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Smart Cities: Definitions, Dimensions, Performance, and Initiatives

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Abstract

The concept of smart city is getting more and more relevant for both academics and policy makers. Despite this, there is still confusion about what a smart city is, as several similar terms are often used interchangeably. This paper aims at clarifying the meaning of the word “smart” in the context of cities through an approach based on an in-depth literature review of relevant studies as well as official documents of international institutions. It also identifies the main dimensions and elements characterizing a smart city. The different metrics of urban smartness are reviewed to show the need for a shared definition of what constitutes a smart city, which are its features, and how it performs in comparison to traditional cities. Furthermore, performance measures and initiatives in a few smart cities are identified.

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... Second, the prior work primarily considered the components of a smart city from the perspective of residential living (Alizadeh, 2017). However, a smart city is a complex system (Albino et al., 2015;Appio et al., 2019), and thus, merely investigating from the perspective of residential living may incur a fragmented understanding of how to construct the smartness of cities. For example, the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic has required cities to develop resilience. ...
... Studies have shown that the number of employees in the ICTs industry, the number of ICTs companies, and a digital financial inclusion score can reflect a smart city's digital economy to some extent (Dameri et al., 2019). Cities that have more employees in ICTs-related industries exhibit better economic growth (Albino et al., 2015;Appio et al., 2019). Hence, in this paper, we use the proportion of workers employed in the ICTs industry over total employment to represent this aspect of the digital economy and collected the data from the Municipal Statistical Yearbook. ...
... These four indicators are benefit-type attributes. Hence, when a city expands its ICTs construction (e.g., the coverage of 5G base stations and the number of center cabinets) and attracts more ICTs resources (e.g., ICTs employees and ICTs companies), it can greatly improve its smart score (Albino et al., 2015). The least important second-level indicator is the digital financial inclusion score, which accounts for 4.2%. ...
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Although prior studies have proposed some smart city index systems, they primarily focus on generic indicators connected to urban development and fail to reflect the properties of intelligence. To fill this gap, we develop a new index system involving three dimensions of digital infrastructure, smart living, and digital economy. Moreover, compared with studies that use subjective weighting methods to rank the smartness of cities, we combine the Shannon entropy weighting method with three multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) methods to show the objectiveness of the evaluation process. Through analyzing the quantitative data from nine cities in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region in China, we find that digital infrastructure is the most important first-level indicator , accounting for 46.92%, followed by the digital economy and smart life accounting for 32.48% and 20.60% respectively. More importantly, when the nine cities in the PRD region are ranked by three MCDM methods, the correlation between the results is over 90%, thus proving robustness. We contribute to the current smart city literature by enriching the components of the smart city index system, as well as evaluation methods. Our findings also guide decision-makers in formulating more targeted smart city construction plans.
... The expression 'smart city' has recently become important in discussions about the city and urban development [1]. The term 'smart' has commonly been used to explain a new vision of city development. ...
... Smart Cities base their international developing strategies on the adoption of IoT and ICT in several fields such as economy, environment, mobility, sustainability, citizens engagement, and governance to transform the infrastructure and services of the city [1]. ...
... Starting from this point, an increasing number of studies followed, which used the smart city concept into the city context as we intend it now. [1,27]. ...
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Book chapter in "Sustainable Digital Transformation: Paving the Way Towards Smart Organizations and Societies"
... As such, the service that has been provided the most by the middleware layer is database management, being provided in 35 IoT frameworks. Following event and alert management is the second most provided service, which has been provided in 28 by providing services such as ontologies [58]. As mentioned previously, smart city applications may require using heterogeneous IoT devices, and the amount of IoT devices can be in the order of hundreds or thousands [85]. ...
... Chourabi et al.[27] have established eight domains of a smart city: Management and organization, technology, governance, policy context, people and communities, economy, built infrastructure, and natural environment. Since several authors have proposed different sets of domains, Albino et al.[28] have surveyed and described several proposals of domains of a smart city, including the aforementioned lists of domains. The authors have mentioned that the Smart city domains may be categorized as soft domains and hard domains[26]. ...
Article
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Recent developments in smart sensing technologies have fostered the wide-spread utilization of smart city applications, which rely on Internet of Things (IoT) frameworks to work efficiently. The terms “smart city” and “IoT framework”, however, have been given several definitions, without consensus. Consequently, definitions of the terms “smart city” and “IoT framework” need to be condensed, consolidating concepts and guidelines of smart cities and IoT frameworks, as will be shown in this study. In addition, a systematic survey of IoT frameworks for smart city applications is presented, summarizing and comparing the technologies and architectures of IoT frameworks for smart city applications. As a result of this study, trends in IoT frameworks for smart city applications and a definition of the term “smart city” are provided. Materializing the findings achieved in this study, an abstract IoT framework concept for smart city applications is proposed. It is expected that the definition of the term “smart city” may be used as a basis for a generally accepted formal definition and that the proposed IoT framework concept may provide a strong foundation for successful IoT framework implementations in the context of smart city applications.
... There is evidence that smart cities technologies (SCT) contribute to government performance through urban innovation (Caragliu & Del Bo, 2019). Proponents of SCT also assert that they enhance economic development (Abutabenjeh et al., 2022;Albino et al., 2015;Lim et al., 2019;Nam & Pardo, 2014), improve government transparency (Elberry et al., 2022;Jeon et al., 2022;Park & Kim, 2022), and contribute to effective crisis management (Lee-Geiller & Lee, 2022). Although "smart cities" is recent terminology, the concept is extant in the scholarship, and it is often synonymous with terms such as intelligent city, sustainable city, digital city, and ubiquitous city (Yigitcanlar et al., 2018). ...
