Article

Variations in phenolic composition and antioxidant properties among 15 basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) cultivars

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Abstract

In this study, the influences of cultivar on the phenolic composition and antioxidant properties of 15 different basil varieties was determined. Cultivar had a statistically significant effect on total phenolic levels (p < 0.001) and anthocyanin concentrations (p < 0.001). Analysis of individual phenolic acid levels by high-performance liquid chromatography showed substantial variations in the phenolic acid profiles among cultivars. Rosmarinic (p < 0.001), chicoric (p = 0.002) and caffeic (p = 0.001) acid concentrations were affected by cultivar, although caftaric acid levels (p = 0.083) were not. Nine of the cultivars in this study contained chicoric acid in higher concentrations than rosmarinic acid. These are the first basil cultivars that have been identified in which rosmarinic acid is not the dominant phenolic acid. In addition, six of the cultivars in this study had caftaric and caffeic acid concentrations that were similar or higher than rosmarinic acid levels. Cultivar also had a significant impact on both FRAP (ferric reducing antioxidant power, p = 0.007) and DPPH (2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, p = 0.004) antioxidant capacities. For the basil cultivars in this study, the individual phenolic acid composition was found to be an important factor influencing the measured antioxidant capacity.

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... Phenolic acids belong to two classes i.e. hydroxybenzoic acids and hydroxycinnamic acids with either a C1-C6 or C3-C6 backbone respectively ( Fig. 1) (Chandrasekara, 2019;Kumar and Goel, 2019). In basil, the dominant phenolic compounds are phenolic acids such as rosmarinic acid, chicoric acid, caftaric acid and caffeic acid, with rosmarinic acid often being found in largest amounts (Javanmardi et al., 2002;Kwee and Niemeyer, 2011). Rosmarinic acid is an ester of caffeic acid and 3,4dihyroxyphyllactic acid. ...
... Plants belonging to the Lamiaceae family are also rich in phenolic acids such as rosmarinic acid and other esters of caffeic acid. Particularly rosmarinic acid is present in high concentrations in basil (Kwee and Niemeyer, 2011). Rosmarinic acid has been found to have a strong ROS scavenging activity (Qiao et al., 2005). ...
... The supernatant was filtered through a 0.45 µm cellulose syringe filter into a HPLC vial. Rosmarinic acid and chicoric acid were analyzed according to the method of Kwee and Niemeyer (2011), with modifications, on a HPLC consisting of a GS50 pump (Dionex), a 340S UV-VIS detector (Dionex) and a MIDAS autosampler (Spark Holland) equipped with a LiChrospher 100 RP-18 (5 μm), 150 x 4 mm column (Merck). The column was eluted at a flow rate of 1.6 mL min -1 with 2.5 % formic acid in H2O (mobile phase A) and acetonitrile (mobile phase B) with a linear gradient of: 85 % A, 0.0 min.; ...
... Basil contains high levels of phenolic acids, with rosmarinic acid being the most abundant (Javanmardi et al., 2002;Kwee & Niemeyer, 2011;Lee & Scagel, 2009) (Table 2). Rosmarinic acid is a caffeic acid ester with several critical biological properties, such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and immunostimulant activity (Kiferle et al., 2011). ...
... By contrast, the highest accumulation of rosmarinic acid in the 'Italian Large Leaf' was in the post-flowering stage. Several studies report chicoric acid as the second most abundant phenolic acid in basil leaves (Kwee & Niemeyer, 2011;Lee & Scagel, 2009;Nguyen et al., 2010). The average concentration of chicoric acid in 'Sweet Thai', 'Dark Opal', and 'Genovese' was 1.24, 1.74, and 2.50 mg g -1 DW, respectively (Nguyen et al., 2010). ...
... The average concentration of chicoric acid in 'Sweet Thai', 'Dark Opal', and 'Genovese' was 1.24, 1.74, and 2.50 mg g -1 DW, respectively (Nguyen et al., 2010). Kwee & Niemeyer (2011) observed greater variability in the concentration of chicoric than rosmarinic acid, with the values found in 15 cultivars examined ranging from 0.03 to 2.78 mg g -1 DW, obtained respectively from the 'Spice' and 'Siam Queen'. Similarly, Bajomo et al. (2022) observed on 27 basil cultivars that the genetic effect strongly influenced the accumulation of chicoric acid, with the highest values recorded by the cultivar Rosie. ...
Article
Combining health-promoting nutrition with gastronomic novelty is a major trend currently driving the agri-food sector. Basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) is a genetically diverse aromatic vegetable crop that combines rich phytochemical composition and enticing sensory profile. The current review examines how genetic variation underlies the phytochemical composition, nutrient composition, and volatile aromatic compounds of basil. It further provides a critical assessment of preharvest factors that configure product quality, including nutrient modulation, controlled stress, biofortification, biostimulant and light management applications. Appropriate genotype selection may facilitate sustainable production of improved quality, whereas targeted preharvest applications combined with optimized light intensity and spectral quality may effectively increase the content of essential phytochemicals and micronutrients, while suppressing the accumulation of anti-nutritive agents. The application of biostimulants may further underpin the sustainability factor in basil production, especially under growth-limiting conditions. The current review constitutes a critical synopsis of all available scientific literature investigating key factors configuring the composition of basil in minerals, bioactive secondary metabolites, micronutrients and volatile aromatic compounds from 1996 to 2022. Topics warranting further research are highlighted, with emphasis placed in identifying optimal combinations within the genotype-environment-management interaction nexus that tap the physiological and molecular mechanisms responsible for improving plant performance and functional-sensory quality in basil. LINK: https://authors.elsevier.com/a/1e-wU3AAyUFv1P
... Basil essential oil contains many aromatic compounds that contribute to the herb's antioxidant properties [8,9], and accessions have been grouped into chemotypes based on their highest concentration volatile component such as methyl chavicol, linalool, or methyl eugenol [10,11]. Chemotyping based on non-volatile leaf compounds is less common [12,13], yet variations in foliar phenolic concentrations have been reported among basil cultivars [14][15][16][17][18][19]. The biomolecules found within basil leavesincluding rosmarinic acid, caftaric acid, and chicoric acidare noted for both their strong antioxidant capacities as well as their chemopreventative potentials [20,21]. ...
... The differences observed in total phenolic contents between the two studies therefore may be partially due to the fact that Srivastava et al. [17] grew their basil plants past flowering (> 90 days) compared with our earlier harvest date (55 days). Cultivar had a statistically significant effect on phenolic levels and is a factor which has been previously reported to influence total phenolic content in other basil varieties [16,17]. Interestingly, we also found significant variations in total phenolic content among basil plants with different morphologies, with lettuce-leaf basils having the lowest phenolic levels while true basil morphotypes had the highest. ...
... Overall, caftaric acid and caffeic acid were found at highest concentration within the basil varieties in this study, and cultivar significantly affected the levels of both of these phenolic acids. Caftaric acid, the tartrate ester of caffeic acid, is a secondary plant metabolite known for its presence in grapes and red wines [38] but it is also found in basil leaves [15,16,39]. Caftaric acid concentrations for basil cultivars in the current study were similar to those reported by Lee [39] for market-purchased dried basil samples (1.05 mg/100 g DW) and by Flanigan and Niemeyer [15] for eight purple basil cultivars (2.9 to 12.4 mg/100 g DW). ...
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Article
Basil is an aromatic herb that plays an important role within the culinary traditions of many cultures. Despite basil's prevalence within a variety of food and medicinal products, the phenolic composition and antioxidant properties of many Ocimum basilicum L. subspecies have yet to be determined. Therefore, this study analyzed twenty-two commercially available basil cultivars and classified them into unique chemotypes based on commonalities in phenolic acid profiles among varieties. Hierarchical cluster analysis was used to identify chemotypes, and results showed that basil cultivars with the highest total phenolic content and strongest antioxidant properties were characterized as a caffeic acid rich chemotype. Additionally, cultivar had a significant effect on total phenolic content as well as CUPRAC (cupric ion reducing antioxidant capacity) and ORAC (oxygen radical absorbance capacity) antioxidant capacities. Statistical differences in phenolic acid composition also existed among basil varieties and morphotypes. For example, green Genovese-type basils had high phenolic contents and associated antioxidant capacities while lettuce-leaf basil morphotypes had the lowest.
... The genus Ocimum includes some of the world's most popular herbs, of which there are large numbers of cultivars that differ in their chemical compositions and morphological characteristics. [1][2][3][4][5] 5 Sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) is an herbaceous annual plant with a distinct balsamic and spicy aroma, cultivated both industrially and in private households. 6 There are dozens of subspecies and cultivars of sweet basil, mostly distributed in tropical and subtropical regions. ...
