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Smart Cities: Definitions, Dimensions, Performance, and Initiatives

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Abstract

The concept of smart city is getting more and more relevant for both academics and policy makers. Despite this, there is still confusion about what a smart city is, as several similar terms are often used interchangeably. This paper aims at clarifying the meaning of the word “smart” in the context of cities through an approach based on an in-depth literature review of relevant studies as well as official documents of international institutions. It also identifies the main dimensions and elements characterizing a smart city. The different metrics of urban smartness are reviewed to show the need for a shared definition of what constitutes a smart city, which are its features, and how it performs in comparison to traditional cities. Furthermore, performance measures and initiatives in a few smart cities are identified.

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... In the field of urban planning, the term smart city is often seen as an ideological dimension whereby smart requires strategic orientations. Governments and public institutions at all levels have used the concept of smart to identify their programs and policies with the aim of sustainable development, economic growth, the better quality of life for citizens, and the creation of happiness and prosperity [2]. The concept of a smart city is not limited to the dissemination of information and communication technology. ...
... Tapscott and Agnew (1999) emphasize that intelligent governance is the widespread adoption of a fully social-centric model with greater connectivity facilitated by new technologies. Schuurman et al. (2012) believe that government in smart cities should play a key role in promoting and engaging all relevant stakeholders in order to create an interactive, participatory and information-based urban environment [2]. Meijer emphasizes the structural appropriateness between government and society and points out that the information society needs a new form of governance [33]. ...
... But how can this be implemented in a sustainable way and how can the existing services be redesigned in a more sustainable way? This question has long been occupying researchers, but an answer is gradually approaching [1][2][3][4][5]. ...
... In order for a city or municipality to achieve this smartness, the transformation must be initiated. There are several approaches to this [1,3,4,18], but in this paper, we focus on Giffinger's approach [4]. In 2007, he defined six performance areas of a Smart City: Smart Environment, Smart Governance, Smart Mobility, Smart Economy, Smart People, and Smart Living [4]. ...
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In rural regions, needs-based mobility services play an important role in the provision of public services. Shared Mobility Services can optimally complement local public transportation such as buses and trains, even in rural regions, and support the transformation of transportation. There is already research on Shared Mobility Services in the literature, but there is no comparison between all of Germany-wide and a specific municipality. We were interested in learning to what extent there is acceptance among citizens and what their usage behavior is towards such new alternatives. We also aimed to find out whether there are differences between large cities and rural regions and to what extent they differ from each other. In this case study, interplay was demonstrated using the example of a funded Smart City mobility project in a German rural municipality. The objective was to show whether the potential exists to initiate traffic turnaround with the help of Shared Mobility Services. In a quantitative survey of 418 German citizens, 114 of them from the rural municipality, the acceptance and usage behavior of Shared Mobility Services (in the form of car, bike and e-scooter sharing) was investigated. The results show that participants are very interested in Shared Mobility Services and have already gained initial experience with such services. However, there is still a lack of comprehensive services; for instance, the demand for car sharing is still too low, as many citizens still own a private vehicle. Our results show that citizens are too little informed about Shared Mobility Services and that these services need to be advertised much more strongly and clearly, both in analog and digitally. Our study shows that traffic turnaround can be achieved and that many citizens can imagine greater use of Shared Mobility Services in their everyday lives in the future. However, for this to happen, the necessary infrastructure must be in place in rural regions, and local authorities must motivate citizens with sufficient educational work about what is on offer and how to use it.
... With the world's urban population increasing rapidly, urbanization has become a global trend and is also developing quickly in China. Smart cities are an integration of urbanization and informatization, applying modern information technology to urban planning, construction, and management (Albino, Berardi, and Dangelico 2015). China officially launched smart city pilots in 2012, including 90 prefectures and county-level cities (Yao, Huang, and Zhao 2020). ...
... By the end of 2018, more than 500 cities in China had proposed or implemented smart city initiatives (He and Ma 2021;Jiang et al. 2021); as of February 2019, this figure has risen to over 700 cities (Hsu et al. 2021). The objectives of a smart city that are commonly agreed upon are multidimensional, which include improving the quality of life and productivity, sustainability, including improving the efficiency of resource allocation, waste management (Perera et al. 2014), the growth effects of human capital development (Shapiro 2006), and achieving high-quality urban development (Albino, Berardi, and Dangelico 2015). ...
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As a new pattern of urbanization, smart cities offer a set of initiatives to achieve a win-win situation for both environmental protection and economic development. This paper aims to explore the influence of smart city policy (SCP) on green technology innovation (GTI) by Chinese listed enterprises. Employing the difference-in-differences (DID) approach, the results show that SCP promotes enterprises’ GTI. This finding remains valid after various robustness tests, which include the parallel trend test, PSM-DID, placebo test, the substitution of estimation model, replacement of dependent variable, and the exclusion of the impacts of other policies. Additional tests reveal that SCP improves GTI through government environmental subsidy, corporate environmental awareness, and research and development investments. Furthermore, the heterogeneity analysis suggests that our findings are more prominent in subsamples during the growth stage, in high-tech industries, and in eastern regions. Our research is vital to the urban ecological environment and high-quality economic development.