... Recent studies link SCT and ICT, but while ICT is concerned with the infrastructure and components that facilitate modern computing and communication, SCT is concerned with harnessing that technology for use by cities (Angelidou, 2014;Cretu, 2012). However, Albino et al. (2015) explain that SCT is much more than the diffusion of ICTs. Smart cities assume that ICTs will "improve the way every subsystem operates" (p. ...
... By the usage of ICTs, living in cities should be made more comfortable. Although there is no standard definition and understanding of the term SC, there are a couple of definitions with different perspectives on the topic, as researched by [30]. All of them have in common to improve the quality of life of citizens by usage of ICT in basic needs, as outlined in Section 1. ...
... All of them have in common to improve the quality of life of citizens by usage of ICT in basic needs, as outlined in Section 1. Many authors, like [30] and [31], come to this inference. ...
Article
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Edge computing offers computational resources near data-generating devices to enable low-latency access. Especially for smart city contexts, edge computing becomes inevitable for providing real-time services, like air quality monitoring systems. Kubernetes, a popular container orchestration platform, is often used to efficiently manage containerized applications in smart cities. Although it misses essential requirements of edge computing, like network-related metrics for scheduling decisions, it is still considered. This paper analyzes custom cloud-edge architectures implemented with Kubernetes. Specifically, we analyze how essential requirements of edge orchestration in smart cities are solved. Also, shortcomings are identified in these architectures based on the fundamental requirements of edge orchestration. We conduct a literature review to obtain the general requirements of edge computing and edge orchestration for our analysis. We map these requirements to the capabilities of Kubernetes-based cloud-edge architectures to assess their level of achievement. Issues like using network-related metrics and the missing topology-awareness of networks are partially solved. However, requirements like real-time resource utilization, fault-tolerance, and the placement of container registries are in the early stages. We conclude that Kubernetes is an eligible candidate for cloud-edge orchestration. When the formerly mentioned issues are solved, Kubernetes can successfully contribute latency-critical, large-scale, and multi-tenant application deployments for smart cities.
... Since Gibson et al. (1992) coined the term smart city, research on and practices of smart cities have been activated. Regarding the theoretical aspect, definitions of a smart city have become more diverse as the number of smart city developments has flourished (Lazaroiu and Roscia 2012; Albino et al. 2015). Among such diverse definitions, Caragliu et al. (2011) considered "a city to be smart when investments in human and social capital and traditional (transport) and modern (ICT) communication infrastructure fuel sustainable economic growth and a high quality of life, with a wise management of natural resources, through participatory governance" (p. ...
... Regarding the ICTs for smart city initiatives, although the establishment of smart city platforms was planned to enhance data sharing among different policy domains about the impacts of smart city policies in Japan, sector-based projects are still observed among the second generation of smart city policies, just like in other countries (Mattoni et al. 2015). As installed in a theoretical framework proposed by Fernandez-Anez et al. (2018), governance is the key issue to bridge such sectorbased smart city projects/policies (Albino et al. 2015;Meijer and Bolívar 2016). Further studies are required to reveal how the smart city platform is utilized to foster governance in the second generation of smart city policies in Japan. ...
... With increasing demand for blockchain-based solutions in a wide range of application areas, its adoption to several smart city solutions are also observed recently [2][3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17][18]. Arnab Mukherjee and Swagatika Sahoo contributed equally to this work. ...
... city solutions [6,7,11]. These approaches help establish information-rich, interconnected smart cities by considering several factors and challenges, such as broadband connectivity, digital inclusion, innovation, poverty, migrations, sustainable development, governance, etc. [3,15,19]. Gagliardi et al. [9] designed a smart infrastructure for offering valueadded services to smart cities introducing a low-cost smart lighting system using the IoT infrastructure. Perera et al. [16] proposed an IoT-based solution to connect billions of sensors (e.g. ...
Article
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There has been an increasing demand for shaping the world’s cities into smart cities by adopting modern technological solutions. In recent times, Blockchain has emerged as a most promising technology with a wide range of applications, and its adoption to several smart city solutions is also observed. However, these existing blockchain-based smart city solutions are restricted to individual sectors only, and there is a lack of connectivity and composability among them. This makes them incapable of providing hassle-free services which involve multiple sectors. In fact, a fully-fledged smart city solution demands the integration of different solutions pertaining to different sectors, leading to a seamless interaction among its stakeholders across the boundary. To this aim, in this paper, we propose a hybrid blockchain-based platform to foster a complete smart city solution with the integration of different crucial sectors involved in the functioning of the smart city. We design an architecture for multiple blockchain networks to connect and share information among themselves through intra- and inter-blockchain communication, enabling citizens to avail inter-blockchain services as well. We also address the security and privacy aspects of intra- and inter-network transactions. We present our working prototype using Hyperledger Fabric and Node.JS. The empirical evidence acquired from system benchmarks and load testings is encouraging, with an enhanced throughput for intra-blockchain transactions on Hyperledger Fabric, compared to the Ethereum blockchain platform. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first proposal of its kind, addressing the integration of different smart city sectors through interconnected blockchain networks.
... First node death (FND), the half node death (HND), and last node death (LND) are major challenges in improving energy efficiency [29], 30]. This provides a solution to extend the FND time by considering the local density, relative distance, and residual energy of the sensor nodes [31]. The I-AREOR protocol provides power settings based on the dynamic range of each circuit. ...
