions were matched on a large number of potentially confounding factors including cloze probability. The electroencephalographic response to the final word of each sentence was measured at 64 electrode sites on the scalp of 22 participants and event-related potentials (ERPs) calculated. Analysis revealed greater amplitudes for metaphorical than literal sentences in both 350-500 ms and 500-650 ms timeframes. Results supported the possibility of different neural substrates for motion and auditory sentences. Greater differences for motion sentences were seen in the left posterior and left central electrode sites than elsewhere on the scalp. These findings are consistent with a sensory-motor neural categorization of language and with the integration of modal and amodal information during the N400 and P600 timeframes.
... CAMAC -GLUCKSBERG 1984;GOODHEW et al. 2014), слике (нпр. MEIER et al. 2007WILKOWSKI et al. 2009), боје (нпр. BOOT -PECHER 2010), па и покрете тела (нпр. ...
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Serbian: U pristupima istraživanju metafore postoji izvesna mera neujednačenosti, jer se u merenju koriste različite tehnike i zadaci, vrste instrumenata i draži. Cilј ovog istraživanja je formiranje normiranog korpusa metafora na srpskom jezičku koji bi bio od pomoći istraživačima u budućim psiholingvističkim poduhvatima. U radu se normira 55 književnih i 55 neknjiževnih metafora u obliku A je B u odnosu na sledeće osobine: metaforičnost, kvalitet, pogodnost izvora da opiše cilј, stepen poznatosti, razumlјivost, sličnost izvora cilјu i broj interpretacija. Uz obezbeđivanje normiranog korpusa, analize pokazuju pouzdane skale za svaku od dimenzija i značajne korelacije između njih. English: Metaphor research approaches exhibit a certain degree of inconsistency, as they involve different techniques, tasks, instruments, and stimuli. The aim of the present study is to establish a normed corpus of metaphors in Serbian that could be of use to researchers in the future psycholinguistic endeavours. A total of 55 literary and 55 nonliterary metaphors in the A is B form were normed with regards to their features, and these include metaphoricity, quality/goodness, aptness, familiarity, comprehensibility, source-target similarity and number of interpretations. Along with establishing the normed corpus, the analyses have shown that each dimension scale was reliable, and that the correlations among the dimensions were significant.
... A possibility is that valence is related to embodied process of comfort as warmer temperatures are comfortable but extreme temperatures at both ends can generate discomfort [47]. These results are consistent with Wilkowski et al. [93] as the authors suggested people from different cultures use metaphorical expressions of hot and negative emotions (e.g., anger). These results also are also in line with Baylis et al. [62], who found that expressions of positive emotions in social media were the highest at 20˚C and decreased beyond 30˚C, at which point negative emotions also increased. ...
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Emotions and temperature are closely related through embodied processes, and people seem to associate temperature concepts with emotions. While this relationship is often evidenced by everyday language (e.g., cold and warm feelings), what remains missing to date is a systematic study that holistically analyzes how and why people associate specific temperatures with emotions. The present research aimed to investigate the associations between temperature concepts and emotion adjectives on both explicit and implicit levels. In Experiment 1, we evaluated explicit associations between twelve pairs of emotion adjectives derived from the circumplex model of affect, and five different temperature concepts ranging from 0˚C to 40˚C, based on responses from 403 native speakers of four different languages (English, Spanish, Japanese, Chinese). The results of Experiment 1 revealed that, across languages, the temperatures were associated with different regions of the circumplex model. The 0˚C and 10˚C were associated with negative-valanced, low-arousal emotions, while 20˚C was associated with positive-valanced, low-to-medium-arousal emotions. Moreover, 30˚C was associated with positive-valanced, high-arousal emotions; and 40˚C was associated with high-arousal and either positive- or negative-valanced emotions. In Experiment 2 (N = 102), we explored whether these temperature-emotion associations were also present at the implicit level, by conducting Implicit Association Tests (IATs) with temperature words (cold and hot) and opposing pairs of emotional adjectives for each dimension of valence (Unhappy/Dissatisfied vs. Happy/Satisfied) and arousal (Passive/Quiet vs. Active/Alert) on native English speakers. The results of Experiment 2 revealed that participants held implicit associations between the word hot and positive-valanced and high-arousal emotions. Additionally, the word cold was associated with negative-valanced and low arousal emotions. These findings provide evidence for the existence of temperature-emotion associations at both explicit and implicit levels across languages.