... One perspective on education that is rarely explored in the literature involves education and the concept of smart cities (including its ins and outs for citizens). This is needed, as the smart city concept remains difficult to grasp for the larger public, including children, due to the multiplicity of definitions and terms to qualify it [50], the absence of a general consensus [10], and the fuzzy political discourse [51]. Yet, it is important for citizens to be aware of the smart city (and of their role within it) to become engaged in this paradigm [52,53]. ...
... Opportunity to give one's opinion (50) Disagreements (30) Opportunity to hear others' opinions (43) Conflicts (29) More ideas can emerge (11) Interruptions (11) Opportunity to change one's opinion (or other opinions) (9) Noise (7) Opportunity to learn new things (7) Having to wait for one's turn to speak (6) Table 6. Positive and negative points of the workshop. ...
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Smart cities are receiving a lot of attention from researchers and practitioners as they are considered potential solutions to challenges (e.g., traffic congestion and waste management) faced by cities. As a result, the term “smart city” is recurring in political discourses and the news. Moreover, smart cities are transitioning from strong and technological orientations toward inclusive and participative orientations, and citizens are expected to take an active part in their design. However, the smart city concept remains obscure to the majority of the public; although many participation methods exist for adults, few have been implemented for children, who remain on the sidelines. Our objective is to address the lack of research on innovative initiatives to (1) educate children on the smart city concept and (2) include them in citizen participation dynamics. To achieve this, we propose a novel hands-on workshop where children learn about the smart city concept, are challenged with a collective urban planning exercise and develop a digital citizen participation method. This paper describes the workshop conducted and reports on lessons learned from its evaluation; the workshop involved 299 children from the ages of 12 to 14. It showed success in improving the children’s understanding of the smart city concept. We then propose future inclusive smart city research directions grounded in the evaluation results and the feedback received from multiple practitioners.
... The main overlaps between both concepts can be seen in "learning and innovation" and in "infrastructure for communication and knowledge management" (Komninos 2006: 13). The smart city term first gained currency in the 1990s, when the focus was mostly on cities ICT-infrastructures (Albino et al. 2015). Over time, in many cities worldwide, the discourse about smart cities was driven by powerful and hegemonic economic actors and publicprivate coalitions (Rossi 2016;Söderström et al. 2014;Vanolo 2014;Wiig 2016). ...
... Then again, civil society is often widely underrepresented within smart city projects (see Harvey 2012;Hollands 2014;Kitchin 2015;Vanolo 2016;Colding et al. 2019). Instead, it is rather representatives of businesses or ICT specialists that are mainly setting the tone (Albino et al. 2015;Angelidou 2015;Hollands 2014;Rossi 2016;Söderström et al. 2014;Vanolo 2014;Wiig 2016). In this context, it is striking that there also seems to be rather little interest of citizens or civil society to help co-shaping the smart city concept. ...
Chapter
Both the smart and the sustainable cities represent a positive vision of future urban development. This chapter analyzes and discusses definitions and notions of both concepts, as well as their emergence, establishment, and development. Both concepts share similarities, such as the far-reaching and integrative claim to bring positive change to cities or the notion to operationalize the terms sustainable and smart by defining subcategories. However, the differences between both concepts far outweigh the similarities. Indeed, sustainability and the sustainable city, on the one hand, and the smart city, on the other hand, are distinctly different in terms of their development history, the main driving forces behind, and the theoretical scope. The understanding of (urban) sustainability was strongly influenced and brought forward by the ideas and commitments of intellectuals, leading politicians, and environmental movements, whereas multinational technology companies mainly coined the development of the smart city concept. Besides, the significantly more comprehensively defined term sustainability had a consistent underlying idea from the beginning onward, whereas the smart city concept still lacks terminological and content-related clarity as well as a generally accepted definition.
... The term smart city was first used in the 1990s to describe the importance of new information and communication technologies in relation to modern infrastructure in cities (Albino, Berardi & Dangelico, 2015). The diversity of ICT applications in supporting urban development results in multiple definitions of the smart city (Maček, Ovin & Starc-Peceny, 2019). ...
... A smart city is an efficient, technologically advanced, green, and inclusive city (Vanolo, 2014). In the smart city concept, we can find six main areas such as smart economy, smart mobility, smart environment, smart people, smart living, and smart governance (Albino, Berardi & Dangelico, 2015). As Korzeniowska (Korzeniowska, 2018) noted, this concept is often narrowed down to a vision focused on the integration of the physical and virtual space of the city, instead of deepening the relationship between technology and the ability to interpret data and find solutions. ...