Article
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Internet of things (IoT) makes a machines optimization in everyday which processing the data by very intelligently and make communication more effectively and efficiently. In smart city environments, the data collection and communication play an important role in defining quality. Since the research period, it has been recommending a new data acquisition and data communication software framework for IoT smart applications. For further improvements, we recommend an optimal QoS aware routing technique for smart cities using IoT enabled wireless sensor networks (OQR-SC). In data gathering phase, the proposed system introduce chaotic bird swarm optimization (CBSO) algorithm for IoT sensor cluster formation; the improved differential search (IDS) algorithm used to estimate the faith degree of each sensor node, the highest trust node act as cluster head (CH). In data transferring phase, first illustrates lightweight signcryption technique for data encryption between two IoT sensors. Then, we use optimal decision making (ODM) algorithm to compute the optimal path between source–destination in IoT platform. Finally, the proposed OQR-SC technique is implemented using network simulation (NS2) tool and analyzes the performance of proposed technique with existing state-of-art techniques. The result summarizes that average energy consumption of proposed OQR-SC technique is 12.39% lower than the existing techniques; the average network lifetime of proposed OQR-SC technique is 15.96% higher than the existing techniques; the average delay of proposed OQR-SC technique is 21.08% lower than the existing techniques; and the average throughput of proposed OQR-SC technique is 17.89% higher than the existing techniques.
... The appearance of new technologies has given rise to the notions of smart environments and smart tourism (Albino et al., 2015). As a theme, smart tourism as an interdisciplinary topic of growing academic attention includes knowledge from the areas of sustainability, information technology, and library intelligence management (Almobaideen et al., 2016). ...
Article
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Smart tourism and associated topics have been extensively discussed by scholars around the world. The goal of this study is to make available an all-inclusive database-based analysis of the longitude status of research on smart tourism. Three databases, Web of Science (WoS), Science Direct and China Knowledge Network (CNKI), were utilized to gather papers published from 2011 to 2020. The data results were analyzed and results were generated using CiteSpace. The results of Chinese and English papers were evaluated to form the conclusion of this study. The implication formed the prediction of future research trends and development suggestions.
... It focuses on aspects such as IoT management, data management, smart city assessment, security, and renewable technologies, with challenges that require proactive solutions in security and privacy. Albino, Berardi, & Dangelico (2015) seek to clarify the meaning of the word "smart" in the context of cities and identify the main dimensions and elements that characterize a "smart" city, reviewing the different metrics of urban "intelligence" in the common definition of smart city and its characteristics. Braem et al. (2016) present in a City of the Things test environment, in the city of Antwerp, Belgium, through the multi-technology network infrastructure, with the ability to test new data and validate it. ...
Thesis
Smart places, such as the dematerialization of diverse natural ecosystems, involve several autonomous ecosystems that interconnect and promote the integration of information and the convergence of necessarily secure functions and activities that depend on reliable data and sources. The problem of data management, quality, and governance is aggravated by the amount of data generated, the multiplicity of devices, spaces, infrastructures, users, and connected entities, being a technological and management challenge. The various cyber risks can lead to data compromise, exploitation of weaknesses, infiltration of systems, conditioning the functioning of the city, and, to the limit, disengaging or even destroying the physical infrastructure to the point where citizens have their lives threatened. The research methodology chosen for this work is the Design Science Research (DSR) methodology, in the problem-centered approach, where we intend to construct an artifact, which allows us to evaluate viable alternatives for using reliable, blockchain-based technology. The proposal focuses on a generic data model to be applied to smart places in the context of smart cities, focusing on their revision and structuring in data management aspects and governance. The proposed model adopts blockchain technologies and applies to the different characteristics of the city, in the electronic governance, in the contracting of products and services, and in the collection of data. Various IoT objects and multiple networks, along with blockchain technology, can result in safer and more efficient spaces and cities. This work explores the concept of smart cities in the mobility and transport ecosystem, using blockchain technology as a platform for data security and reliability, applied in the ticketing subsystem and traffic subsystem, for the safety and control of the logs generated by the numerous devices. With this artifact it is intended the generalization of the model be applied to different subsystems allowed that generic data models, be integrated and automated, with quality data and reliable information. Controlling data flows, and managing the data and information lifecycle will enable a more reliable data management, information management, and governance process.
... Amid the penetration of digital technology into all aspects of our everyday life at different geographical scales, the smart city has in particular become the most popular label, both within the academic world and policy circles [6], [7]. This concept in general refers to the use and development of digital technology in urban areas to improve the functioning of cities [8], [9]. ...
Conference Paper
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The ubiquitous presence of digital technology and how this has reshaped the everyday life of people has been in the spotlight. Recent academic discussion regarding this topic has been dominated by the notion of ‘smart city’, generally associated with the injection of digital technology and information and communication infrastructure in the urban system. This paper aims to shift the current geographical epicentrum by zooming in on the main issues surrounding ‘smart village’. Being often seen as a peripheral geographical unit, the diffusion of digital technology in rural areas is interestingly unavoidable. Technocrats from both developed and developing countries have been increasingly attracted by the promises offered by the utilization of digital technology for rural development. To this end, the objectives of this paper are twofold. First, this study sketchs what smart village actually means and how this concept has been adopted in several developing countries by virtue of literature review. Second, we use the case of Banyuwangi, Indonesia, to dissect the main drivers underlying smart village development. The data used for the second objective was mainly retrieved from a series of in-depth interviews with relevant actors in Banyuwangi in 2020 (online). This paper concludes the need to place smart villages as a means to achieve certain development priorities. In doing so, the three key drivers of smart villages, i.e., policy, technology, and human, should be utilized equally as (digital) technology alone is not enough to drive a city/region’s digital transformation.