... 6 There are dozens of subspecies and cultivars of sweet basil, mostly distributed in tropical and subtropical regions. 1,3,5,6 Sweet basil leaves are used in the food industry as flavor and aroma enhancers and are also used in the cosmetics industry. Sweet basil contains high concentrations of polyphenolic compounds that exhibit antioxidant and antiinflammatory activity and have been used to treat various conditions such as headaches, cough and diarrhea. ...
... Sweet basil contains high concentrations of polyphenolic compounds that exhibit antioxidant and antiinflammatory activity and have been used to treat various conditions such as headaches, cough and diarrhea. 3,4,[7][8][9][10] Levels of secondary metabolites in plants are influenced by genetics, various environmental factors (e.g. abiotic and biotic stresses), as well as harvest season and postharvest storage conditions. ...
Article
Background Terpene, eugenol and polyphenolic contents of basil are major determinants of quality, which is affected by genetics, weather, growing practices, pests and diseases. Here, we aimed to develop a simple predictive analytical method for determining the polyphenol, eugenol and terpene content of the leaves of major Israeli sweet basil cultivars grown hydroponically, as a function of harvest time, through the use of near-infrared spectroscopy, liquid/gas chromatography, and chemometric methods. We also wanted to identify the harvest time associated with the highest terpene, eugenol and polyphenol content. Results Six different cultivars and four different harvest times were analyzed. Partial least squares regression (PLS-R) analysis yielded an accurate, predictive model that explained more than 93% of the population variance for all of the analyzed compounds. The model yielded good/excellent prediction (R² > 0.90, R²cv and R²pre > 0.80) and very good residual predictive deviation (RPD > 2) for all of the analyzed compounds. Concentrations of rosmarinic acid, eugenol and terpenes increased steadily over the first 3 weeks, peaking in the fourth week in most of the cultivars. Our PLS-discriminant model provided accurate harvest classification and prediction as compared to cultivar classification. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of harvest classification were larger than 0.82 for all harvest time points, whereas the cultivar classification, resulted in sensitivity values lower than 0.8 in 3 cultivars. Conclusion The PLS-R model provided good predictions of rosmarinic acid, eugenol and terpene content. Our NIR coupled with a PLS-DA demonstrated reasonable solution for harvest and cultivar classification. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
... Plants belonging to the Lamiaceae family are also rich in phenolic acids such as rosmarinic acid and other esters of caffeic acid. Particularly rosmarinic acid is present in high concentrations in basil (Kwee & Niemeyer, 2011). Rosmarinic acid has been found to have a strong ROS scavenging activity (Qiao et al., 2005). ...
... The supernatant was filtered through a 0.45 µm cellulose syringe filter into a HPLC vial. Rosmarinic acid and chicoric acid were analyzed according to the method of Kwee and Niemeyer (2011), with modifications, on a HPLC consisting of a GS50 pump (Dionex), a 340S UV-VIS detector (Dionex) and a MIDAS autosampler (Spark Holland) equipped with a LiChrospher 100 RP-18 (5 μm), 150 × 4 mm column (Merck). The column was eluted at a flow rate of 1.6 mL min − 1 with 2.5 % formic acid in H 2 O (mobile phase A) and acetonitrile (mobile phase B) with a linear gradient of: 85 % A, 0.0 min.; ...
... In red lettuce, chicoric acid content was not affected by light intensities ranging from 225 to 410 µmol m − 2 s − 1 applied for two weeks (Becker, Kläring, Kroh, & Krumbein, 2013). Kwee and Niemeyer (2011) found that the ratio of rosmarinic acid and chicoric acid is cultivar-dependent in basil. The exact enzymes involved in chicoric acid biosynthesis have not yet been determined (Lee & Scagel, 2013). ...
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Article
Basil suffers from chilling injury (CI) when stored at temperatures below 10-12°C which seems related to the imbalance between reactive oxygen species (ROS) and antioxidants. We hypothesized that increased light intensity applied shortly before harvest (EOP, End-Of-Production) increases nutritional value i.e. carbohydrates and antioxidants and could improve the chilling tolerance. Two basil cultivars were grown in a vertical farming set-up at a light intensity of 150 µmol m⁻² s⁻¹. During the last 5 days of growth, EOP light treatments ranging from 50 to 600 µmol m⁻² s⁻¹ were applied. After harvest the leaves were stored at 4 or 12°C in darkness. Higher EOP light intensity increased the antioxidant (total ascorbic acid, rosmarinic acid) and carbohydrate contents at harvest. During storage antioxidants decreased more rapidly at 4 than at 12°C. However, increased EOP light intensity did not alleviate chilling symptoms suggesting a minor role of antioxidants studied against chilling stress.
... 42 Many natural products derived from plant BAs or benzoyl/benzyl moieties are also promising medicinal or nutritional substances for humans. 41 Kwee and Niemeyer (2011) 43 reported that the major phenolic compounds of O. basilicum are rosmarinic, chicoric, and caffeic acids. In addition, rutin, quercetin, and ferulic acid have been reported as other phenolic compounds. ...
... 42 Many natural products derived from plant BAs or benzoyl/benzyl moieties are also promising medicinal or nutritional substances for humans. 41 Kwee and Niemeyer (2011) 43 reported that the major phenolic compounds of O. basilicum are rosmarinic, chicoric, and caffeic acids. In addition, rutin, quercetin, and ferulic acid have been reported as other phenolic compounds. ...
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Article
Introduction: This paper aims to analyze the medicinal uses of Ocimum basilicum L.var Genovese (basil) in western Algeria and its effectiveness. Materials and Methods: For the experiments, 154 structured questionnaires were collected to list the medicinal uses of basil. The essential oil of O. basilicum (EOB) obtained by hydro-distillation was analyzed by the GC/MS. The ethanolic and aqueous extracts (EEB and AEB) were analyzed by HPLC. The antioxidant activity was measured by DPPH assays and the antimicrobial activity was measured against five microbes. For the in vivo study, Swiss albinos mice were used to determine the toxicity using Lorke’s method. The anti-inflammatory activity was determined using the Carrageenan method. The experimental doses were converted from mice to humans using the Km factor. Results: The ethnobotanical study indicates that local people use basil to treat diseases and health problems (50% for inflammation and 38.11% for microbial diseases). The results also show that EOB contains 41.3% linalool, whereas ethanolic extract contains benzoic acid (50.86 mg/g). The IC50 value is 556, 878.7, and 962.3 µg/ml for EOB, EEB, and AEB, respectively. The EOB and AEB inhibit the positive Gram bacteria and yeast; the EEA inhibits the negative Gram. The LD50 is 400, 470, and >5000 mg/kg for AEB, EOB, and EEB respectively. The results of the anti-inflammatory test highlight 76.33, 71.0, and 60.43% inhibition of edema at a 100 mg/kg dose for EOB, AEB, and EEB, respectively. Conclusion: The Algerian basil can be considered as an antioxidant, antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory.
... tenuif lorum and O. basilicum. Although variation in phenolic composition along with the corresponding antioxidant properties of different O. basilicum cultivars have been reported, 30 there have been very few studies on the components that are responsible for antidiabetic properties of basil species. The specific compounds associated with such activity remain elusive. ...
... Unlike O. africanum and O. americanum, the samples from O. basilicum, O. gratissimum, and O. tenuif lorum possessed distinctive chemical profiles within the same species, which is probably due to the cross-hybridization during extensive cultivation in different geographical regions. Although rosemarinic acid has been noted as the predominant basil phenolic acid within the literature, 30,42 the methanolic extracts of samples (AR-XLVI-01-02, AR-XLVI-01-04, and AR-XLVI-01-011) in this study had higher concentrations of syringic acid, whereas samples AR-XLVI-01-09, AR-XLVI-01-12, and AR-XLVI-01-14 had greater amounts of eugenol compared to rosmarinic acid. With the exception of one sample (AR-XLVI-01-16), most of the samples in this study contained a lower concentration of caffeic acid when compared to rosmarinic acid. ...