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Rising awareness of sustainable development challenges, along with the quest for optimization of the everyday functioning of the city, motivate many urban authorities to search for promising concepts and solutions. One of these is the smart city concept, which has gained governors of cities' attention for little more than ten years. An object of research and development, it is still a distinctive feature for the cities that adopt this concept. City marketers use such distinction towards a large palette of beneficiaries of the city. At the same time, it deploys some traits suggesting synergies between the implementation of smart city solutions and sustainable development goals. The main objective of our work was to verify if the relationship between these aspects (smartness and sustainability of a transportation) in smart city rankings exists and, if that is true, what impact it has on marketing communication of the city comprised in such rankings. To fulfill this goal, we answered such research questions as: what place sustainability criteria in smart city rankings have occurred, how is the transport represented in these criteria, what use graded cities make of their presence in such competition, and which perspective dominates (if any) in daily marketing communication activities of the city. To provide such an analysis, we considered the criteria used to rank the cities to find the places that accorded to sustainable ones. We examined the marketing use of the results of such rankings, referring to the official web-sites and social media of selected cities (random selection from the total population of 174 cities comprised). The sources used to provide the data in natural language, and their analysis proceeded with methods and tools used in NLP (natural language processing), which are accessible through CLARIN.EU infrastructure. The results determine that cities can be classed into different groups, accordingly to their sustainability/smartness pending, and ability to use accorded ranks in marketing context.
... In addition, scholars like Pereira et al. [13] argue that smart governance. On the other hand, Albino et al. [17], noticed three components' domains of smart governance: e-services, e-democracy, and participation of smart citizens. Scholars like Scholl and Alawadhi [18], give a more precise definition of what smart governance is by emphasizing the fact that it is related to the applying digital technologies and intelligent activities in processing data/information and decision-making. ...
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Smart cities can be defined as a place where traditional networks and services are made more efficient through the use of ICT innovations for the benefit of their citizens and business (European Commission, 2022). This implies that smart cities are ecosystems where each actor, thanks to new technological solutions, can contribute to the good of the community by nudging a series of behaviors aimed at social rather than individual wellbeing. Nudging can improve citizens’ engagement in the smart governance decision-making process and influence their behavior in smart cities. There is a similarity between nudges and smart cities as they both aim to offer an optimal lifestyle as well as a sustainable and healthier one. Thus, the purpose of this study is to present how nudge can influence smart governance, supporting factors such as policy domain, trust, political and institutional environment, and internet reach and use by using the cyclical model of the actor-for-actor model (A4A), which gives a panorama on their intentionality and finality alignment, while exploring how resource integration works. Therefore, this theoretical study shows all variable’s relationships and their impact on supporting smart governance in smart city ecosystems by having citizens as major actors. This research can support policymakers to understand better the citizen’s engagement citizens and prepare through ICT technologies the possible choices for them to help integrate their resources.
... 394) in the urban system. To generate this synergy, the smart city literature frequently alludes to the formulation of smart city strategies Brorström et al., 2018;Mancebo, 2020), which builds on innovation policies (Edler and Fagerberg, 2017) and orients smart-city-related activities across sectors (Albino et al., 2015;Anand and Navío-Marco, 2018). ...
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Smart city transitions are a fast-proliferating example of urban innovation processes, and generating the insight required to support their unfolding should be a key priority for innovation scholars. However, after decades of research, governance mechanisms remain among the most undertheorized and relatively overlooked dimensions of smart city transitions. To address this problem, we conduct a systematic literature review that connects the fragmented knowledge accumulated through the observation of smart city transition dynamics in 6 continents, 43 countries, and 146 cities and regions. Our empirical work is instrumental in achieving a threefold objective. First, we assemble an overarching governance framework that expands the theoretical foundations of smart city transitions from an innovation management perspective. Second, we elaborate on this framework by providing a thorough overview of documented governance practices. This overview highlights the strengths and weaknesses in the current approaches to the governance of smart city transitions, leading to evidence-based strategic recommendations. Third, we identify and address critical knowledge gaps in a future research agenda. In linking innovation theory and urban scholarship, this agenda suggests leveraging promising cross-disciplinary connections to support more intense research efforts probing the interaction patterns between institutional contexts, urban digital innovation, and urban innovation ecosystems.
... Recently, the United States and Europe have adopted deviating paths towards having control over big technology companies in local and international markets [14]. However, the relationship between the expected media vision of smartness and their change must be considered since it started as a space in which expectations and calculations of societal futures are created at present [15][16][17]. ...
... (Hettikankanama & Vasanthapriyan, 2019). The smart city concept is applied to at least six city domains; namely transportation, economy, government, people, environment, and life (Albino, Berardi, & Dangelico, 2015). In particular, transportation is one of the most difficult domains to deal with, especially in metropolitan areas. ...
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Congestion is not a new problem for Jakarta, as the center of government and a metropolitan city in Indonesia. Handling the congestion problem in Jakarta then requires a comprehensive and comprehensive solution. Smart cities and smart transportation systems are thought to be able to do just that. This paper aims to review the existing smart transportation system in Jakarta and attempt to integrate public transportation into this system as an effort to overcome congestion in Jakarta. The review in this paper is carried out qualitatively by reviewing various literatures that have been published previously. The results show that the government has started trying to develop a smart city through the Jakarta Smart City (JSC) so that the development of a smart transportation system as part of a smart city is needed. In this case, this paper has developed a framework for a smart transportation system that integrates the public transportation system into it so that a more integrated smart transportation system is created for Jakarta.