... Gelişen teknoloji ve kentleşme ile birlikte "akıllı kent/şehir" kavramı son 20 yılda oldukça popüler hale gelmiştir. İlk olarak 1990'lı yıllarda, şehirlerdeki modern altyapı sistemlerini destekleyen temel bilgi teknolojilerine dikkat çekmek için kullanılmaya başlayan "akıllı kent" ifadesi, günümüzde fiziki altyapı sistemleri ile bilgi, iletişim ve sosyal altyapıların birlikteliğini ifade eden bir kavram halini almıştır [1]. Akıllı kent uygulamaları ile yalnızca insanların, binaların ve sistemlerin olağan işlevleri otomatikleştirilmemekte, aynı zamanda toplumsal yaşamın kalitesini ve verimliliğini arttırmak için kentin izlenmesine, analiz edilmesine, planlanmasına ve daha iyi anlaşılmasına olanak tanınmaktadır. ...
Conference Paper
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Artan kentleşme ile birlikte dünya nüfusunun yaklaşık %66'sının 2050 yılına kadar kentleşeceği ve küresel su talebinin %55 oranında artacağı öngörülmektedir. Bu nedenle, kentsel su güvenliğini sağlamak ve su kaynaklarını etkin ve verimli bir şekilde yönetebilmek için kentlerde akıllı su yönetimi uygulamaların işler hale getirilmesi kritik önem taşımaktadır. Bunun için dünyanın farklı bölgelerindeki şehirlerin mevcut ve yeni altyapı hizmetlerinin verimliliğini ve işlerliğini arttırmaları gerekecektir. Şehirlerin tüm veri kaynaklarını sistematik ve senkronize bir şekilde kullanarak tüm teknolojik destekleri de alarak daha etkili ve verimli su üretimi ve atıksu bertarafı yapmaları gerekecektir. Akıllı su yönetimi uygulamaları yardımıyla kentlerin su sorunlarının düzgün bir şekilde ele alınabilmesi ve yönetilebilmesi sağlanacaktır. Bu çalışmada, gelişen dünyada akıllı su yönetiminden, akıllı su yönetimi yaklaşımlarından ve akıllı çözüm ve teknolojilerden bahsedilmektedir. Akıllı su yönetimine yönelik dünyadan uygulamalara da yer verilmekte ve Türkiye'deki mevcut durum anlatılmaktadır.
... The growing interest in smart cities to solve urban issues has attracted governments, institutions, companies and even individuals. In 2012, there were 143 ongoing funded projects, of which 55 were based in Asia, 47 in Europe, 30 in the United States and fewer than 10 in the Middle East and Africa (Ahvenniemi et al. 2017;Albino et al. 2015). On the other hand, the concept of smart cities in European Union countries supports the idea of urban sustainability by promoting the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions through the deployment of technology (Ahvenniemi et al. 2017;Caragliu et al. 2009). ...
Chapter
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The concept of citizens’ participation (CP) has been widely adopted by scholars, professionals and governments around the world. Many frameworks have been developed that include CP as a core domain. Although government agencies admit the usefulness of adopting CP, there is little written about the application of CP in the context of smart cities. The aim of this study is to critically review the literature focussed on engaging, empowering and enabling citizens to participate in achieving smart cities in relation to decision-making, digital communication and socio-cultural pillars, and to develop a conceptual framework that helps in demonstrating the interconnection of the identified fields. The data were retrieved from online search engines. Google trends, annual publications, CP in relation to other domains, authors’ affiliations and active authors were reviewed. Since 1985, there has been a considerable number of articles published annually relating to CP, yet there has been a fluctuation in the number of annual publications. Authors have contributed significantly to the topic of smart cities. However, there is little in the literature that contributes to achieving smart sustainable cities through CP. Moreover, recent publications have increased dramatically compared to past years. Universities are the top contributors in terms of authors’ affiliations. Subject to validation by empirical evidence, the citizens’ participation framework developed can be adopted to achieve smart, sustainable urbanisation in Saudi Arabia. The framework focuses on the empowerment of CP in making decisions, the application of ICT to facilitate CP and effective stakeholder communication between citizens and government.
... By way of a smart city review, Albino et al. (2015) explain that although older smart city definitions used to be limited to the diffusion of ICT and information systems within cities, later definitions of the term include a focus on the people and community needs that the information systems are applied to. Thus, we can conclude that most modern definitions for a smart city are made up of two parts: information technology and its application (Sengan et al., 2020). ...
Article
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Increased urbanization against the backdrop of limited resources complicates city planning and the management of functions, including public safety. The smart city concept can help, but most previous smart city systems have focused on utilizing automated sensors and analyzing quantitative data. In developing nations, limited resources make using the mobile phone to enable the crowdsourcing of qualitative public safety reports from the public a more viable option. However, there is no best practice for analyzing such citizen reports for a smart city in a developing nation. Given the rise of megacities in developing nations, many of which struggle to provide access to vital resources, this study developed and tested a model for guiding the analysis of unstructured natural language texts instead of traditional sensory data. In the study, citizens engaged with the project and 663 usable reports were received. Following a design science approach, the model was developed through an extensive review of related literature, and assessed and refined by observing the associated model prototype. This study emphasizes that a city-specific ontology needs to be developed and that natural language processing should be its focus, specifically within the larger context of our smart city qualitative data analysis (SCQDA) model. Together, these aspects enable this study to contribute practically, as we prove that cities in developing nations can improve the lives of their citizens using that which is already at their disposal instead of specialized (and often expensive) sensory networks. K E Y W O R D S natural language processing, ontology, participatory crowdsourcing, smart city, text mining
... To set the standard, the key considerations include: i) the placement of monitoring equipment (e.g., location and duration of monitoring) [147]; ii) expectations of the air quality and thermal environment that can be achieved [170][171][172][173][174]; iii) acceptance of the monitoring process by the elderly residents [150]; iv) health risks [150]; and v) rapid analysis of monitoring results [173][174][175][176]. Moreover, the smart GI Network should be considered as an important part of the standard to realize long-term sustainability [177][178][179][180][181][182]. It would allow to monitor the environmental quality of GI spaces in real-time and make informed decisions [177] (e.g., provide visual advice to elderly people on how long they are encouraged to stay in any local environment). ...