... All this is associated with an increase in impulsivity and aggressive behavior, increasing the likelihood of violent incidents. Similarly, psychological research also shows that the cognitive representation of anger is systematically related to the cognitive representation of heat (e.g., Wilkowski et al. 2009), suggesting that hot temperatures by producing discomfort increases irritability and hostile perceptions of others increases the likelihood of aggression (Anderson 2001). ...
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Understanding causes of interpersonal conflicts, related costs, and the effects on investment in agriculture are important concerns of social sciences. The present study was designed to explore these aspects in relation to climate change, since rising temperature and precipitation are considered crucial causal factors in fueling interpersonal conflicts. The study used cross-sectional data collected from rural farm households from a large district of Pakistani Punjab. Cost of conflicts was estimated using standard economic methods whereas factors affecting interpersonal conflicts were estimated through employing logit model. The study found that interpersonal conflicts cost US$135 per month for following the proceedings of the conflicts filed in the court. Households involved in conflicts spent significantly very few resources in purchasing farm inputs which in turn declined productivity of maize (28%) and sugarcane (19%). Warm temperature, precipitation, and windstorm were perceived by households as causal factors for interpersonal conflicts. Socioeconomic characteristics namely, farm size, livestock, family size, and high monthly income of household, were significantly associated with interpersonal conflicts. The study concludes important policy implications.
... Physical heat is also metaphorically associated with anger ("hot-head"), and thus participants categorized angry faces (but not sad faces) more quickly when they were portrayed on a heatrelated background (campfire scene) than a neutral background (Wilkowski et al. 2009). ...
Thesis
This dissertation consists of three essays that develop marketing interventions to influence consumers judgment, choice, and behaviors. Essay 1 studies whether, how, and when crossmodal correspondences affect downstream judgments. Essay 2 develops a behavioral intervention aimed at reducing consumers’ choices of food portion sizes, which can be easily used in the settings of online food ordering such as food delivery apps. Essay 3 studies whether prosocial incentive scheme can effectively motivate consumers to participate in online referral programs.
... Schmidt-Snoek et al. detected associated, different scalp distributions to these metaphors (Schmidt-Snoek et al., 2015), by analyzing the ERP associated to motion (for example, "The partnership was a fi nancial tail spin") and auditory (for example, "His emails were an insistent knock") unfamiliar metaphors. Other researchers also found such connections between the usage of the above mentioned classes of metaphors, for example: "the past is heavy" (Slepian and Ambady, 2014), "anger is heat" (Wilkowski et al., 2009), "love is a journey" (Gibbs, 2013). ...
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The paper analyzes the difficult problems of natural language processing with artificial intelligence tools and, starting from the results in neurolinguistics tries to sketch a state of the art and, meanwhile, to draft a glimpse of the causes of the current theoretical limitations of computational linguistics. Major difficulties that were identified and that are discussed in the paper are metaphor understanding, discourse processing, and empathy. 
... Furthermore, given that the temperature icons were not decoded as colours, strengthens the argument proposed by Lorentz, Ekstrand, Gould, and Borowsky (2016) that colourtemperature cross-modal processing direction is primarily from colour to temperature rather than temperature to colour. In the present context, this finding is even more impressive given that emotions were being judged in other parts of the experiment, and colour-emotion (Fetterman, Robinson, & Meier, 2012;Mentzel, Schu¨cker, Hagemann, & Strauss, 2017) or temperature-emotion (Ijzerman & Semin, 2009;Wilkowski, Meier, Robinson, Carter, & Feltman, 2009) assocations may well have been activated preferentially to colour-temperature connections alone but were not. Therefore, crossmodal correlations between temperature and another modality (such as music) may be mediated by colour rather than emotion (etc.). ...
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Can music be rated consistently using nonverbal descriptors such as colours and temperatures? 144 participants rated 6 experimenter-selected and 2 self-selected pieces of music along 15 bipolar icon (graphic) scales intended to portray emotions, and sensory experiences consisting of colour, temperature, shape, speed, texture, and weight. Participants also rated the same pieces using bipolar verbal scales which aimed to encompass the concepts represented by the icons (e.g., the word “red” for the colour red). Furthermore, the icons themselves were subjected to open-ended verbal labelling to validate the icon scale. Colour icons spontaneously evoked a cross-modal association on 67% of occasions: blue being cool, and red/orange being warm or hot, and the icon scale had overall good face validity. Music regularly and consistently evoked multisensory associations (using the icon scale) including shapes, colours, weight, and temperatures, in addition to emotions. Cross-modal perception is indicative of music’s character rather than the enjoyment of the music. The icon scale provides new insights into music perception and for applications where language skill may limit participant expression.
