Benefits of napping in healthy adults: Rmpact of nap length, time of day, age, and experience with napping

Brock University, St. Catharines, Ontario L2S 3A1, Canada.
Journal of Sleep Research (Impact Factor: 3.35). 07/2009; 18(2):272-81. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2869.2008.00718.x
Source: PubMed


Napping is a cross-cultural phenomenon which occurs across the lifespan. People vary widely in the frequency with which they nap as well as the improvements in alertness and well-being experienced. The systematic study of daytime napping is important to understand the benefits in alertness and performance that may be accrued from napping. This review paper investigates factors that affect the benefits of napping such as duration and temporal placement of the nap. In addition, the influence of subject characteristics such as age and experience with napping is examined. The focus of the review is on benefits for healthy individuals with regular sleep/wake schedules rather than for people with sleep or medical disorders. The goal of the review is to summarize the type of performance improvements that result from napping, critique the existing studies, and make recommendations for future research.

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    • "This initiative includes the creation of dedicated areas in the unit where nurses can take quick restorative naps. A handful of studies in health care settings indicate that such naps can reduce fatigue (Driskell & Mullen, 2005;Milner & Cote, 2009). Many health care leaders, however, remain skeptical about the effectiveness of these programs and the institutional value of encouraging employees to sleep during work shifts. "
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    ABSTRACT: The nursing profession in the United States is on the precipice of a crisis. Nurses are essential to the health care industry, and maintaining quality nursing care is a primary concern of today’s health care managers. Health care facilities report high rates of staff burnout and turnover, and interest in the nursing profession among younger students is declining. Health care leaders must improve nurses’ job satisfaction, performance, and retention. However, they often overlook the need for nurses’ respite and underestimate the value of well-designed staff break areas. An exhaustive and systematic literature search was conducted in the summer of 2014, and all studies found on the topic were reviewed for their relevance and quality of evidence. The existing literature about the main causes of nurses’ fatigue, barriers that prevent nurses from taking restorative breaks, and consequences of nurses’ fatigue for staff, patient, and facility outcomes demonstrates the pressing need for interventions that improve nurses’ working conditions. Additional literature on the restorative effects of breaks and the value of well-designed break areas indicates that efforts to improve breakroom design can play an important role in improving nurses’ job satisfaction and performance.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2016 · Workplace health & safety
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    • "Neuroscience advocates midday napping for the following cases: (a) response to sleep loss, i.e. replacement napping (Waterhouse et al. 2007; Faraut et al. 2011); (b) in preparation for sleep loss, i.e. prophylactic napping (Jackson and Moreton 2013); or (c) simply nap for relaxation, i.e. appetitive napping (Mednick 2013). Even for individuals who, generally, get good sleep on a nightly basis, napping still may lead to considerable benefits in terms of mood, alertness, and cognitive performance (Milner and Cote 2009). Besides, in healthy and rested subjects, midday napping enhances memory tasks performance (Mednick et al. 2002; Mednick et al. 2003; Tucker et al. 2006; Nishida and Walker 2007; Mednick et al. 2008; Cai et al. 2009; Wamsley et al. 2010a; Payne and Kensinger 2010). "
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    ABSTRACT: Napping/siesta during the day is a phenomenon, which is widely practised in the world. However, the timing, frequency, and duration may vary. The basis of napping is also diverse, but it is mainly done for improvement in alertness and general well-being. Neuroscience reveals that midday napping improves memory, enhances alertness, boosts wakefulness and performance, and recovers certain qualities of lost night sleep. Interestingly, Islam, the religion of the Muslims, advocates midday napping primarily because it was a practice preferred by Prophet Muhammad (pbuh). The objectives of this review were to investigate and compare identical key points on focused topic from both neuroscientific and Islamic perspectives and make recommendations for future researches.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2015 · Journal of Religion and Health
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    • "The frequency of napping usually increases with age [3] [4] [5] [6], and it is higher in men than that in women [6] [7]. Traditionally, daytime napping is usually considered a healthy habit, and it is often linked with the low incidence of coronary heart disease and high tendency of longevity [8] through a hypothetical " stress relief " mechanism [9] in Latin American and Mediterranean countries. "
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    ABSTRACT: The association between daytime napping and mortality remains controversial. We conducted a meta-analysis to examine the associations between daytime napping and the risks of death from all causes, cardiovascular disease (CVD), and cancer. PubMed and Embase databases were searched through 19 September 2014. Prospective cohort studies that provided risk estimates of daytime napping and mortality were eligible for our meta-analysis. Two investigators independently performed study screening and data extraction. A random-effects model was used to estimate the combined effect size. Subgroup analyses were conducted to identify potential effect modifiers. Twelve studies, involving 130,068 subjects, 49,791 nappers, and 19,059 deaths, were included. Our meta-analysis showed that daytime napping was associated with an increased risk of death from all causes [n = 9 studies; hazard ratio (HR), 1.22; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.14-1.31; I(2) = 42.5%]. No significant associations between daytime napping and the risks of death from CVD (n = 6 studies; HR, 1.20; 95% CI, 0.96-1.50; I(2) = 75.0%) and cancer (n = 4 studies; HR, 1.07; 95% CI, 0.99-1.15; I(2) = 8.9%) were found. There were no significant differences in risks of all-cause and CVD mortality between subgroups stratified by the prevalence of napping, follow-up duration, outcome assessment, age, and sex. Daytime napping is a predictor of increased all-cause mortality but not of CVD and cancer mortality. However, our findings should be treated with caution because of limited numbers of included studies and potential biases. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.
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