... Information and communication technologies (ICT) with big sources of relevant data has been massively used in the field of modern and smart cities and the study of urban systems (Albino et al., 2015;Bibri & Krogstie, 2017). According to Caragliu et al. (2011), a city can be defined as "smart" when "investments in human and social capital and traditional (transport) and modern (ICT) communication infrastructure fuel sustainable economic growth and a high quality of life, with a wise management of natural resources". ...
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Floods are one of the natural disasters which cause the worst human, social and economic impacts to the detriment of both public and private sectors. Today, public decision-makers can take advantage of the availability of data-driven systems that allow to monitor hydrogeological risk areas and that can be used for predictive purposes to deal with future emergency situations. Flooding risk exposure maps traditionally assume amount of presences constant over time, although crowding is a highly dynamic process in metropolitan areas. Real-time monitoring and forecasting of people’s presences and mobility is thus a relevant aspect for metropolitan areas subjected to flooding risk. In this respect, mobile phone network data have been used with the aim of obtaining dynamic measure for the exposure risk in areas with hydrogeological criticality. In this work, we use mobile phone origin-destination signals on traffic flows by Telecom Italia Mobile (TIM) users with the aim of forecasting the exposure risk and thus to help decision-makers in warning to who is transiting through that area. To model the complex seasonality of traffic flows data, we adopt a novel methodological strategy based on introducing in a Vector AutoRegressive with eXogenous variable (VARX) model a Dynamic Harmonic Regression (DHR) component. We apply the method to the case study of the “Mandolossa”, an urbanized area subject to flooding located on the western outskirt of Brescia, using hourly-basis data from September 2020 to August 2021. A cross validation based on the hit-rate and the mean absolute percentage error measures show a good forecasting accuracy.
... A smart city can be defined as a well-functioning forward-looking city created by the above six areas and based on the active participation of informed, independent and decisive citizens [38][39][40][41]. The essential element distinguishing this concept from previous models of sustainable development is the presence of "mobility" as a separate, important dimension defining communication accessibility, ICT infrastructure and innovative and safe transportation systems [42]. ...
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Based on cited literature, it can be observed that the bike road system is an important part of Smart Mobility. The amount of bicycle roads can be seen as one of the technical-infrastructure indicators used to measure the potential of the Smart Mobility system. Taking this into account the analysis of the development of bike roads in particular provinces of Poland, which is conducted in this paper is a contribution to the knowledge about Smart Cities in the area of Smart Mobility. This publication uses data on the operation of bicycle roads in Poland from 2012 to 2021 for analysis. It uses data collected by the Polish Central Statistical Office. The analysis covered the last 10 years. The latest data that is currently available in terms of complete statistics are from 2021, and it was decided to end the conducted analysis this year. The data for all Polish 16 provinces were analyzed in the paper. The main important finding of the paper is finding the correlation between the GDP (Gross Domestic Product) and the length of bicycle roads in Poland. Also, the very important finding of the paper is connected with the analysis of geographical patterns of bicycle roads in Poland. The analysis of the correlations between the variables allows us to conclude that more is invested in bicycle paths in the provinces located in northwestern Poland than would result from the wealth of the provinces as measured by GDP per capita. In particular, this is the case in Greater Poland, Pomerania, and Kuyavia-Pomerania. By contrast, in central and southwestern Poland, investments in bicycle paths in individual provinces are smaller than their wealth level would suggest. This situation is particularly the case in Opole Province, Lesser Poland, Lower Silesia, Subcarpatia, and Holy Cross. For these provinces in particular, it should be recommended to accelerate the construction of new bicycle roads, which will have a positive impact on the quality of life of residents in smart cities as well as ecology. Analysis of the functioning of bicycle roads as an element of a Smart City on the example of Poland Provinces.
... The "Smart City" philosophy increasingly has become a guiding approach to urban planning and design (Neirotti et al. 2014;Albino et al. 2015;Kummitha and Crutzen 2017;Yigitcanlar et al. 2019;Caird and Hallett 2019;Irvine et al. 2022b;Yereseme et al. 2022), although the characteristics of a Smart City are still debated. The project reported herein was conducted to investigate and develop visions of alternative futures for the Thammasat-Nava Nakorn (TUNN) Smart District, Thailand. ...
Article
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A Research through Designing approach was used to explore nature-based solutions (NbS) for flood management at the fluvial (regional) and pluvial (local) scales as part of a Smart District visioning study in a peri-urban area north of Bangkok, Thailand. The NbS visions were informed by community surveys (total n = 770) as well as in-depth, semi-structured interviews with community leaders and key stakeholders representing private sector business. Both fluvial and pluvial flooding commonly occur in the study area and the cost of damage incurred by individuals generally exceeds aid remuneration. The surveys revealed that flood insurance was not widely used as a form of resiliency to flood conditions. Furthermore, survey participants generally considered common space and green space unsatisfactory and inadequate to meet community needs. In light of these survey responses, example NbS visions were developed to address community concerns and promote well-being, while concurrently providing resiliency and improved ecosystem services through connectivity of blue and greenscapes. This case study provides a novel linkage between the concepts of NbS, Research through Designing, and Smart City/District, in exploring sustainable and resilient approaches to flood management in the context of tropical, Global South development and also provides a first step towards developing an NbS typology.