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Article
The use of natural products as potential preventive and therapeutic interventions for diabetes has drawn worldwide attention. Ocimum species have a multitude of applications in foods, pharmaceuticals, and cosmetics. The antidiabetic activity of Ocimum has previously been reported; however, the active compound(s) associated with such activity remains elusive. In an effort to identify both an accession that is the most effective against diabetes and the compound(s) that may be associated with its antidiabetic effects, 16 Ocimum accessions representing six different species were investigated. Fourteen compounds from diverse groups, viz., flavonoids, phenols, and terpenoids were quantified utilizing a liquid chromatography coupled with a diode array detector and quadrupole time-of-flight (LC/DAD/Q-ToF) method. The results from the method validation demonstrated excellent linearity (R2 > 0.99) and sensitivity as evident by the limit of detection (LOD) (0.04−0.6 μg/mL) and limit of quantification (LOQ)(0.08−1 μg/mL). Likewise, the method was found to be precise (RSD < 6%) with recoveries between 87.7% and 103.5%. The antidiabetic potential of methanol extracts of all samples was explored via an α-glucosidase inhibitory assay. Data from dose−response studies suggested that the methanol extract of O. gratissimum from Zambia (AR-XLVI-01-13) was comparable to the antidiabetic drug, acarbose. Furthermore, rosmarinic acid and caffeic acid present in O. gratissimum were reported for the first time to be responsible for the anti-diabetic properties of this plant species. In addition, the plants of this accession were taller, with an average of 21 branches per plant, and produced a significantly greater amount of leaf and above-ground biomass than other accessions. The reported analytical and biological methods could be employed to evaluate the chemical composition and agronomic performance of Ocimum. Overall, this project provided scientific information necessary for the development of sustainable organic production systems, which enable commercial cultivation of Ocimum varieties with known bioactivity.
... Basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) is rich in antioxidants, in particular, polyphenolic compounds from the phenylpropanoid pathway such as rosmarinic and chicoric acid (Kwee and Niemeyer, 2011). Basil also contains compounds from the flavonoid (sub) family such as quercetin, rutin, and kaempferol. ...
... Briefly, 250 ± 20 mg of frozen ground leaves were extracted with 1.5 ml of 80% methanol with 2.5% formic acid for 15 min in an ultrasonic bath (Branson 2800, Richmond, VA, United States). The supernatant was filtered through a cellulose syringe filter 0.45 µm, and analyzed according to the method of Kwee and Niemeyer (2011), with modifications. In Experiment 1, samples were measured on an HPLC system (Waters, Knowloon, Hongkong) with a UV dual-wavelength detector and autosampler and a Vydac 201TP54 (C18, 5 µm, 300 Å, 4.6 mm × 250 mm) reverse-phase (RP) column. ...
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Article
Blue light, measuring from 400 to 500 nm, is generally assumed to increase the content of antioxidants in plants independent of the species. Blue light stimulates the biosynthesis of phenolic compounds such as flavonoids and their subclass anthocyanins from the phenylpropanoid pathway. Flavonoids, anthocyanins, and phenolic acids are strong reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavengers and may lessen the symptoms of abiotic stresses such as chilling. We tested the hypothesis that a high percentage of blue light induces the accumulation of antioxidants and that this effect depends on the photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD, 400–700 nm). The effect may be more pronounced at a lower PPFD. We investigated the changes in primary and secondary metabolites of basil in response to the percentage of blue light (9, 33, 65, and 100%) applied either as a 5-day End-Of-Production (EOP) treatment or continuous throughout the growth cycle in the green cv. Dolly. We also studied if the response to the percentage of blue light (9 or 90%) was dependent on the total PPFD (100 or 300 μmol m –2 s –1 PPFD) when applied as a 5-day EOP treatment in the green cv. Dolly and the purple cv. Rosie. For both green and purple basil, it was found that the percentage of blue light had little effect on the levels of antioxidants (rosmarinic acid, total ascorbic acid, total flavonoids, and total anthocyanins) at harvest and no interactive effect with PPFD was found. Antioxidants generally decreased during postharvest storage, wherein the decrease was more pronounced at 4 than at 12°C. Chilling injury, as judged from a decrease in F v /F m values and from the occurrence of black necrotic areas, was not affected by the percentage of blue light. Particularly, chilling tolerance in the purple cultivar was increased in plants grown under higher PPFD. This may be related to the increased levels of soluble sugar and starch in leaves from high PPFD treated plants.
... Polyphenols are organic compounds that are widely found in plants and have become an emerging research field in functional foods, nutrition and health. Polyphenols have demonstrated antioxidant, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, and anti-allergic activity [14][15][16]. Studies in animals and humans have shown that polyphenol intake may play an important role in health by regulating metabolism and cell proliferation, as well as preventing chronic diseases [8,17]. ...
... The method used herein was described previously and adopted with minor modifications [14,16]. Briefly, 2.5 mL of 0.2 mol/L phosphate buffer (pH 6.6) and 2.5 mL of 1.0% potassium ferricyanide solution were added to 1 mL of pitaya seeds polyphenols extract and left to react at 50 °C for 20 min. ...
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Article
A growing trend now involves the comprehensive use of by-products from fruit processing, especially of pitaya, whose production has increased worldwide in recent years. The aim of this study was to evaluate the optimal process for applying subcritical water extraction (SWE) to obtaining polyphenols from red pitaya (Hylocereus polyrhizus) seeds using response surface methodology (RSM). The antioxidant activities of polyphenol extracts obtained by SWE and three other conventional solvent extraction methods (CSE: water, ethanol and acetone extraction) were compared. The study was divided into two steps. In the first, the Box-Behnken design was used to determine the effects of extraction time, temperature, and solid-solvent ratio on antioxidant activity (ABTS, DPPH and FRAP) and the yield of total phenolic compounds (TPC). Protein and total sugar content of the crude polyphenol extract was significantly reduced after purification with NKA-9 type macroporous resin column. Optimal extraction conditions for subcritical water extraction of polyphenols from red pitaya seeds were 15 min reaction time at 220 °C with 2% solid-solvent ratio (TPC: 63.14 mg GAE/g). In the second step, purified SWE polyphenol extract revealed excellent scavenging efficiency in four antioxidant experiments compared with CSE extracts. And phenolic composition of extracts obtained by SWE revealed high amounts of catechins and E-p-Coumaric acid. Characteristic reactive groups in SWE extract were mainly hydroxyl, benzene group, methoxy group, and oxygen-containing heterocyclic ring. Therefore, SWE proved to be a useful extraction technique for the recovery of polyphenols from red pitaya seeds.
... Basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) is rich in antioxidants, in particular, polyphenolic compounds from the phenylpropanoid pathway such as rosmarinic and chicoric acid (Kwee and Niemeyer, 2011). Basil also contains compounds from the flavonoid (sub) family such as quercetin, rutin, and kaempferol. ...
... Briefly, 250 ± 20 mg of frozen ground leaves were extracted with 1.5 ml of 80% methanol with 2.5% formic acid for 15 min in an ultrasonic bath (Branson 2800, Richmond, VA, United States). The supernatant was filtered through a cellulose syringe filter 0.45 µm, and analyzed according to the method of Kwee and Niemeyer (2011), with modifications. In Experiment 1, samples were measured on an HPLC system (Waters, Knowloon, Hongkong) with a UV dual-wavelength detector and autosampler and a Vydac 201TP54 (C18, 5 µm, 300 Å, 4.6 mm × 250 mm) reverse-phase (RP) column. ...
... It is widely used for cooking, but also in commercial fragrances, flavourings and medicines (Dumbrava et al., 2012). Its use is recommended as a digestive tonic, with antimicrobial, antibacterial, anticonvulsant and anticarcinogenic properties (Ch, Naz, Sharif, Akram, & Saeed, 2015;Kwee & Niemeyer, 2011). It is also used for curing ailments such as warts, inflammations, colds and headaches (Ch et al., 2015). ...
... It is also used for curing ailments such as warts, inflammations, colds and headaches (Ch et al., 2015). Basil is a good source of natural antioxidants, and contains significant amounts of important phytochemicals, such as phenolic compounds and ascorbic acid contents (Aburigal et al., 2017;Kwee & Niemeyer, 2011;Muráriková & Neugebauerová, 2018). However, the nutritional and bioactive characterization, especially vitamins and carotenoids, of this herb is scarce in the literature, with a greater focus on its antioxidant capacity (Prinsi, Morgutti, Negrini, Faoro, & Espen, 2020;Silva, 2011) and phenolic compounds (Prinsi et al., 2020). ...