Article
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The elderly population is relatively vulnerable to air pollution and thermal stress due to their low mobility and high prevalence of chronic disorders. Appropriate green infrastructure (GI) deployment can improve both the indoor and outdoor air quality and thermal environments of elderly care centres (ECCs), yet a systematic review on this topic area is lacking. This review aims to fill this gap by investigating the impacts of GI on ECC building environment and presents the approaches for integrating GI into the building environment design. We discussed the significance of linking air quality with the thermal environment to ECCs and the effects of GI on the elderly's physical health. We investigated the key design considerations for GI in ECC buildings (e.g., spatial layout, species, aesthetics and fire prevention). Also, the diversity of monitoring and modelling approaches for evaluating the benefits of GI in indoor and outdoor environments was assessed. Finally, we evaluated the associated challenges and provided design recommendations for improving the environments in and around the ECC buildings (e.g., bedrooms, indoor gardens, green roofs and courtyards). The quantitative evidence for linking GI with indoor and outdoor air pollution and extreme heat around the ECC buildings are limited. However, this evidence-base is important for providing generic advice to the building designers and the elderly. Further studies such as the evaluation criteria and monitoring standard are required to develop holistic design recommendations for ECC buildings. The empirical research about the social and economic impacts is also necessary to facilitate the sustainable development of the ageing societies.
... In other words, the British Standards Institute (BSI 2014) defines the creation process of a smart city as effectively integrating physical, digital, and human systems into already-built environment elements for the purpose of providing a sustainable and prosperous future for citizens. The definition of a smart city is extremely broad and still evolving, and the relevant literature includes various other definitions from different standpoints (Cocchia 2014;Albino et al. 2015;Lara et al. 2016;Martin et al. 2018;Silva et al. 2018;Yigitcanlar et al. 2019;Lim et al. 2019;Stübinger and Schneider 2020;Zhao et al. 2021). Several scholars in the literature identify smart city components (Mahizhnan 1999;Eger 2009;Giffinger and Gudrun 2010;Barrionuevo et al. 2012;Deakin 2013;Dameri 2014;Anthopoulos 2015;Marsal-Llacuna et al. 2015;Yigitcanlar et al. 2018). ...
Article
This study presents a design proposal based on the concept of developing a smart, livable, and sustainable historical city center for Ulus District in Ankara. In recent years, Ulus district has been subjected to a quite radical and irreversible transformation process involving a lot of demolition, reconstruction, and refunction activities. Urban development with such high density has created several problems for the environment , in addition to causing the area to lose its distinctive physical and functional aspects. A holistic approach, accompanied by the support of advanced technologies and their modern applications, appears to be a necessity for achieving the long-term goals of urban sustainability. To this end, this study provides significant insights into ruling local political practices and strategies in order to support policymakers in achieving their local aims on smart city initiatives.
... Apart from the environmental sustainability as submitted by (Kramers et al., 2014;Oke et al., 2020b), smart cities and neighbourhoods are more about creative, liveable, digital and knowledge-based cities. These are areas that show that the social and economic dimensions of sustainability are covered in the concept of smart cities (Barrionuevo et al. 2012;Ballas 2013;Marsal-Llacuna et al, 2015;Albino et al 2015). The examination of smart neighbourhoods in the EU shows that; energy consumption reduction, interaction of smart meters and grids, effective water and waste management system, use of renewable energy, efficient transportation system, are prominent in the discus of the importance of smart cites. ...
Conference Paper
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The soaring growth in population and its effect on urbanization has necessitated the need for successive government especially in developing countries to meet the demands for infrastructure, buildings and other social amenities as they are exerting undue pressure on the real estate sector. This development has increased the rate of consumption of natural resources resulting to unsustainable development and distortion of enabling environment. Smart city (neighbourhood) approach is a sustainable system of delivering and management of Infrastructure, which has gained prominence in developed nations and some other developing ones. There is however the absence of consensus on the factors that drive smart neighbourhood among researchers. This study assessed the drivers of smart neighbourhood in the real estate sector of Nigeria. The Quantitative research questionnaire developed from literature review was used to gather data from experts in the real estate sector in Imo state, using purposive sampling technique. The gathered data were analysed using appropriate descriptive statistical tools. The study found that the top critical drivers of smart neighbourhood are; improve health care delivery and services, Decrease pollution levels, Green modes of transport ,Improved public and social services , and Improved education. Government and private investors should prioritize the attainment of smart and intelligent neighbourhood as it has positive impact on the economy, environment, and social wellbeing of the populace.
... A further expansion of the list has included smart buildings (Neirotti et al. 2014). Proposals of smart city domains have been reviewed and described (Albino et al. 2015). Furthermore, smart city domains have been categorized as soft domains and hard domains, referring to intangible and tangible characteristics of smart cities, respectively (Neirotti et al. 2014). ...
... The label "smart city" is used interchangeably with similar terms like "intelligent city" or "digital city" (Albino et al., 2015). These variants are categorized into three dimensions (Harrison et al., 2010;Nam & Pardo, 2011): Technology, People and Community. ...