... In particular, there is a movement towards creating "smart cities", a multi-faceted term that ultimately strives for the "social inclusion of all urban residents" [22]. This movement demonstrates the growing awareness of the importance of accessibility and inclusion in both physical and virtual environments. ...
Article
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Virtual events have become more popular recently, and while these events have the potential to be inclusive to a broader range of attendees, there is limited information available on how to plan and deliver a virtual, accessible, and bilingual event. The objective of this paper is to share how our team planned and delivered a virtual conference that was fully bilingual and accessible to individuals with disabilities by incorporating closed captions, sign language interpretation, language interpretation (audio), regularly scheduled breaks, and a multi-sensory experience. We describe our approaches to planning the conference, such as including individuals with disabilities in decision-making, selecting virtual conference platforms, captioners, and interpreters, and how we incorporated a multi-sensory experience. The paper also summarizes feedback we received from our attendees using a post-conference evaluation survey and our team’s reflections on positive aspects of the conference and opportunities for improvement. We conclude by providing a set of practical recommendations that we feel may be helpful to others planning virtual accessible bilingual conferences in the future.
... On the one hand, the term has been applied to "hard" domains such as buildings, energy grids, natural resources, water management, waste management, mobility, economy, and logistics, where ICT can play a decisive role in the functions of the systems. On the other hand, the term has also been applied to "soft domains" such as education, culture, policy innovations, social inclusion, and government, where the application of ICT are not usually decisive (Albino et al., 2015). ...
... On the one hand, the term has been applied to "hard" domains such as buildings, energy grids, natural resources, water management, waste management, mobility, economy, and logistics, where ICT can play a decisive role in the functions of the systems. On the other hand, the term has also been applied to "soft domains" such as education, culture, policy innovations, social inclusion, and government, where the application of ICT are not usually decisive (Albino et al., 2015). ...
... Against this backdrop, many urban areas are struggling with the strain urbanisation is putting on a decaying infrastructure [2]. In response, the concept of the smart city has emerged and gained traction over the last three decades; while there is an ongoing debate on the definition of a smart city, there is agreement that it involves the diffusion ofinformation and communication technology (ICT) to improve how different urban subsystems operate to meet the needs of people and communities [3,4]. The challenge with smart cities is one of scale. ...
Article
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Streets perform a number of important functions and have a wide range of activities performed in them. There is a small but growing focus on streets as a more generalisable, atomised, and therefore more manageable unit of development and analysis than cities. Despite the public realm being one of the largest physical spaces on streets, the impact and potential of digitalisation projects on this realm is rarely considered. In this article, the smartness of a street is derived from the cyber-physical social infrastructure in the public realm, including data obtained from sensors, the interconnection between different services, technologies and social actors, intelligence derived from analysis of the data, and optimisation of operations within a street. This article conceptualises smart streets as basic units of urban space that leverage cyber-physical social infrastructure to provide and enable enhanced services to and between stakeholders, and through stakeholders’ use of the street, generate data to optimise its services, capabilities, and value to stakeholders. A proposed conceptual framework is used to identify and explore how streets can be augmented and create value through cyber-physical social infrastructure and digital enhancements. We conclude with a discussion of future avenues of research.
... The smart cities concept is still vague and inadequate. Therefore, there is a need to better understand the relationship and the interconnection between smart and sustainability concepts [34]. As shown in Table 3, the majority of the theoretical and practical contradictions were from a technological background, yet the smart city concept has no unified definition [32,33,[35][36][37]. ...
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It is imperative to expand the concept of smart cities beyond merely focusing on technology to include human, social, and environmental capital investing to develop smart sustainable cities (SSC). In recognition of smart cities’ advantages, several cities have adopted smart city labels. Although citizens’ engagement in public urban development and decision-making has been acknowledged globally in many countries, evaluating the outcomes that allow citizens to contribute does not measure and compare with other factors. This study examines the impact between the citizens’ participation level (CPL) and the smart sustainable cities outcome (SSCO). Four factors were extracted from the literature review and interviews were conducted with 12 decision and policymakers to establish the importance of these factors and to suggest any other additional factors. In addition, a questionnaire survey was utilised to assess and validate the result by experts in the field of the built environment. The mean score (MS) ranking was used to confirm the importance of these predicted correlations with SSCO. Endogeneity tests and multivariate regression analysis were adopted to validate the causality between CLP and SSCO. The results suggest that a positive significant correlation exists between the CPL and SSCO. A higher CPL leads to a higher level of SSCO, but this does not apply the other way around. The four significant factors of CPL to engage and empower citizens are accountability and responsibility, transparency, participation, and inclusion. This paper contributes to knowledge by identifying the measures of CPL and SSCO that can support the implementation of SSC by understanding what can be expected from the government and decision-makers and what can be expected from the citizens.