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Article
Basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) is one of the most popular plants cultivated worldwide. It is a good source of natural antioxidants and contains significant amounts of important phytochemicals. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the macronutrients, minerals, vitamins and bioactive compounds of fresh and dehydrated basil and its hot and cold infusions. The basil presented high moisture (94.12%) and low lipid (0.20%), carbohydrates (5.25%) and dietary fibers (2.33%) content. There was no difference in vitamin C concentrations, total phenolics and antioxidant capacity between fresh and dehydrated basil and between the hot and cold infusions (p > 0.05). Potassium and calcium were the most prevalent minerals in dehydrated basil. The consumption of basil, especially in dehydrated form, can contribute significantly to the daily intake of minerals, vitamins C and E, and infusions are not a relevant choice of consumption to achieve nutritional recommendations.
... A previous report on CO 2 laser treatment revealed that eCO 2 enhances peroxidase and ascorbate, decreasing the MDA and H 2 O 2 , which strongly supports our study [89]. Furthermore, phenolic compounds are the metabolites responsible for antioxidant activity in basil, mainly produced in leaves and roots [90,91]. ...
... Stresses 2021, 1, FOR PEER REVIEW 8 [90,91]. The present study demonstrated that there was a significant effect (p < 0.001) of CO2 application on phenolics where it decreased under drought + eCO2, which contradicted the result presented earlier in basil by Bekhradi et al. [92] and Al Jaouni et al. [44]. ...
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Article
Drought-induced reduction in crop growth and productivity can be compensated by increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2), a significant contributor to climate change. Drought stress (DS) affects crops worldwide due to dwindling water resources and irregular rainfall patterns. The experiment was set up under a randomized complete block design within a three-by-two factorial arrangement. Six SPAR chambers represent three blocks (10 replications each), where each chamber has 30 pots in three rows. Each chamber was maintained with 30/22 (day/night) °C temperature, with either ambient (aCO2; 420 ppm) or elevated CO2 (eCO2; 720 ppm) concentrations. This experiment was designed to address the impact of DS on the physiological and biochemical attributes and study how the eCO2 helps alleviate the adversity of DS in basil. The study demonstrated that DS + eCO2 application highly accelerated the decrease in all forms of carotene and xanthophylls. eCO2 positively influenced and increased anthocyanin (Antho) and chlorophyll (LChl). eCO2 supplementation increased LChl content in basil under DS. Furthermore, DS significantly impeded the photosynthetic system in plants by decreasing CO2 availability and causing stomatal closure. Although eCO2 did not increase net photosynthesis (Pn) activity, it decreased stomatal conductance (gs) and leaf transpiration rate (E) under DS, showing that eCO2 can improve plant water use efficiency by lowering E and gs. Peroxidase and ascorbate activity were higher due to the eCO2 supply to acclimate the basil under the DS condition. This study suggests that the combination of eCO2 during DS positively impacts basil’s photosynthetic parameters and biochemical traits than aCO2.
... And, they also to treat diabetes through a mechanism based on their alpha-amylase and amyloglucosidase inhibiting activity (Benedec et al., 2015). Phenolic compounds are the major class of basil secondary metabolities that are contributed to antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity of its extracts (Kwee & Niemeyer, 2011). The antioxidant activity of phenolic compound could come from the ability to donate hydrogen or electron and delocalize the unpaired electron within the aromatic structure. ...
... Besides antioxidant capacities, other functions of bioactive compounds are also of interest such as their effects on diabetes, which are evaluated through their inhibition of two enzymes -amylase (present in pancreases and salvia) and -glucosidase (present in small intestine) because which they have important roles in digestive system regarding to the hydrolysis of starch into sugar. According to (Bhandari, (Kwee & Niemeyer, 2011). Therefore, to the best of our knowledge, there is no report on optimization of antioxidants extraction from basil using RSM technique and to get maximum total phenolic content. ...
Conference Paper
The Ocimum basilicum var. thyrsiflora leaves which contains numerous bioactive compounds has been traditionally used as medicinal herbs. Aqueous methanol extract from basil have been found to have blood sugar lowering capacity and can be used to treat patients with diabetes. In this study, different conditions were investigated to extract total phenolic content (TPC) from Thai basil leaves. Response surface methodology using Box-Behnken design was employed to optimize and determine the effects of three independent variables of extraction process, namely sample powder/solvent ratio (1/40 – 1/200 g/mL), extraction time (10 - 60 min) and temperature (45 - 65°C) on the total phenolic content. The results indicated that the selected extraction variables have significant effects on the total phenolic content. The optimal extraction condition was determined as following: sample powder/solvent ratio of 1/139 g/mL, time of 39.4 min and temperature of 51.2°C. At this condition, the total phenolic and total flavonoid contents of the extract were 41.76 ± 0.21 mg GAE/g dry weight and 10.95 ± 0.3 mg RE/g dry weight, respectively. Its antioxidant capacity as 2,2-diphenyl- picrylhyrazyl (DPPH) scavenging capacity was 39.06 ± 1.1%, while its inhibitory capacities against alpha-amylase and amyloglucosidase were 47.80±0.93% and 24.86 ± 1.21%, respectively. As the result, the extract of Thai basil leaves exhibited fairly high antioxidant capacity and enzymatic inhibition capacities as compared to other medicinal plants. Thus, the extract of Thai basil leaves may be used as a source of bioactive compounds for health benefits.
... Ocimum basilicum L., namely basil, is originally distributed in warm areas of tropic and subtropic regions in Africa, India, and other countries of South Asia (Kwee & Niemeyer, 2011). The genus Ocimum has a great variability both morphologically and biochemically (Giachino et al., 2014). ...
... According to Kintzios and Makri (2007), about 150 species were reported depending on their different morphological characters (growing habit, leaf color, size and formation). O. bacilicum L. is noted for its significant bioactive compounds, especially phenolics and pleasant volatiles (Kwee & Niemeyer, 2011). It is widely cultivated for essential oil production, fresh edible properties, ornamental usage, perfumery, and cosmetic purposes (Zheljazkov et al., 2008). ...
Article
The present study was aimed to examine the effect of applied drought stress using different rates of PEG 6000 (polyethylene glycol), on morphology, stomatal closure, chemical structure and volatile profile of basil. Expectedly the highest shoot and root lengths observed at Control (16.2 cm) and 15% PEG treatments (7.5 cm) respectively. Stomatal openness apparently closed with increasing rate of drought. Release of volatile compounds from the basil leaves was increased with the increased rate of the applied drought stress and aroma profile of dominant volatiles. Terpenes were found to be the most abundant chemical group and their concentrations altered significantly with PEG treatments. Methyleugenol was detected as the major terpene in control, 5% and 10% PEG samples while linalool was the prominent compound in 15% PEG sample. FTIR spectrum supported the GC results being differentiated significant especially in the fingerprint region.
... Despite this, the most abundant phenolic acid was chicoric acid, which on average accounted for 63.51% of the phenolic acid derivatives. Although rosmarinic acid is listed in the literature as the most abundant phenolic acid in basil [44], a study of 15 basil cultivars confirmed the influence of genotype on both the quantity and quality of the phenolic profile [45]. ...
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Depending on duration and magnitude, abiotic stresses interfere with plant metabolic processes and may severely impact developmental and qualitative attributes. In this study, in addition to characterizing three different cultivars of basil ('Anise', 'Cinnamon', and 'Lemon') grown under hydroponics, we appraised the impact of NaCl salt stress (60 mM) on morphophysiological and nutraceutical properties of the basil crop. Salt stress significantly reduced fresh yield (51.54%, on average) and photosynthetic parameters (ACO2, E, and gs) in all cultivars by raising tissue concentrations of Na + and Cl −. In addition to reducing the concentration of nitrate (77.21%), NaCl salt stress increased the concentrations of key bioactive molecules, notably carotenoids (lutein and β-carotene), phenolic acids, and flavonoid derivatives, thus resulting in a higher antioxidant activity of salt-treated basil plants compared to the untreated ones. Analysis by UHPLC revealed that cichoric acid was the most abundant polyphenolic compound in all basil cultivars, with the highest values recorded in 'Cinnamon'.
... No significant variations were observed regardless of addition and different treatments. The reason may be referred to as the synergic effect between the phenolic compounds that occurred in extracts and basil leaves that have a pronounced influence on the antioxidant activity of samples [42]. ...
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A natural antioxidant extract obtained from oil mill wastewater was used for the formulation of basil pesto sauce, with the aim to improve quality and stability during storage. The antioxidant extract was added to traditional ingredients (basil, cheese, oil, etc.) and after preparation, packaging, and thermal treatment it was submitted to storage (monitored for 90 days). Fresh samples were stored at 4 °C and pasteurized samples were stored at room temperature. The effect of natural antioxidant addition on basil pesto sauce was evaluated for the main qualitative attributes, such as: physicochemical, microbiological, and antioxidant parameters. The principal results showed that the addition of a natural phenolic extract led to an evident reduction in pH, attaining food safety values under pH 4. The high oxidative stability observed in the basil pesto sauces fortified with the phenolic extract suggests that the incorporation of phenolic compounds delays the propagation phase of lipid oxidation.