Chapter
A city becomes a smart city when it employs ICT (information and communication technology) to share data with the public, improve government services' quality, and develop operational efficiency. The key objective of a smart city is to optimize the operations of the city and encourage economic growth through data analysis and the use of smart technologies. This chapter focuses on exploring the IoT and soft computing technologies' role in the development of smart cities. These methods are used for designing optimal policies efficiently for complex problems around smart cities. Different case sectors of a smart city are explored, and various machine learning-based algorithms are discussed to help, improve, and resolve their issues. Additionally, comparisons are drawn between the techniques adopted in existing systems and the results they yield, along with identification of the limitations they present.
... There is no unified and standard definition of a Smart City. Common for any Smart City remains the aim to deliver effective services to people, regulate and improve infrastructure, foster cooperation of economic stakeholders to promote progressive and innovative solutions in private and public sectors (Albino et al. 2015). The following objectives are being obtained via the deployment of two vital elements that fuel Smart City: Information Technology (IT) and human capital (Ahvenniemi et al. 2017;Hollands 2008). ...
... The concept and strategy of smart cities development is understood as a model in which there is a high investment in Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) and Internet of Things (IoT), as well as in human and social capital, in order to promote quality of life in a universal way, i.e., the smart city is multidimensional [1]. In this sense, with the consolidation of smart city research, several related topics have also been studied. ...
Conference Paper
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The smart city concept arises in the last decades to improve quality of life. One characteristic of smart cities' strategies is smart mobility, which uses Information and Communication Technologies and Internet of Things for better traffic management and provision of new mobility services. This study aims to shed light on the discussion about data privacy, once this process will increase the availability of user-generated and user-centered information regarding urban mobility. A review was conducted to list the data collected and the major threats regarding data privacy in smart mobility initiatives. Results show that most of the data collected is highly sensitive and the major threats are related to the identification and tracking movements of users, besides leakage and unauthorized use of data. Thus, privacy needs to be strongly addressed in technological and regulatory developments to protect users' information.
... If participatory behavior is partially or fully carried with the support of ICT one can speak of e-participation (Abu-Shanab & Al-Dalou', 2012). Since e-participation is considered to be a part of e-governance within the smart city framework by Giffinger et al., (2007) it hence refers to a top-down understanding of ICTenabled participation in the smart city (Lombardi et al., 2012) and refers to the integration of various stakeholders in decision-making processes and public services with the aid of ICT (Albino et al., 2015). A different approach to participation in the smart city is to arrange the digitally supported participation and collaboration of stakeholders in urban participation processes in the sphere of the smart people of the smart city dimensions (Giffinger et al., 2007) incorporating the bottom-up approach of participation. ...
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Citizen participation is a vital aspect for smart cities, as solutions developed by and with citizens promote transparent and participatory collaboration within a city and foster the development and construction of a meaningful living environment. However, design knowledge on citizen-initiated and at the same time ICT-supported participation projects (referred to as Smart Participation) are scarce in practice and under-researched. In this paper, we follow a Design Science Research approach to create design knowledge for smart participation scenarios. Based on ten conducted expert interviews with active participants and issues identified within the literature, we create seven design principles. We subsequently evaluate the design principles with four additional experts who designed and are currently operating a large participation platform. Our results contribute prescriptive design knowledge for both practice and research on how to design and beneficially facilitate smart participation in the context of smart cities.
... The question of how we will live in cities in the future is currently being discussed in the context of smart cities. There, "smart citizens" are increasingly being envisioned as central actors who network, use new technologies and actively shape their environment themselves (de Waal & Dignum, 2017). The focus lies on participation (Gil-Garcia et al., 2020) and the change to a participatory city administration (Albino, Berardi, & Dangelico, 2015). Participation is understood as taking part or being involved and addresses the insight and influence of the citizens involved in planning and decision-making processes (Collins & Ison, 2009). ...
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Citizens are increasingly shaping their city self-determined. To do so, they use digital platforms to start projects, gain awareness or raise funds. These and other participation mechanisms enable citizens to participate in manifold ways. With the help of the tree ring model introduced in our contribution, we present a tool that is intended to support practitioners in evaluating and developing their platforms. The model was designed based on the analysis of 22 existing platforms as well as a literature review and evaluated in qualitative interviews. The result is a tree ring model that shows a new understanding of participation apart from hierarchical structures. The citizens' role classification and the possible mechanisms that can offer practitioners effective implications for the design of participation platforms.
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Smart cities employ information and communication technologies to manage urban functions such as transportation, environmental quality, water and waste systems, and for community engagement. As a recent phenomenon of three decades, we investigate the evolution of the smart city concept and its common uses in language and media. Using the social media use of #smartcity and #smartcities we analyze 4.7 million tweets sent between 2017 and 2020 to reveal the geography and languages of the concept, along with common associations and influences. Results show how Twitter messaging is driven by technology and industry interests with a focus on vendors and the promotion of smart city technologies. Implications of the results include a need for broader engagement, addressing issues of ownership and control of technology, governance and oversight, privacy issues, and the promotion of social justice. Smart cities have the potential for greater community engagement around urban life, but this role needs to be established if the full benefits are to be realized.