... Smart transportation improves urban transportation by providing solutions such as Internet of vehicles, new routing algorithms and using data to control traffic Smart governance: The open governance paradigm widely shapes ICT-based partnerships in cities. Elements like citizen-centered and crowdsourced deliberation consulting allow citizens to be providing the desired model of public services Smart environment: In a smart environment, issues including air pollution, waste management, and green urban spaces are evaluated by ICT. Increasing urban population highlights the need to pay attention to resource infrastructure and pollution control for better urban management and increased quality of life combination of smart city systems, services, and technologies must be flexible to be providing a platform for creating innovation, economic development, and creating collaborative and interactive spaces (Albino et al., 2015). ...
Chapter
Economic and social complications in addition to loss of many invaluable lives came with the COVID-19 pandemic. Amid the COVID-19 disaster, digital technologies and their applications became a powerful mitigating tool. Experience of several cities around the world indicates that smart city technologies enabled local and central governments as well as firms to provide various public and business services in a fast and effective way while complying with the social distancing, quarantines, and COVID-19 curfews. This chapter elaborates how the city-level adoption of digital technologies in Tehran, the most populous city in the West Asia, mitigated the pandemic impacts. Smartening initiative in Tehran commenced in 2015 and was accelerated by the COVID-19 spread. Contact trace, surveillance, telemedicine, and telework are among the key applications of smart city technological solutions in Tehran during the pandemic. This chapter categorizes these applications in different dimensions including mobility, environment, health, etc. In particular, MyTehran, a mobile application, which offers public services and Corona+ program, supporting digital startups and firms working on relevant solutions to alleviate COVID-19 consequences, are notable instances of how smartening Tehran enhanced its resilience against the pandemic. Chapter’s conclusion explains varied challenges that Tehran faces in the path of transition to a smart city prior to, throughout, and post-COVID-19 pandemic.
... Tunnels can enhance regional traffic capacity, facilitate local residence, commerce, and tourism, and has significant economic and social value. Through systematic literature review, the importance of the human dimension in infrastructures and the lack of relevant design theories are highlighted (Albino et al., 2015;Bär et al., 2020;Bouzguenda et al., 2019). ...
Article
Humanistic factors play an essential role in the city tunnel assessment. The study proposed a systematic literature review to sort out the major factors of human-centric infrastructure and determine their importance ranking by expert questionnaire and analytic hierarchy process (AHP). On this basis, a multi-criteria framework for the humanistic assessment system for city tunnels (HASCT) was developed and demonstrated by the AHP-fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method. The assessment indexes, weight system, primary and guiding assessment model of HASCT were studied in detail. Humanistic assessment of tunnels involves the relevant theories and methods of fuzzy-based comprehensive evaluation and requires the cooperation and participation of many departments. The scoring guideline makes it possible to quantify the humanistic attributes of tunnels and ensure the usability and objectivity of HASCT. To this end, the practice of the Boao Tunnel in Hangzhou was implemented, verified, and analyzed with HASCT. The investigation results of experts, as stakeholders, depict the importance and priority order for further developing the humanistic target in tunnel design and construction. Results indicate that safety is still the most critical issue for human-centric tunnels, followed by comfort, and factors such as aesthetic value are relatively neglected.
... Afterwards, the participation of citizens and relevant stakeholders began to be seen as a critical success factor for smart cities (Russo, Rindone, & Panuccio, 2016). Moreover, smart city literature started to promote citizens' engagement and active participation (Albino, Berardi, & Dangelico, 2015;Cardullo & Kitchin, 2019;Correia & Feio, 2020;Goel, Yadav, & Vishnoi, 2021). Recently, Lim, Edelenbos, and Gianoli (2019) reviewed the development of the concept and exposed more than fifty definitions in the literature. ...
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Citizens' role evolved to become active agents in decision-making. However, existing policy definition procedures are still not tailored to engage citizens and the participation of specific groups. Moreover, it is vital to understand citizens' interests and motivations to set the methods and build democratic methodologies that make them feel comfortable and willing to participate. In this context, this paper explores how policymakers view the role of citizens in policymaking. Specifically, it looks at the obstacles outlined by policymakers to the involvement of citizens in the policy definition. Second, it explores how citizens view their participation and the respective challenges. This study was conducted within the Portuguese context, following a methodology supported by mixed methods research, which combined interviews with policymakers and questionnaires applied to citizens. Furthermore, this research shows detailed data about how the Portuguese population and how particular groups wish to engage in decision-making. Guidelines are presented in the following areas: willingness to be identified, subjects, topics, methods, and channels to participate. The findings suggest there is significant heterogeneity on the engagement modes. Therefore, to promote the inclusion of different groups of citizens, policymakers should tailor participatory methodologies to these, in line with the guidelines of this paper.
Article
This research paper analyses legal aspects of the application of modern technologies for practical use in the energy sector in the form of a Smart City. The issue of Smart Environment in the light of renewable energy sources was classified as the main research axis. The main goal of the paper, from the methodological point of view, involves decoding the impact and importance of renewable energy sources for the full implementation of the Smart City concept. First, the article presents introductory remarks regarding the general outline of technical, technological and civilization progress. Then, the essence of the Smart City concept and its pillars have been presented. This permitted the authors to move on to identify the most important legal aspects of the issue discussed in this paper and to search for potential problems and suggest possible solutions. The paper ends with a concise summary containing the authors’ observations on the subject and de lege ferenda postulates.