... Beyond emotional concepts that may be highly tied to action experience, metaphor may be the best mechanism for grounding other abstract concepts (Jamrozik et al., 2016). Examples of metaphoric grounding across sensory modalities include: experience of interpersonal 'warmth' (e.g., IJzerman & Semin, 2009) and anger (Wilkowski et al., 2009) as physical warmth; 'suspicion' based on smell (i.e., suspicion is expressed as something smelling fishy; Lee & Schwarz, 2012); textural metaphor (e.g., She had a rough day) being grounded in texture-selective somatosensory cortex (Lacey, Stilla, & Sathian, 2012;Schaefer, Denke, Heinze, & Rotte, 2013); and auditory metaphors (e.g., His memoirs were a toilet flush) leading to similar brain responses as sentences about literal sounds (Schmidt-Snoek, Drew, Barile, & Agauas, 2015). ...
... This is consistent with the embodied perspective that states a person's understandings of abstract concepts are connected with sensorimotor experiences (Barsalou, 2008). This supports research WEIGHT CUES 13 in other areas that show additional concepts, such as anger, can influence a person's physical experience with temperature (Wilkowski, Meier, Robinson, Carter, & Feltman, 2009). ...
Thesis
http://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/77631/1/davidre.pdf
... Studies using an experimental paradigm to study the relation between aggression and temperature have found that even the idea of heat will cause an increase in aggressive thoughts, feelings, and behaviors. For example, in a study by Wilkowski, Meier, Robinson, Carter, and Feltman (2009) [18], participants were exposed to images related to heat and temperature. They found that those exposed to the heat images were more likely to judge neutral facial expressions as aggressive and were more likely to think aggressively. ...
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Purpose of Review An important question regarding rapid climate change concerns its likely effects on violence. Rapid climate change is likely to produce sociological, political, economic, and psychological changes that will increase the likelihood of violent behavior. This article examines relevant theory and research. Recent Findings We examine three lines of research: (a) how hot temperatures directly influence aggression and violence; (b) how rapid climate change indirectly increases adulthood violence proneness through its effects on physiological and psychological development; (c) and how ecomigration influences group-level aggression. We also discuss arguments against the effects of climate change on aggression and violence. Summary Research and theory reveal three ways that rapid global warming can increase aggression and violence. We describe a model showing the relationship between rapid global warming on antisocial behaviors and risk factors for aggression and violence.
... Pertaining to temperature specifically, this assertion is supported by research findings in neuroscience, which show that the same part of the brain (the insular cortex) is involved in processing both physical and psychological warmth information (Kang et al. 2010). Additional support comes from findings in the psychology and consumer behavior literatures, which has found that angerrelated thoughts (Wilkowski et al. 2009), communion traits (Szymkow et al. 2013), and feelings of loneliness (Zhong and Leonardelli 2008) all have the capacity to influence an individual's temperature perceptions. Extending this logic to the domain of consumer decision-making, it is correspondingly probable that engaging in a semantically warm mental process should also influence temperature perceptions. ...
... For example, a metaphorical expression of "cold and lonely" can be constructed by repeated experiencing body warmth and physical proximity of caregivers from infancy. The CMT has been an influential theory in embodied research and a variety of embodied metaphors have been explored, such as importance is heaviness (Jostmann et al., 2009), affection is physical warmth (Zhang & Risen, 2014), anger is heat (Wilkowski et al., 2009), and power is up (Schubert, 2005). As afore introduced, sourness is a common linguistic metaphor for envy and jealousy. ...
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In the present study, five experiments (N = 233) were designed to explore whether sourness as a sensory experience could implicitly impact social emotions of envy and jealousy in Chinese culture. Experiment 1 (n = 63) explored the implicit conceptual association between sourness words (vs. bitterness words) and envy/jealousy words. Experiment 2 (n = 70) and 3 (n = 20) examined the priming effects of imagined and tasted sourness (vs. bitterness and sweetness) on self-rated emotional intensity in envy- and jealousy-arousing situations, respectively. Experiment 4 (n = 40) and 5 (n = 40) further testified the priming effects of imagined and tasted sourness (vs. bitterness and sweetness) on self-rated emotional intensity in four types of social situations (i.e., envy, jealousy, sad and happy events), respectively. In the results, sourness was found as the only taste that not only conceptually associated with envy/jealousy, but also significantly primed envy/jealousy feelings. The possible mechanism underlying the association of sourness-envy/jealousy was discussed.