... In a similar study the same authors reported comparable results in Genovese basil cultivars, showing a significant cultivar-dependent response to cichoric and rosmarinic acid genotype (Ciriello et al., 2021a). Kwee and Niemeyer (2011) reported lower concentrations of chicoric acid in Ocimum basilicum × Ocimum americanum, in contrast to what was observed in Ocimum basilicum var. thyrsiflorum. ...
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Ocimum basilicum L. is an aromatic plant rich in bioactive metabolites beneficial to human health. The agronomic biofortification of basil with Zn could provide a practical and sustainable solution to address Zn deficiency in humans. Our research appraised the effects of biofortification implemented through nutrient solutions of different Zn concentration (12.5, 25.0, 37.5, and 50 µM) on the yield, physiological indices (net CO 2 assimilation rate, transpiration, stomatal conductance, and chlorophyll fluorescence), quality, and Zn concentration of basil cultivars 'Aroma 2' and 'Eleonora' grown in a floating raft system. The ABTS, DPPH, and FRAP antioxidant activities were determined by UV-VIS spectrophotometry, the concentrations of phenolic acids by mass spectrometry using a Q Extractive Orbitrap LC-MS/MS, and tissue Zn concentration by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Although increasing the concentration of Zn in the nutrient solution significantly reduced the yield, this reduction was less evident in 'Aroma 2'. However, regardless of cultivar, the use of the maximum dose of Zn (50 µM) increased the concentration of carotenoids, polyphenols, and antioxidant activity on average by 19.76, 14.57, and 33.72%, respectively, compared to the Control. The significant positive correlation between Zn in the nutrient solution and Zn in plant tissues underscores the suitability of basil for soilless biofortification programs.
... Resulting from historic conventional breeding programs, there are numerous holy basil varieties that have been produced by experimental crosses between cultivars. The influence of genetic factors on physiological responses and secondary metabolite accumulation has been reported for several plants (Kwee and Niemeyer, 2011;Rowshan et al., 2012;Çirak et al., 2013), but there are still few studies of holy basil accessions relative to the total number of varieties (Shasany, 2016;. Plant factory using artificial light (PFAL) refers to modern agricultural system using advanced technologies for plant cultivation in a closed growing system by systematically controlling the cultivation environment (e.g., light, temperature, CO 2 , humidity and nutrient solution) within a regulated indoor space (Luna-Maldonado et al., 2016;Kozai et al., 2019). ...
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Article
Holy basil ( Ocimum Tenuiflorum L.) is a widely used herb containing several bioactive compounds of interest for the food and pharmaceutical industries. Plant factories using artificial lighting (PFAL) is a modern agricultural system that offers opportunity to improve crop production and stabilizes productivity in many herbal plants. However, little is known about the variation among holy basil varieties that can be cultivated and provide reasonable biomass and bioactive compounds in PFAL. We therefore evaluated 10 Thai accessions and two commercial cultivars in a PFAL (with hydroponic cultivation) to categorize cultivar characteristics by investigating physiological responses and secondary metabolite variation at plant flowering stage. Among Thai varieties, net photosynthetic rate ( Pn ) was significantly highest in varieties OC059 and OC081. The greatest growth and biomass measures were observed in OC064. Antioxidant capacity also varied, with the greatest accumulation of total phenolic compounds (TPC), flavonoids, and antioxidant activity by DPPH assay in OC064, and highest terpenoid content in OC194. The accumulation of major compounds confirmed by showing the highest levels of eugenol in OC057, OC063, OC194, and OC195 and methyl eugenol in OC072 and OC081. The highest α-humulene content was found in OC059. PCA based on physiological responses and secondary metabolites indicate that OC064 was clearly distinguished from other cultivars/accessions. These findings demonstrate variation across holy basil accessions for physiologic responses, antioxidant capacity, and secondary compounds in PFAL. These insights lead to identification of suitable varieties which is the most important step of developing an efficient method for producing high quality raw materials of Thai holy basil for supplying the foods and pharmaceutical industries.
... The ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP) procedure was conducted according to the modified method of Kwee and Niemeyer [35]. An aliquot of 70 µL of diluted extract was added to 279 µL of FRAP reagent and 651 µL of acetate buffer. ...
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Basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) is an annual spicy plant generally utilized as a flavouring agent for food. Basil leaves also have pharmaceutical properties due to the presence of polyphenols, phenolic acids, and flavonoids. In this work, carbon dioxide was employed to extract bioactive compounds from basil leaves. Extraction with supercritical CO2 (p = 30 MPa; T = 50 °C) for 2 h using 10% ethanol as a cosolvent was the most efficient method, with a yield similar to that of the control (100% ethanol) and was applied to two basil cultivars: “Italiano Classico” and “Genovese”. Antioxidant activity, phenolic acid content, and volatile organic compounds were determined in the extracts obtained by this method. In both cultivars, the supercritical CO2 extracts showed antiradical activity (ABTS●+ assay), caffeic acid (1.69–1.92 mg/g), linalool (35–27%), and bergamotene (11–14%) contents significantly higher than those of the control. The polyphenol content and antiradical activity measured by the three assays were higher in the “Genovese” cultivar than in the “Italiano Classico” cultivar, while the linalool content was higher (35.08%) in the “Italiano Classico” cultivar. Supercritical CO2 not only allowed us to obtain extracts rich in bioactive compounds in an environmentally friendly way but also reduced ethanol consumption.
... Jyotshna and colleagues found that the caffeic acid content of dried basil products depends on how the leaves were processed, with shed-drying being more effective for preserving caffeic acid than other methods [72]. Kwee and Niemeyer, who tested flash-frozen basil leaves, report that the caffeic acid content of different basil cultivars varied across a 20-fold range [73]. For instance, the Gecofure cultivar was found to have 770 µg of caffeic acid per gram of leaf material while the Spice cultivar had only 40 µg/g. ...
Preprint
Recent lines of evidence suggest the intriguing hypothesis that consuming common culinary herbs of the mint family might help prevent or treat Covid. Individual citizens could easily explore the hypothesis using ordinary kitchen materials. I offer a philosophical framework to account for the puzzling lack of public health messaging about this interesting idea.
... 1−4 Many secondary chemicals protect plants from herbivores, fungal and microbial diseases, as well as from abiotic stresses, by acting, e.g., as antioxidants and antibiotics, 5−7 and the therapeutic influence of basil in the traditional medicine may be based on these properties. 1,4,8 Volatile phenylpropanoids and terpenoids of basil leaves are stored in the peltate glandular trichomes with four secretory cells. 9 Basil also has capitate glandular trichomes with one or two secretory cells 10 that were reported to contain straight-chain hydrocarbons and small-chain alcohols. ...
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Basil (Ocimum basilicum, cv. Dolly) grew under three different light spectra (A, B, and C) created by light-emitting diode lamps. The proportions of UV-A, blue, and green-yellow wavelengths decreased linearly from A to C, and the proportions of red and far-red wavelengths increased from A to C. Photosynthetic photon flux density was 300 μmol m-2 s-1 in all spectra. The spectrum C plants had highest concentrations of phenolic acids (main compounds: rosmarinic acid and cichoric acid), lowest concentrations and emissions of phenylpropanoid eugenol and terpenoids (main compounds: linalool and 1,8-cineole), highest dry weight, and lowest water content. Conversely, spectra A and B caused higher terpenoid and eugenol concentrations and emissions and lower concentrations of phenolic acids. High density of peltate glandular trichomes explained high terpenoid and eugenol concentrations and emissions. Basil growth and secondary compounds affecting aroma and taste can be modified by altering light spectra; however, increasing terpenoids and phenylpropanoids decreases phenolic acids and growth and vice versa.
... The DPPH test was also used in some other studies, where the reported antioxidant activity of OBGEO was 1.24 ± 0.08 µg/mL [45], with 6.13 ± 4.8 µg/mL harvested in a vegetative state and 133.33 ± 23.09 µg/mL in flowering stage [44]. Kwee and Niemeyer [46] reported the antioxidant activity determined by DPPH for the dried plant OBMEO of 13.27 ± 1.45 mmol/100 g DW. Similarly, Ademiluyi et al. [47] researched the activity of O. basilicum essential oil and its ABTS•+ scavenging ability, and the reducing power was 13.35 ± 1.1 mmol TEAC/g and 62.23± 3.8 mg AAE/g, respectively. ...
