Non-Nutritive Sucking Habits in Sleeping Infants

Divisions of Neonatology, Medical University of Graz, Graz, Austria.
Neonatology (Impact Factor: 2.65). 08/2009; 97(1):61-6. DOI: 10.1159/000231518
Source: PubMed


Pacifier use has been postulated to decrease the risk of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). The responsible mechanisms are, however, unclear.
Since little is known about the non-nutritive sucking (NNS) habits of infants during sleep, we investigated NNS patterns and changes of physiological parameters during NNS in sleeping infants.
Polygraphic recordings were performed in 12 infants with a median age of 55 days (range 7-82) who regularly used a pacifier during sleep. Episodes of active suckling (bursts) and quiescent periods were differentiated by video observations. We evaluated the time of suckling in relation to the total time of pacifier use, the median number of bursts per min, the median duration of single bursts and the median interval between 2 sequent bursts. In 48 randomly selected bursts, we additionally analyzed changes in heart rate, respiratory frequency and oxygen saturation compared to the 10-second period preceding the burst.
Median sleep time with a pacifier held in mouth was 31.3 min (13.0-117.6), of which 15.5% (6.4-36.7%) was spent with active suckling. The median number of bursts per min was 2.2 (1.2-4.5). The median duration of a burst was 3 s (1-22) and the median interval between 2 bursts was 10 s (1-1,434). Heart rate, respiratory frequency and oxygen saturation did not change significantly during suckling bursts.
This pilot study presents important data for sucking habits in pacifier users which may provide a basis for further investigations concerning the efficacy of pacifiers in SIDS prophylaxis.

Download full-text


Available from: Heinz Zotter Md, Oct 14, 2015

  • No preview · Article · Feb 2010 · Pädiatrie & Pädologie
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A failure of cardiorespiratory control mechanisms, together with an impaired arousal from sleep response, is believed to play an important role in the final event of the Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS). The 'Triple Risk Model' describes SIDS as an event that results from the intersection of three overlapping factors: [1] a vulnerable infant, [2] a critical developmental period in homeostatic control, and [3] an exogenous stressor. In an attempt to understand how the Triple Risk Hypothesis is related to infant cardiorespiratory physiology many researchers have examined how the known risk factors for SIDS alter infant physiology and arousal particularly during sleep. This review discusses the association between the three components of the Triple Risk Hypothesis, the major risk factors for SIDS (prone sleeping and maternal smoking), together with three "protective" factors (breastfeeding, pacifiers and swaddling), and cardiovascular control and arousability from sleep in infants, and discusses their potential involvement in SIDS.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2010 · Current Pediatric Reviews
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Dummy/pacifier use is protective for sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS); however, the mechanism/s for this are unknown. As impaired cardiovascular control may be the underlying cause of SIDS, we assessed the effects of dummy/pacifier use on cardiovascular control during sleep within the first 6 months of life. Term infants, divided into dummy/pacifier users and non-dummy/pacifier users, were studied at 2-4 weeks (n = 27), 2-3 months (n = 35) and 5-6 months (n = 31) using daytime polysomnography. Heart rate, blood pressure (BP), heart rate variability (HRV), blood pressure variability (BPV), and baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) were measured in triplicate 1-2-min epochs during quiet and active sleep in the supine and prone positions. Overall, during the non-sucking periods, in the prone position, the BP was higher (10-22 mmHg) in dummy/pacifier users compared to non-users at 2-4 weeks and 5-6 months (p < 0.05 for both). HRV and BRS were higher in dummy/pacifier users compared to non-users at 2-4 weeks (p < 0.05). Active sucking increased HRV and BPV, consistent with increased sympathetic activity in dummy/pacifier users. Higher BP and HRV in dummy/pacifier users indicate increased sympathetic tone, which may serve as a protective mechanism against possible hypotension leading to SIDS; however, these effects were not apparent at 2-3 months, when the risk of SIDS is highest. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2014 · Sleep Medicine
Show more