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This book comprehensively introduces cognitive linguistics and applies its tools to religious language. Drawing on authentic samples from a range of faiths, text types, and modes of interactive discourse, the authors accessibly define concepts like embodied cognition, agency, metaphor analysis, and Dynamic Systems Theory, illustrate how they are and can be used in analyzing religious language, and offer thorough pedagogical material to aid learning and application. Advanced students and scholars of linguistics, discourse analysis, cognitive science, and religious and biblical studies will benefit from this practical guide to understanding and conducting research on religious discourse.
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Psychophysiological research failed to establish consistent physiological patterns differentiating emotion. Recent data showed that people verbally report experiencing peripheral changes that differ among emotions. The present studies tested the hypothesis that these reports originate in social schemata. Study 1 showed that Ss' reports of peripheral changes experienced during actual emotion do not differ from those defined in social schemata. Studies 2 and 3 showed that these schemata are similar across cultures. Overall, these data suggest that (a) people can directly access schemata about peripheral changes in emotion, (b) people are likely to do so when they believe to be reporting actual memories of such changes, and (c) the specific patterns revealed by past research may reflect prototypical knowledge of emotion. Finally, the data highlight the various peripheral patterns as they exist in schematic knowledge of emotion.
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Taking part in an experiment is "a special form of social interaction." The S plays a role and places himself under the control of the E; he may agree "to tolerate a considerable degree of discomfort, boredom, or actual pain, if required to do so." The very high degree of control inherent in the experimental situation itself may lead to difficulties in experimental design. The S "must be recognized as an active participant in any experiment." With understanding of factors intrinsic to experimental context, experimental method in psychology may become a more effective tool in predicting behavior in nonexperimental contexts. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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This article reports the results of studies intended to explore further the semantic relations among English terms related to emotional states. The intent was to develop a hierarchical model of semantically homogeneous groups of terms, the features defining each group, and distinguishing characteristics of closely related groups. The research was conducted in two phases. In the first phase, hierarchical clustering was the primary method used to identify a preliminary organization. In the second phase, four highly educated speakers of English, sensitive to fine verbal distinctions, agreed on the classification of a larger set of terms, using the groups identified in the first phase as a starting point. The judges also attempted to specify the features differentiating groups at each level of the hierarchy. Comparisons with other descriptions of the emotional domain and possible uses of the taxonomy are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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This chapter discusses the use of cognitive methods in personality research. It is suggested that cognitive measures of personality are less reliable than self-report measures of personality. This apparent fact can be attributed to at least two important sources. Cognitive measures are very much dependent on momentary states of mind. Such factors may be less important to trait self-report measures, which do not rely on state-related sources of information to the same extent. In addition, the reliability and stability of traits derive in part from the fact that people develop very stable beliefs about themselves. These beliefs, however, may provide a misleading picture of how much people's lives and personalities are actually changing. The upshot of these two considerations leads to the suggestion that cognitive processing measures cannot, and should not, be as stable as self-reports of personality. Nevertheless, it is important to pay somewhat constant attention to the reliability of cognitive processing measures, as such measures may or may not in fact tap reliable and stable individual differences. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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discuss several promises as well as potential problems with the circumplex model of emotion / while this model promises to organize much of what we know about emotion, it is nevertheless open to misinterpretation / before detailing these particular strengths and weaknesses, we begin by describing how a circumplex model is applied in the emotion domain / by advocating the circumplex model, a claim is made that the majority of emotional experience can be captured by two affect dimensions [positive affect and negative affect] despite the promise a circumplex model holds for aiding our understanding of emotion, a number of problems need to be understood / one set of problems relates to specific interpretational issues concerning the emotion circumplex: are there basic dimensions in the circumplex and how should the dimensions be named / the second set of problems is broader: what does the circumplex fail to do in describing and explaining the relationships between emotions, and what are the shortcomings of the extant data / we will consider first the interpretational issues and, after that, the broader issues (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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We agree with Barsalou's claim about the importance of perceptual symbols in a theory of abstract concepts. Yet we maintain that the richness of many abstract concepts arises from the metaphorical mapping of recurring patterns of perceptual, embodied experience to provide essential structure to these abstract ideas.