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Article
The genus Ocimum has many species that are used to treat diverse kinds of illnesses and sicknesses from ancient times. One of them, Ocimum basilicum L., commonly known as basil, has a vital role due to its various medicinal goods. It is best known as a plant with pharmacological activities, but also as an antioxidant, antimicrobial, and larvicidal agent. Although it has been traditionally used in Serbia in traditional medicine for centuries as an insecticidal, antibacterial, and antifungal plant as well as a traditional culinary plant, none of the O. basilicum varieties have been commercialised until today. There are significant numbers of information across the world that oils and by-products are part of the global market, but no references to the essential oil composition of Serbian plants were found. Therefore, the objective of this work was to evaluate the antioxidant and antimicrobial potentials of essential oil and hydrolate of two different varieties: O. basilicum var. genovese and Ocimum. basilicum var. minimum originating from Serbia for further industrial production of antimicrobial- and/or antioxidant-valued products. The results of this study confirm that essential oils of O. basilicum var. genovese and var. minimum represent a significant source of bioactive compounds, especially linalool, with a high rate of biological activities. Similar behaviour is observed for hydrolates, which are the by-product of the essential oil distillation process and can be utilised as bioactive-rich waste in further investigation.
... Antioxidant capacity ranged from 22.56 (Red rubin) to 52.73 µM Fe 2+ g -1 (Minimum). Kwee and Niemeyer (2011) studied 15 different basil cultivars and concluded that the cultivar had a statistically significant effect on antioxidant capacity. In their study, antioxidant capacity ranged from 0.28 (Sweet dani lemon) to 11.46 (Gecofure) 100 M Fe 2+ g -1 . ...
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Basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) is an annual plant from Lamiaceae family. The quality and yield of basil depends on its cultivar, environmental factors and growing technology. The aim of this paper was to examine the impact of different cultivars on the quality of basil in the environmental conditions of central Bosnia and Herzegovina. A field experiment was conducted at a private farm in Kakanj. In this study, the yield of fresh and dry mass, total phenol, flavonoids, essential oil content and antioxidant activity were determined. Experimental results showed a significant impact of cultivars on the researched traits. The fresh mass yield ranged from 134.2 (Red rubin) to 298.7 g per plant (Green). The lowest total phenol contents were recorded in the cultivar Minimum (33.78 mg GAE/g) and the highest in the cultivar Green (38.84 mg GAE/g). The antioxidant activity was also significantly dependent on basil cultivar. It ranged from 22.56 (Red rubin) to 52.73 µM Fe 2+ /g (Minimum).
... O. basilicum, originated in the warm tropical climates of India, Africa, and southern Asia and has been cultivated worldwide as an aromatic crop and ornamental plant. Some research reported that levels of chicoric acid varied from 0.09 to 0.16 mg/g in dried samples (Kwee and Niemeyer, 2011). ...
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Article
Chicoric acid has been widely used in food, medicine, animal husbandry, and other commercial products because of its significant pharmacological activities. However, the shortage of chicoric acid limits its further development and utilization. Currently, Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench serves as the primary natural resource of chicoric acid, while other sources of it are poorly known. Extracting chicoric acid from plants is the most common approach. Meanwhile, chicoric acid levels vary in different plants as well as in the same plant from different areas and different medicinal parts, and different extraction methods. We comprehensively reviewed the information regarding the sources of chicoric acid from plant extracts, its chemical synthesis, biosynthesis, and bioactive effects.
... Roby et al. (2013) also observed much lower (from 4.75 to 8.10 mg GAE/g DW) total phenolic compounds for thyme for four solvents (hexane, ethanol, methanol, and diethyl ether) than that found in this study. The mean total phenolic levels for 15 basil cultivars were in the range of 3.47 mg -17.58 mg GAE/g DW (Kwee & Niemeyer, 2011). Złotek et al. (2017) indicated that basil leaves contained 16.21 ± 0.51 mg GAE/g DW of total phenolic compounds. ...
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Uskumru köftelerine %0,05 biberiye (Rosmarinus officinalis), kekik (Thymbra spicata) ve fesleğen (Ocimum basilicum L.)'den elde edilen doğal bitki ekstraktlarının ilave edilmesinin duyusal (çiğ ve pişmiş), biyokimyasal (PV-peroksit değeri, FFA-serbest yağ asitleri, TVB-N-toplam uçucu bazik nitrojen, TB-tiobarbitürik asit ve pH) ve mikrobiyolojik kalitesi (TVC-toplam canlı sayısı) üzerine etkileri köftelerin dondurularak 10 ay depolanması (-18oC) süresince araştırılmıştır. Sonuçlar bitki ekstraktlarının toplam fenolik bileşiklerinin kekik, biberiye ve fesleğen için sırasıyla 38,13 mg GAE/g, 81,85 mg GAE/g ve 21,08 mg GAE/g olduğunu göstermiştir. Çiğ balık köftelerinin raf ömrü kontrol ve fesleğen grupları için 8 ay, biberiye ve kekik grupları için 10 ay olarak bulunmuştur. %0,05 fesleğen ekstraktı, balık köftesine yoğun bir koku ve acı bir tat vermiştir. Depolama süresince tüm gruplarda TVB-N, TBA, FFA, PV ve pH değerleri kabul edilebilirlik limitlerinin altında kalmıştır. Bitki ekstreleri, özellikle biberiye ve kekik, bakteri üremesini ve biyokimyasal parametrelerin değerlerini engellemede etkili olmuştur. Bu nedenle, balıkların raf ömrünü uzatmak için antioksidan olarak balık ürünlerine doğal ekstraktlar eklenebileceği sonucuna varılmıştır.
... Roby et al. (2013) also observed much lower (from 4.75 to 8.10 mg GAE/g DW) total phenolic compounds for thyme for four solvents (hexane, ethanol, methanol, and diethyl ether) than that found in this study. The mean total phenolic levels for 15 basil cultivars were in the range of 3.47 mg -17.58 mg GAE/g DW (Kwee & Niemeyer, 2011). Złotek et al. (2017) indicated that basil leaves contained 16.21 ± 0.51 mg GAE/g DW of total phenolic compounds. ...
... Although rosmarinic acid is referred to as the most represented phenolic acid in basil (Kiferle et al., 2013;Filip, 2017;Ciriello et al., 2020), in our study, both "Eleonora" and "Italiano Classico" were characterized by a predominant concentration of chicoric acid. The influence of genotype on the predominant biosynthesis of chicoric acid was also confirmed by Kwee and Niemeyer (2011) in basil. The authors showed that 9 basil varieties out of 15 tested had the highest absolute concentration of chicoric acid. ...
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Article
The floating raft constitutes a valuable system for growing herbs as it effectuates high yield and prime functional quality. However, the pressing need for advancing sustainability in food production dictates the reduction of chemical fertilizer inputs in such intensive production schemes through innovative cultivation practices. In this perspective, our work appraised the productive and qualitative responses of two "Genovese" basil genotypes (Eleonora and Italiano Classico) grown in a floating raft system with nutrient solutions of varied electrical conductivity (EC; 2 and 1 dS m −1) combined with root application of protein hydrolysate biostimulant at two dosages (0.15 and 0.3 0 ml L −1 of Trainer ®). The phenolic composition, aromatic profile, and antioxidant activities (ABTS, DPPH, and FRAP) of basil were determined by UHPLC/HRMS, GC/MS, and spectrophotometry, respectively. "Eleonora" demonstrated higher number of leaves (37.04 leaves per plant), higher fresh yield (6576.81 g m −2), but lower polyphenol concentration (1440.81 μg g −1 dry weight) compared to "Italiano Classico." The lower EC solution (1 dS m −1) increased total phenols (+32.5%), ABTS, DPPH, and FRAP antioxidant activities by 33.2, 17.1, and 15.8%, respectively, and decreased linalool relative abundance by 5.5%. Biostimulant application improved crop performance and increased total phenolic concentration in both genotypes, with the highest phenolic concentration (1767.96 μg g −1 dry weight) registered at the lowest dose. Significant response in terms of aromatic profile was detected only in "Eleonora." Our results demonstrate that the application of protein hydrolysate may compensate for reduced strength nutrient solution by enhancing yield and functional quality attributes of "Genovese" basil for pesto.