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A study conducted by UN Habitat (2020) revealed that financing of investment in African growing cities has become an impediment amid the COVID-19 pandemic. Close to USD 93 billion is needed to finance urban development in Africa. The prevalence of COVID-19 pandemic impacted negatively on the independence of African cities to raise revenue or incur long-term debt to finance their development. Several local governments in African cities are not positioned enough to ensure quality standards of living for their people. This is because many local authorities in African cities cannot intervene in various emergencies or crises which pose a danger to people given the COVID-19 pandemic era where strategic government interventions are essential to save the lives of the people. Burdened by the need to respond to COVID-19, many African governments have diverted their attention from the smart city ideology which demands stable financial revenues and redirected their efforts towards mitigating the scourge of the pandemic. Drawing from this background, therefore this chapter reports on the three selected African cities (Johannesburg, Lagos and Accra) because of their experiences regarding COVID-19, and their responses to the pandemic towards achieving a smart city in Africa. The chapter is guided by the following specific objectives: To examine the unintended consequences of COVID-19 on the achievement of Smart Cities in three African Cities; to assess the opportunities and challenges of achieving smart cities amid COVID 19 in three African Cities; and to determine how rapid urbanisation affects the achievement of Smart Cities amid COVID-19 in three African Cities. Qualitative thematic analysis was used to analyse data acquired from secondary sources.
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The concept of \"Smart City\” has been a proliferating topic in the past two decades. Among the widespread discussion on this concept, two main features could be observed. The first one aims to leverage information and communications technology (ICT) infrastructures and innovative solutions to tackle citywide issues, including economic development, mobility facilitation, environmental protection, and city governance. The second aims to improve the quality of life of the citizens and enhance the city’s sustainability and competitiveness. Despite the extensive discussion and research on Smart City, there is no universally adopted definition for Smart City.
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مع انتشار التكنولوجيا داخل المجتمعات، وتوجه الدول لتبني نماذج الحكومات الذكية، ظهر توجه آخر أكثر ذكاءً، قائم على إنشاء "مدن ذكية"، قادرة على استيعاب ملايين من الأفراد، تتميز بكونها تعتمد بصورة رئيسية على تكنولوجيا المعلومات والاتصالات لإدارة كافة متطلبات الحياة اليومية فيها، فالمنازل التي يسكنها الأفراد، والبنية التحتية وأنظمة النقل والاتصالات والخدمات الحكومية والتجارية والصناعية وكافة القطاعات بهذه المدن تديرها نظم ذكية تعتمد على الذكاء الصناعي وانترنت الأشياء لتسيير الحياة بها، ويحدث بداخلها أنماط مختلفة من "التفاعلات الذكية" بين البشر وبعضهم البعض، وبين البشر والآلات، وبين الآلات وبعضها، ينتج عن هذه التفاعلات مليارات من البيانات المتولدة يومياً، والتي يشار إليها بمفهوم "البيانات العملاقة" Big Data وتكون محصلة تحليل هذه البيانات قرارات وسياسات تساعد في تحسين نمط الحياة داخل هذه المدينة الذكية. هذا التوجه نحو تبني نماذج المدن الذكية يأتي مدفوعاً بمجموعة من محركات القوى Driving Forces التكنولوجية يأتي على رأسها مواقع التواصل الاجتماعي وتطبيقات الموبيل Mobile App والطائرات بدون طيار Drones والطابعات ثلاثية الأبعاد 3D Printers وانترنت الاشياء Internet Of Things، والذكاء الصناعي Artificial Intelligence والسيارات ذاتية القيادة والروبوتات Robots والعملات الرقمية Digital currencies بصورة قد تدفع إلى بقوة نحو إنشاء حياة جديدة قائمة على مفهوم "المدينة الذكية Smart City" الذي يعتبر الإطار العام الجامع لكافة أشكال التطور التكنولوجي والعلاقات "الذكية" بين البشر. فقد أعلنت العديد من الدول الاتجاه نحو إنشاء مدن ذكية، فمقارنة بـ 21 مدينة ذكية عام 2013، من المتوقع أن تصل عدد المدن الذكية حول العالم عام 2025 إلى 88 مدينة ذكية، منها 32 مدينة في منطقة آسيا والباسيفيك، و31 مدينة في أوروبا، و25 مدينة في القارة الأمريكية( )، وذلك حسب تعريف شركة Information Handling Services (IHS) لمفهوم المدينة الذكية، وفي عام2020 سيصل حجم سوق تلك المدن إلى 1.56 تريليون دولار وفق تقديرات شركة فروست آند سوليفانز العالمية وحددت التقديرات ثمانية قطاعات رئيسية للاستثمار الذكي في العالم، وهي: الصناعة، إمدادات الطاقة، الأمن، التعليم، البناء، الرعاية الصحية، النقل، المياه. وفي هذا الإطار تتناول هذه الدراسة المقصود بظاهرة المدن الذكية في ثلاث أقسام رئيسية، يتناول القسم الأول الاهتمام العالمي بالمدن الذكية والأسباب التي دفعت الدول نحو تبني هذا النموذج، والفرص والمميزات التي يقدمها، ويتناول القسم الثاني تعريفات المدن الذكية وخصائصها وعناصر وأنواعها، في حين يتطرق القسم الثالث إلى التحديات والتهديدات الأمنية التي يطرحها هذا النموذج سواء كانت تحديات تقليدية مثل الأمن الإلكتروني أو غير تقليدية مثل التماسك المجتمعي، وتحاول في النهاية تقديم تصور للتغلب على مثل هذه المشكلات.
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The types of fraud encountered in enterprises are mainly classified into asset abuse, corruption, and financial statement fraud. The literature deals with the use of big data to detect these frauds from various sectors’ perspectives. The studies have stated that the data generated in the enterprise’s internal and external environments provides faster access than the database, reliable evidence is obtained by analyzing these data, and this evidence effectively detects fraud. In this study, big data in detecting fraud in hotel businesses is presented within the literature framework. The hotel industry has diverse data generated from management information systems, websites, social media, and blogs. Big data transforms these multiple source data into valuable, meaningful, and processable forms. When big data is interpreted with appropriate analysis techniques, it enables enterprises to manage fraud risks.