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Reports 7 studies that explored the possibility that the concept of emotion is better understood from a prototype perspective than from a classical one. Specifically it is argued that membership in the concept of emotion is a matter of degree rather than all-or-none (that the concept has an internal structure) and that no sharp boundary separates members from nonmembers (that the concept has fuzzy boundaries). Undergraduates served as Ss in all experiments. As hypothesized, the concept of emotion was found to have an internal structure: Happiness, love, anger, fear, awe, respect, envy, and other types of emotion could be reliably ordered from better to poorer examples of emotion. In turn, an emotion's goodness of example (prototypicality) ranking predicted how readily it comes to mind when one is asked to list emotions, how likely it is to be labeled as an emotion when one is asked what sort of thing it is, how readily it can be substituted for the word emotion in sentences without their sounding unnatural, and the degree to which it resembles other emotion categories in terms of shared features. (54 ref)
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Cognitive theories of metaphor understanding are typically described in terms of the mappings between different kinds of abstract, schematic, disembodied knowledge. My claim in this paper is that part of our ability to make sense of metaphorical language, both individual utterances and extended narratives, resides in the automatic construction of a simulation whereby we imagine performing the bodily actions referred to in the language. Thus, understanding metaphorical expressions like ‘grasp a concept’ or ‘get over’ an emotion involve simulating what it must be like to engage in these specific activities, even though these actions are, strictly speaking, impossible to physically perform. This process of building a simulation, one that is fundamentally embodied in being constrained by past and present bodily experiences, has specific consequences for how verbal metaphors are understood, and how cognitive scientists, more generally, characterize the nature of metaphorical language and thought.
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As part of a telephone survey, respondents were asked to report the most recent situation that evoked strong emotional feelings in them and to describe the pattern of their reactions. The majority of the situations reported had evoked negative emotions. Most of the emotion-antecedent events are connected to relationships with family and friends or to work-related situations. Only happiness and anger are reported as relatively pure feeling states; most others are emotion blends, with anger/sadness and sadness/fear occurring most frequently. Facial expression changes as well as heart and muscle symptoms are reported as the most frequent reactions across all emotions, whereas other nonverbal and physiological reactions are more specific for particular emotions. By the use of factor analysis, response patterns across various components of emotional state, including affect control, are explored.
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The now-classic Metaphors We Live By changed our understanding of metaphor and its role in language and the mind. Metaphor, the authors explain, is a fundamental mechanism of mind, one that allows us to use what we know about our physical and social experience to provide understanding of countless other subjects. Because such metaphors structure our most basic understandings of our experience, they are "metaphors we live by"—metaphors that can shape our perceptions and actions without our ever noticing them. In this updated edition of Lakoff and Johnson's influential book, the authors supply an afterword surveying how their theory of metaphor has developed within the cognitive sciences to become central to the contemporary understanding of how we think and how we express our thoughts in language.
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Noting that a wide variety of unpleasant feelings, including sadness and depression, apparently can give rise to anger and aggression, I propose a cognitive-neoassociationistic model to account for the effects of negative affect on the development of angry feelings and the display of emotional aggression. Negative affect tends to activate ideas, memories, and expressive-motor reactions associated with anger and aggression as well as rudimentary angry feelings. Subsequent thought involving attributions, appraisals, and schematic conceptions can then intensify, suppress, enrich, or differentiate the initial reactions. Bodily reactions as well as emotion-relevant thoughts can activate the other components of the particular emotion network to which they are linked. Research findings consistent with the model are summarized. Experimental findings are also reported indicating that attention to one's negative feelings can lead to a regulation of the overt effects of the negative affect, I argue that the model can integrate the core aspect of the James-Lange theory with the newer cognitive theories of emotion.
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The present study examined strategic factors in a semantic-priming, lexical-decision task. The first experiment demonstrated that the greater the proportion of related word-word pairs to unrelated word-word pairs, the greater the amount of facilitation, a result which is consistent with others reported in the literature. The second experiment demonstrated that this strategic factor apparently requires that sufficient time (at least several hundred milliseconds) be available for the processing of the priming word, and thus is probably caused by attention-driven processes. The third experiment replicated and extended the results of the first two studies by demonstrating that prime-target stimulus onset asynchrony is an important limiting factor in determining whether such proportion-induced strategic factors are involved in word-recognition processes, even when no other aspect or variable of the procedure changes. The results are discussed in the context of Posner and Snyder’s (1975a) two-process model of word recognition.