... Other previous research documented that Ocimum sp. contained a high content of antioxidant compounds which could contribute to increasing the OBEO antiradical activity [31,32] and positively affecting human health [33]. Basil is characterized by a strong antioxidant capacity so its use can help in prevention of heart diseases, and help decrease the inflammation and the incidence of cancers and diabetes [34]. ...
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Article
Basil (Ocimum basilicum) is a commonly used herb; it also contains essential oils and other valuable compounds. The basil oil obtained has a pleasant aroma, but also a broad spectrum of biological activity. This work reports on the chemical composition, antioxidant, antimicrobial and anti-insect activity in vitro and in situ of Ocimum basilicum essential oil (OBEO) obtained by steam distillation of fresh flowering plants. Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry, DPPH, agar and disc diffusion and vapor phase methods were used to analyze the OBEO properties. The analysis of the chemical composition of OBEO showed that its main components were methyl chavicol (88.6%), 1,8-cineole (4.2%) and α-trans-bergamotene (1.7%). A strong antioxidant effect was demonstrated at the level of 77.3%. The analysis of antimicrobial properties showed that OBEO exerts variable strength of inhibiting activity against various groups of microorganisms. The growth inhibition zones ranged from 9.67 to 15.33 mm in Gram-positive (G+) and Gram-negative (G−) bacteria and from 5.33 to 7.33 mm in yeast. The lowest measured minimal inhibition concentration (MIC) was 3.21 µL/mL against Gram-negative Azotobacter chrococcum and Gram-positive Micrococcus luteus. The antimicrobial activity of in situ vapor phase of OBEO was also confirmed on apples, pears, potatoes and kohlrabi. The highest insecticidal activity against Pyrrhocorisapterus, observed at the concentration of 100%, caused the death of 80% of individuals. Due to its broad spectrum of activity, OBEO seems an ideal candidate for preserving fruit and vegetables.
... . These results agree with those found byKwee et al. (2011) [41] for the different varieties of O. basilicum grown in America.In this context, Kwee et al. (2011) [61] and Javanmardi et al. (2003) [62] reported the same level of polyphenols in basil that grown in America (17.58 mg EAG/g DM) and in Iran (ranging from 22.9 to 65.5 mg EAG/g DM). On the other hand, different levels of phenolic compounds in O. basilicum grown in other countries are reported. ...
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Article
Ocimum basilicum is a valuable source of bioactive metabolites with high preventive and therapeutic effectiveness. Here we aimed to investigate the effect of phenological stages (vegetative and flowering stages) on essential oil composition and biological activities of two varieties of O. basilicum (Fino Verde variety and Genovese varieties). To this end, the level of essential oils, flavonoids and phenols, as well as antioxidant and antifungal activities were measured. At the metabolic level, essential oil at vegetative stage of O. bailicum Fino Verde and Genovese variety was constituted by 22 and 26 compounds representing 71.68% and 82.54% of the total oil, respectively. Where germacrene D (10.07%), bicyclogermacrene (6.07%) and β-elemene (4.88%) were the most present components in Fino Verde variety. Moreover, 22.19% are oxygenated monoterpenes represented mainly by the linalool (15.18%) and 1.8 cineole (6.36%) in Genovese variety. The individuals of essential oils were significantly increased to 40 components in Fino Verde variety (98.01% of total essential oil) and decreased to 15 components (95.6% of total essential oil) in Genovese variety at flowering stage. At this stage, the oxygenated monoterpenes (78.4%) were the major fraction represented by linalool (40.1%) and 1.8 cineole (30.96%) in Fino Verde variety, however 64.69% were esters which mainly represented by the methyl cinnamate (64.69%), and 16.83% of oxygenated monoterpenes and Linalool (12.7%) were recorded for Genovese variety. Genovese variety showed the highest levels at both vegetative and flowering stage compared to Fino Verde variety. At flowering stage, the two varieties showed high antioxidant and antifungal activities. Overall, O. basilicum properties offer prospects for their use as a source, particularly at flowering stage to extend new medicines based on natural bioactive molecules.
... components-rosmarinic and caffeic acid, rutin and isoquercetin Açıkgöz 2020). Previous research has shown that the content of important components of basil varies, and that the quantitative and qualitative composition of the main bioactive compounds is determined by genetic characteristics (Kwee and Niemeyer 2011) and various environmental factors including climate, season, and sampling period (Hussain et al. 2008;Baldim et al. 2018). Also, the time of sampling, plant parts from which the material originates, as well as processing and extraction of materials further affect the quantitative and qualitative composition of basil (Hussain et al. 2008;Jakovljević et al. 2019). ...
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Species from the genus Ocimum L. (basil) are among the most cultivated plants due to their large content of secondary metabolites, in particular essential oils and phenolic compounds. Still, different conditions of basil cultivation cause significant variations of quantitative and qualitative characteristics of material originating from basil plants. The application of plant tissue culture to produce biologically active compounds is a well-established alternative to the cultivation of whole plants. It provides the opportunity to obtain biotechnologically valuable plant characteristics, including a high content of secondary metabolites such as phenolic acids and flavonoids for the shortest period. The present paper summarizes the most cultivated basil genotypes worldwide and data about the mass propagation, somatic embryogenesis, basil cell and organ cultures, together with the main properties regarding the enhanced synthesis of secondary metabolites under tissue culture conditions. For most of the studies, increased synthesis of biologically active compounds (in particular phenolic acids, isoprenoids, and flavonoids) can be seen. However, for many of them, information regarding the used genotype or origin of plant material is missing. Considering the large number of species and cultivars belonging to the genus Ocimum L., appropriate utilization can provide maximal exploitation. Understanding how particular genotypes respond to specific conditions, treatments, and types of culture for enhancing the production of secondary metabolites could be the basis in designing protocols and further progress. Key message In this review, we described recent progress in secondary metabolites production of Ocimum L. species. The content of secondary metabolites, mainly phenolics and flavonoids, can be enhanced by various types of in vitro cultures.
... There are at least 65 species of basil [22] with numerous botanical varieties and the content of antioxidants and total phenolics varied widely among varieties [23][24][25]. In addition, changes in cultivation conditions, such as potassium supply [26], daily light integral [19], UV-B radiation [20], photosynthetic photon flux density [20,27], red and blue light ratios [21,27], temperature and water stress [28], and salt stresses combined with storage periods [29], affect secondary metabolites accumulation in basil plants, and different basil cultivars also respond differently to the same environmental conditions [20,21,26]. ...
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Hydroponic cultivation using nutrient solution (NS) is the main cultivation method employed by plant factories with artificial lighting (PFALs). The electrical conductivity (EC) of NSs influences the yield and quality of vegetables. The purpose of this study was to optimize the yield and antioxidant accumulation of basil in a PFAL by EC management. In experiment 1, basil plants were grown under four different ECs (0.5, 1.0, 3.0, and 5.0 dS m−1) after transplanting. At 18 days after treatment, the highest levels of shoot fresh and dry weights, leaf fresh and dry weights, and leaf area were observed at an EC of 3.0 dS m−1. However, low-EC treatments (0.5 and 1.0 dS m−1) generated total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant capacities that were higher than those of other EC treatments (3.0 and 5.0 dS m−1). In experiment 2, basil plants were grown at an EC of 3.0 dS m−1 for 13 or 15 days, then treated with water or NS with low ECs (0.5 and 1.0 dS m−1) for 5 or 3 days before harvest. The short-term low-EC treatments, especially, water for 3 days and 0.5 dS m−1 for 5 days, significantly increased the TPC and antioxidant capacity of leaves without significantly decreasing the yields of basil, compared with the control. In conclusion, yield of basil was optimized with an EC of 3.0 dS m−1; however, the TPC and antioxidant capacity of basil were significantly increased by low ECs of 0.5 and 1.0 dS m−1. Short-term low-EC treatments (0.5 dS m−1 for 5 days or water for 3 days) could be used to promote the TPC and antioxidant capacity in leaves without sacrificing yield of basil significantly.
... The polyphenol content values of basil were higher than the amounts (7.15-107 mg GAE/100 g) reported in the study of Moghaddam and Mehdizadeh [20]. However, in the dissertation of Kwee and Niemeyer [21], in which a study of 15 basil varieties was reported, the total polyphenol content ranged from 347 to 1,758 mg GAE/100 g. Based on our results, it can be stated that the value measured by us was high. ...