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The paper provides a comparative analysis of smart city rankings as a tool to assess the effectiveness of measures implemented by the city authorities to digitalize the urban economy. The genesis of the issue of ranking smart cities in the academic literature has been considered, and three international rankings have been selected for comparative analysis. Their comparison shows that those rankings, which are based on a wide selection of cities and statistical indicators, as well as assessments of experts and citizens, are the most effective in assessing the course towards smartization. It has been proven that, at the moment, the most representative is the rating IESE “Cities in Motion”, which, however, does not take into account the qualitative methods of assessing cities. This experience can be used by city and national authorities to implement policies to promote smart cities, including in Russia, where its “IQ index of cities” has been created.
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The smart city literature states that three levels of institutional layers (regulatory, normative, and cognitive) and four typologies of actors (government, universities, citizens, and the private sector) support private initiative for developing smart technologies. Focusing on the emergent phenomenon of smart apps ideated by lawyers’ private initiatives, this paper acknowledges that other factors, including the ubiquity of mobile technologies and the absence of effective public services provided by public institutions, contribute to the institutional and organizational humus necessary for the creation of intelligent technological proposals. In the light of the organizational theory framework, and based on the analysis of the literature on smart cities and e-justice and on the empirical investigation of two Italian lawyers’ apps (Collega and Anthea), this paper identifies the institutional, organizational, and technological conditions under which smart technologies are being developed in high-regulated public institutions’ contexts as justice systems. The findings of the study described in this paper help integrate the contribution of the literature on the topic.
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The aim of the research is to substantiate the methodological foundations of empirical research by revealing the concept of the expression of dimensions of smartness in cultural management. The article formulates theoretical construct based on expression of smartness dimensions in cultural management. This construct is formulating by combining cultural management and smart governance concepts and closely linking cultural management with the implementation of cultural policy and seeing the specifics of smart cultural management. The expression of smartness dimensions at culture management model consist of six main dimensions: strategics, creative development, harmonization of interests in the cultural sector, empowered cultural sector parties, harmony of intellectual and technological capital, the culture of shared value creation. Methodology strategy is based on two philosophical approaches by combining induction and deduction which result is abduction approach. Qualitative analysis was performed of theoretical sources of foreign countries and Lithuania. Another part of qualitative research is based on the interviewing chosen respondents to get information about the expression of smartness dimensions at culture management model functioning. There would be chosen about 30 experts (till data saturation) by using quadruple helix. Experts are chosen from government, science, business and nongovernmental organizations’ sphere. Gained results let to form research results conception which consists of three parts: theoretical model, current situation model, perspective situation model. The trajectory of the change from the current situation model to the perspective situation model helps to highlight the areas requiring improvement of the functioning of the cultural field, planned directions (trends) of change.In future research, it is planned to form the indicators for all 6 theoretical dimensions of the expression of smartness dimensions at culture management model. Analysis based on this theoretical model also will be performed at the state level which provide a comprehensive view of the cultural field current situation and hypothetical perspective situation.
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Challenges related to the efficiency of public services tend to be greater with the population growth in urban areas. Since the world expected to reach the mark of 9.8 billion inhabitants by 2050, governments in all major cities are looking for strategies to break uncontrolled growth. The increase in traffic jam, violence, social inequality and global warming is one of the consequences of an uncontrolled growth. To mitigate these challenges, smart cities (SC) initiatives have been increasing worldwide, mainly due to the fact that information and communication technologies (ICT) are used to achieve service efficiency. In this context, information systems (IS) are seen as strategic tools for solving problems from a systemic view on three pillars: people, organizations and technologies. However, several IS have been used to support SC initiatives and there is no standard for requirements that can support IS development as a way of supporting public managers and the systems development industry. Based on the digital ecosystems (DE) perspective, this dissertation presents a catalog of IS non-functional requirements (NFR) focused on SC. The catalog proposal, entitled ReQSI-CI, emerged from the results of an exploratory study, a systematic mapping study (SMS) and a survey research. The exploratory study identified opportunities and barriers in the use of informal IS in the field of SC, in addition to extracting NFR from the responses of the citizens who participated in the study. The SMS identified formal (governmental) IS as well as challenges and success factors in their implementation. In addition, the NFR presented in the studies were identified. Finally, a survey research was carried out with interested citizens in order to evaluate the IS pointed out in the SMS. At the end, an evaluation of the catalog ReQSI-CI was conducted through a focus group with experts in SC, requirements and DE, resulting in a new version of the catalog ReQSI-CI. The results show that the proposal brings together relevant elements for SC, with emphasis on a DE perspective. The contribution of this dissertation is a requirements catalog containing 46 NFR organized into SC dimensions and domains.
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Modern cities are complex adaptive systems in which there is a lot of dependency and interaction between the various stakeholders, components, and subsystems. The use of digital Information and Communications Technology (ICT) has opened up the vision of smart cities in which the city dwellers can have a better quality of life and the city can be better organized and managed. The deployment of ICT solutions, however, does not automatically or invariably improve the quality of living of the citizens. Analyzing cities as complex systems with various interacting sub-systems can help us understand urban dynamics and the fate of smart cities. We will be able to analyze various policy interventions and ascertain their effectiveness and anticipate potential unintended consequences. In this paper, we discuss how smart cities can be viewed through the lens of systems thinking and complex systems and provide a comprehensive review of related techniques and methods. Along with highlighting the science of cities in light of historic urban modeling and urban dynamics, we focus on shedding light on the smart city complex systems. Finally, we will describe the various challenges of smart cities, discuss the limitations of existing models, and identify promising future directions of work.
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