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Today, smart city areas and initiatives are found throughout the world, yet little research has been completed into the processes whereby decisions concerning the initiation, marketing, and branding of smart city projects have been taken. The present study examined these processes via interviews with 18 smart city managers, followed by an online World Café which was convened to discuss emerging issues. Interviewees were asked to relate stories of how decisions had been reached, which stakeholders had been prioritised, the extent of citizen co-creation in project initiation and branding, and the main difficulties involved. An argumentative narrative discourse methodology was employed to analyse the interview transcripts, which revealed a number of disparities between the suggestions of extant place branding literature and current practice where smart city projects were concerned.
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Extended Abstract Introduction Smart city implementation has faced many challenges despite having benefits for urban development. Cities have failed to implement smart city strategies. Assessing the influencing factors on the realization of a smart city is essential in clarifying the challenges facing these cities. This study aims to investigate the affecting factors of the smart city realization to define the feasibility factors and variables of the smart city. Using new technologies such as ICT in cities and citizen's life has opened opportunities and challenges for officials and related institutions in the urban area. Since cities are a cultural and social reflection of their inhabitants, changes in how people live also lead to the transformation of cities. Urban planning and management seek to provide smarter solutions for improving the quality of life through new technologies. Increasing the rate of urbanization in the world and the resulting environmental crises, such as the destruction of natural resources, environmental pollutants, climate change, reduction of fossil resources, and mass production of waste, have posed major challenges to human life. Therefore, sustainable development as a form of development that ensures the sustainable life of cities and urban communities provides a solution to improve current urbanization problems. On the one hand, the increasing use of information and communication technologies in People's life and the need to expand sustainable development have led to the formation of a new model of urbanization to overcome these issues. The smart city uses information and communication technologies to achieve sustainable development and improve the quality of life. The smart city is expanding rapidly as a common pattern in developed countries due to the many opportunities it presents to cities. Currently, there is wide competition between cities to become smart. However, our country has not been able to take an effective step to be smart. The realization of smart cities in Iran faces many challenges. In order to identify these challenges, this study tries to examine the factors affecting the feasibility of smart cities based on their components and to explain the contribution of each of these factors affecting the smart city. Methodology This study assumes the significance of the six components of a smart city (economy, environment, people, living, governance, mobility) on the feasibility of a smart city in Mashhad. Therefore, this study utilizes a mixed research method and questionnaire analysis method. For this purpose, first, the components and variables affecting the feasibility of the smart city are explained, and for data analysis, the structural equation modeling method, Smart PLS 3 software, has been used. Results and discussion At the 95% confidence level, the effective components in the realization of Mashhad smart city have been prioritized: Smart governance 92%, smart living 82%, smart economy 79%, smart mobility 69%, smart environment 59%, and smart people 57%. Comparatively, with the feasibility of smart cities in Europe, it can be concluding:The component of a smart environment that has been achieved in most European cities in Mashhad is facing serious challenges; the most important challenges are: assessing the sustainability of urban plans and programs, integrating resource management, measuring energy efficiency, and transparency of energy consumption. The component of smart people, which has a low percentage of feasibility in European cities, faces fewer challenges than other components of the smart city in Mashhad, which can be considered as one of the main capacities in the development of smart city strategies. Conclusion this article aims to review the feasibility of a smart city in Mashhad and its challenges by reviewing the literature, smart city projects, and questionnaire from managers and employees in the field of urban management. The relationship and impact of each of these challenges on the realization of the smart city introduces the effective components and variables in the realization of smart city strategies in Mashhad. It can be concluded that: Each of the components of a smart city includes different variables, and the nature of these variables is focused on the context and complex conditions of each city. Therefore, it is expected that in examining the feasibility of smart cities, a diverse set of variables related to the specific issues and problems of each city will be considered: • The most important challenge for the feasibility of the smart city depends on providing a proper definition of the components of the smart city and its structuring to develop innovation ecosystems. • The method of examining a smart city's feasibility based on each city's issues and challenges can be used by urban management institutions, policymakers, and planners. • Identifying the challenges of achieving smart cities can provide an opportunity for smart cities in Iran to define smart projects more realistically and efficiently. Keywords: Smart city, feasibility, Mashhad city, structural equations
Chapter
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Kentsel alanlarda olağanüstü dönemlerde, bireysel ulaşım araçlarının böylesine saldırdığı bir durumda, insan zamanı ve küresel ısınmanın kang-reni olan çevre kirliliği, hane halklarının ekonomik kazanımları dikkate alın-dığında, çoktan sürdürülebilir ulusal entegre modellemelere geçişi zorunlu kılmalıydı. Kentiçi ulaşımda çalışma içeriğinde bahsettiğimiz güvenilirlik, hızlı-lık, ekonomiklik, düzenlilik ve büyük ölçeklilik, rahatlık ve ergonomiklik ile çevreye duyarlılık başlıklarındaki temel sürdürülebilirlik kriterleri kap-samında alternatif yöntemlerle beslenerek dirençli hale getirilebilecektir. Kentiçi ulaşımdaki bu sürdürülebilirlik kriterleri üzerine oturtulacak kentsel dirençlilik modelleri, ancak ve ancak, alternatiflerin varlığı, uygulanabilirliği, güçlülüğü oranında başarılı olabilecektir. Kentsel hizmetlerde ve özelde ulaşım hizmetlerinin sürdürülebilirliği açısından ekonomiklik, emniyetlilik ergonomiklik, estetiklik, eşitlikiçilik, hızlılık diye 5+1 veya 5 E, 1 H faktörleri olarak bir başka çalışmamızda ortaya koyduğumuz hususların, kentsel dirençlilik açısından bir çok noktada birbi-riyle örtüşmesi söz konusudur. Özellikle kentiçi ulaşım hizmetlerinin ekono-mikliği, hızlılığı, ergonomikliği, güvenliği bu bağlamda ortaya koyduğumuz hususlarla birebir örtüşmektedir. (Fidan, 2016: 54) Olağanüstü dönemlerde kamu gücünün kullanımı, yönetişimin yönetimini gerektirmekte. Çünkü kentsel alanda yaşayanların hayatta kalmalarına yönelik önemler ile bu bireylerin hayatını sürdürmelerine yönelik asgari insani hizmetlerin sağlanabilmesi amacıyla kentsel dirençlilik modelleri geliştirilmektedir.
