Exploratory research is the stage of the research process that aims at connecting ideas as to unveil the “why”s of potential cause/effect relationships. This occurs when researchers get started at understanding what they are actually “observing” when in the process of building cause/effect models.
Confirmatory research (a.k.a. hypothesis testing) is where researchers have a pretty good idea of what's going on. That is, researcher has a theory (or several theories), and the objective is to find out if the theory is supported by the facts.
The essence of all this is that exploratory and confirmatory research are two complementary components of the same goal: to discover relevant findings in the most efficient, reliable, replicable, applicable manner.
All content in this area was uploaded by Ray G. Butler on Oct 20, 2014
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... Consequently, I assumed the positivism paradigm that advocates for organised methods to discover and confirm a set of probabilistic causal laws useful in predicting patterns of human activity through precise empirical observations of individual behaviour (Neuman, 2007). In view of this positivist position, the study adopted the confirmatory research design that is covariance based and focuses on the explanation of relationships among variables (Butler, 2014). ...
... Results of the Cronbach's alpha reliability test presented in Table 3 indicate that all the questionnaire items developed for measuring the constructs in question had reliability coefficients above the recommended value of 0.7 (Butler, 2014). This indicates that the items were consistent in measuring the constructs. ...
The role of networking in the sharing of knowledge and information is well documented. What is not clear, however, are the facets of networks that best drive firm performance, and whether or not the nature of business is a factor. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of networking dimensions on the performance of event management ventures in Kenya. The researcher conceptualised that performance of ventures was a function of networking dimensions such as network capability, network structure and network dynamics. The study adopted a covariance-based confirmatory research design that sought to confirm indicators of the four variables under study, and also to establish the causal link between networking dimensions and venture performance. A population of 313 ventures was targeted, from which a sample of 288 proprietors was drawn. Using Structural Equation Modelling as the principal analysis approach, the study established that networking dimensions positively and significantly predict events venture performance. Moreover, the measurement model confirmed that the customer and learning and growth perspectives were the main indicators of events venture performance.
... In confirmatory (also called hypothesis-testing) research, the researcher has a specific idea about the relationship between the variables under investigation and is trying to see if hypotheses are supported by data (Butler, 2014). Based on the requirement of confirmatory research, after invalid questionnaires were excluded, the present study tested the construct reliability and validity. ...
A great deal of attention has been focused on technological innovation, for example, face recognition, which has been used in some countries in various fields. Nonetheless, there has been little attention paid to parents’ acceptance of the use of face recognition systems on campus. To address this gap in the literature, this study examined how different degrees of technological innovativeness and dangerous beliefs in the virtual world (DBVW) influence parents’ perceived value of using and intention to continue supporting schools’ use of face recognition systems. This study adopted snowball sampling to collect data through questionnaires, and received 380 valid responses from parents living in Xuzhou, China. Confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling were used to analyze the data, with results indicating that: (1) DBVW was negatively related to perceived value; (2) technological innovativeness was positively related to perceived value; and (3) perceived value was positively related to continuance intention to use face recognition systems. The results suggest that parents support the use of face recognition systems in elementary school; thus, such systems can be adopted by other elementary schools in other areas.
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