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In the cities there is a huge number of the use of the land, the socio economic and the environment energy and such type of data will transport. This large number of data integrates the perception of the managing as well as analyzed that large amount of data could be answer various sciences, planning, governed and the sport of making a decision is enabled for a short environment. The relevant paper inform you the experiment as well as practical point of view for the short range of cities that focuses on large number of data and they analyzed by the purpose of a cloud based of the analyzing of the services. In which a prototyped will be designed as well as for the developing of the democratic the effecting for the analytical services of the data. The idea has a huge amount of structures. Each procreation was independent from the first one. This formed lengthy to understand and up to date for the users to use and understand the new system efficiently with the passage of time. As computers can only done one work at one time, so if you want to done two tasks at same time you must be done your work in packets or groups. Today the data centers use the concept of animation for to build the absorption of concrete housewares, for building huge type of relevant sources like a monitors, disk drives, applications, networks and offered these sources for the developers to use them through large scalable machines. In an animation process or in the idea of animation a user can use or run any of its program at any platform or in c compiler. But it requires compiling all the software for a user to run its program at any platform .for this purpose we also use a platform of animation. In the year of 1994 , when java became be the largest web server at that time internet was the way of running large computer networks on separate operating devices. There was no other way of running any system on any platform. Java came into being as a solution of this difficulty. In 1996 the java advancement apparatus was introduced in which the user write their applications. At that time there was no any other way to write applications like java. By using java the user can write the code and then write it any of the other computer machines whenever you want by installation of java runtime environments. it is an intermediate language that can only be used by JRE. It is suppressed by many segments in which the more useful is java animated tool or parity. At this stage the dealer has not accept the need of virtualization security center. At this stage the dealer became still saying that they were wait for the virtual apparatus before finding a solution. In this stage the leader works for the security purpose and in a virtualization enjoinment. In this stage the dealer became aware with the environments and accommodates into an animated platform facilities. In this stage the user use the result of virtualization for the security purpose and in new and unique ways. A large number of groups that is used to make the cloud framework in cloud computing .the body of cloud computing is animations that is used for separation of an environmental machine to various animated machines in a very profitable manners.
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The objective of this paper is to address the smart innovation ecosystem characteristics that elucidate the assembly of all smart city notions into green, interconnected, instrumented, open, integrated, intelligent, and innovating layers composing a planning framework called, Smart City Reference Model. Since cities come in different shapes and sizes, the model could be adopted and utilized in a range of smart policy paradigms that embrace the green, broadband, and urban economies. These paradigms address global sustainability challenges at a local context. Smart city planners could use the reference model to define the conceptual layout of a smart city and describe the smart innovation characteristics in each one of the six layers. Cases of smart cities, such as Barcelona, Edinburgh, and Amsterdam are examined to evaluate their entirety in relation to the Smart City Reference Model.
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This study presents the first results of an analysis primarily based on semi-structured interviews with government officials and managers who are responsible for smart city initiatives in four North American cities—Philadelphia and Seattle in the United States, Quebec City in Canada, and Mexico City in Mexico. With the reference to the Smart City Initiatives Framework that we suggested in our previous research, this study aims to build a new understanding of smart city initiatives. Main findings are categorized into eight aspects including technology, management and organization, policy context, governance, people and communities, economy, built infrastructure, and natural environment.
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Due to the continuous increase of the world population living in cities, it is crucial to identify strategic plans and perform associated actions to make cities smarter, i.e., more operationally efficient, socially friendly, and environmentally sustainable, in a cost effective manner. To achieve these goals, emerging smart cities need to be optimally and intelligently measured, monitored, and managed. In this context the paper proposes the development of a framework for classifying performance indicators of a smart city. It is based on two dimensions: the degree of objectivity of observed variables and the level of technological advancement for data collection. The paper shows an application of the presented framework to the case of the Bari municipality (Italy).
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