Article
Both bread and spices play an important role in our daily diet. Basil is an extremely popular spice, the beneficial effects of which have long been known. This is why the enrichment of breads with commercially available dried basil was carried out. In the case of basil, its antioxidant and element contents were determined. With respect to these parameters, results indicating outstandingly advantageous properties were obtained. During the enrichment, 6 different concentrations were used and a control sample was prepared that did not contain basil. As the amount of spice was increased, the total polyphenol content (TPC), flavonoid and macronutrient contents of the breads also increased. There was no difference between the products in terms of their crude fat content. In the case of the protein content, a minimal increase was measured with increasing spice concentration.
... Different studies have concluded that basil contains significant amounts of phenolic substances with antioxidant effects, for example, chicoric acid [47], rosmarinic acid, and cafeic acid [48]. Their quantity varies according to the basil cultivars, with values between 3.47 and 17.58 mg g −1 dry matter expressed in gallic acid equivalents [49]. It has also been demonstrated that there is even a diurnal variation of secondary metabolites accumulated in the plant [50]. ...
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Basil (Ocimum basilicum L.), including other species and cultivars, is an excellent source of nutritional compounds, the accumulation of which can be stimulated by exogenous factors (environmental and nutritional conditions). Although best practices are relatively established for mature basil plants, microgreens production requires further research to optimize quality and quantity. The study objectives are (i) to provide an overview of the many uses of basil, (ii) collate and present common hydroponic systems available in the market, (iii) review effects of key production environment parameters on basil yields in hydroponic systems, and (iv) summarize the effects of the growth environments on yield quantity and quality of basil microgreens. The paper analyzes in detail key production parameters of basil microgreens in hydroponic systems, such as temperature, humidity, pH, electrical conductivity, dissolved oxygen, carbon dioxide, nutrient solutions, and the influence of light (quantity, quality, and photoperiods). The collated literature review has shown that basil, grown hydroponically, can tolerate high variations of environmental parameters: pH 5.1–8.5, temperature 15–24 °C, relative humidity 60–70%, electrical conductivity up to 1.2 mS cm−1, depending on the developmental stage, dissolved oxygen at 4 mg L−1 (optimally 6.5 mg L−1), and light intensity between 200 and 400 μmol m−2 s−1. The study has synthesized an overview of different production parameters to provide guidance on the optimization of environmental conditions to ensure the quantity and quality production of basil microgreens. Improving the quality of basil microgreens can ideally spur continued gastronomic interest in microgreens in general, which will encourage more entrepreneurs to grow basil and other microgreens. Hence, the study findings are a great resource to learn about the effects of different environments on basil microgreen production. This information can inform research for successful production of different species and cultivars of basil microgreens, and establishing testing protocols to improve the quantity and quality of the harvest.
... The plant is rich source of phenolics, flavonoids and terpenoids [4]. It has been used to treat various ailments such as poor digestion, nausea, migraine, depression, insomnia, kidney malfunction and skin infections [5,6].The plants is also reported to possess exceptional biological activities such as, antioxidant [7,8] antifibrotic, anticancer, radioprotectant [9],anti-inflammatory effects, immunomodulatory activity, anticonvulsant [10], anti-stress activity, anti-pyretic activity, antimicrobial, anti-arthritic activity, anti-diabetic activity, repellent [11],prophylactic agent and in cardiovascular disease [12,13]. It is also used as a kitchen herb, culinary herb and ornamental herb. ...
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Aim: Standardization of Ocimum basilicum through pharmacognosy. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Plant Biology and Plant Biotechnology, Ethiraj College for Women, Chennai “Between” Dec 2014-April 15. Methodology: Organoleptic evaluation was carried out based on sensory characters. A free hand anatomical section of the stem was observed. Powder analysis, maceration, Phytochemical test and Fluorescence analysis were conducted according to standard protocol. Results: The organoleptic characters of the dried leaves of Ocimum basilicum were green, aromatic, pungent and brittle in texture with anomocytic stomata with stomatal index 71.87% in the lower epidermis. A prominent bundle sheath in the leaf was evident. The macerated stem showed annular xylem vessels. The aqueous extract showed the presence of alkaloids, phenols, flavonoids, steroids, terpenoids, and glycosides. Alkaloids and lignins were evident in the histochemical study. Conclusion: Pharmacognostic evaluation of Ocimum basilicum would help in identification, detection of adulterants and development of a monograph.
... Basil grows wild in the subtropical and tropical areas of America, Africa, Asia, and in some southern regions of Europe (Kwee and Niemeyer, 2011). Traditionally, basil was cultivated on open fields. ...
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Basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) is a popular crop worldwide among farmers; it is relatively easy to grow and is well adapted to hydroponic and Controlled Environment Agriculture (CEA) systems having a high profitability margin. Several studies investigated the effect of the environmental factors on the qualitative and quantitative factors of basil: the effect of light is crucial for development, nutritional properties and sensory characteristics. The principles of sustainability, profitability and resource-effectiveness all encourages farmers to use energy-efficient LED light sources. These tools easily allow for the modification of spectral distribution and light intensity; numerous suggestions have been made for developing goal-driven light recipes for maximum cost-effectiveness and for reducing carbon footprint. Here, the results of several studies are summarized for providing a solid base for light recipe utilization of basil production in terms of light intensity, duration, and spectral distribution. Experimental results related to the impact of light treatments on vegetative parameters, phytonutrient content and sensory properties of basil are discussed, and optimal ranges of light parameters are summarized. Due to the increasing number of promising specialized research the wider application of purpose-driven high-tech production systems is expected in future basil growing.
... Basil (Ocimum basilicum L.), family Lamiaceae, is an annual plant growing in the tropical and subtropical regions of America, Africa, Asia, and in Southern Europe. Basil is one of the most commonly produced aromatic herbs in the world (Kwee and Niemeyer, 2011). It is a commercial product with a high importance as an herb for culinary as well as for medicinal and ornamental use (Singletary, 2018). ...
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Horticultural production systems are under pressure to find environmentally friendly growing media. Peat is currently the most popular substrate for fresh potted herbs production; however, this raw material is not sustainable due to the large amount of greenhouse gases released during its harvesting. Therefore, the goal of the study was to test the performance of various commercial wood fiber products and compare them with peat and coir in an ebb-and-flow production system with basil (Ocimum basilicum L. 'Marian'). Basil plants were grown in three different pot sizes (6, 9 and 12 cm in diameter) and under various fertigation regimes (EC 1, 2 and 3). Height and biomass of the plants were recorded when the best performing plants reached the commercial stage. The tallest plants and greatest biomass were produced in peat and coir, however, the results confirm that wood fiber can be a promising substrate alternative. Further research is needed to study, among others topics, how to modify some properties of wood fibers to fulfil their potential as a replacement for non-sustainable growing media in production of herbs in pots. © 2021 International Society for Horticultural Science. All rights reserved.
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Based on the current trend towards broad-bandwidth LED light spectra for basil productions in multi-tiered controlled-environment horticulture, a recently developed white broad-bandwidth LED light spectrum (400-780 nm) including far-red wavelengths with elevated red and blue light fractions was employed to cultivate basil. Four Ocimum basilicum L. cultivars (cv. Anise, cv. Cinnamon, cv. Dark Opal and cv. Thai Magic) were exposed to two different rising light intensity conditions (ILow and IHigh). In dependence of the individual cultivar-specific plant height increase over time, basil cultivars were exposed to light intensities increasing from ~ 100 to ~ 200 µmol m-2 s-1 under ILow, and from 200 to 400 µmol m-2 s-1 under IHigh (due to the exponential light intensity increases with decreasing proximity to the LED light fixtures). Within the first experiment, basils’ morphological developments, biomass yields and time to marketability under both light conditions were investigated and the energy consumptions were determined to calculate the basils’ light use efficiencies. In detail, cultivar-dependent differences in plant height, leaf and branch pair developments over time are described. In comparison to the ILow light conditions, IHigh resulted in accelerated developments and greater yields of all basil cultivars and expedited their marketability by 3-5 days. However, exposure to light intensities above ~ 300 µmol m-2 s-1 induced light avoidance responses in the green-leafed basil cultivars cv. Anise, cv. Cinnamon and cv. Thai Magic. In contrast, ILow resulted in consumer-preferred visual qualities and greater biomass efficiencies of the green-leafed basil cultivars and are discussed as a result of their ability to adapt well to low light conditions. Contrarily to the green-leafed cultivars, purple-leafed cv. Dark Opal developed insufficiently under ILow, but remained light-tolerant under IHigh, which is related to its high anthocyanin contents. In a second experiment, cultivars’ volatile organic compound (VOC) contents and compositions over time were investigated. While VOC contents per gram of leaf dry matter gradually decreased in purple-leafed cv. Dark Opal between seedling stage to marketability, their contents gradually increased in the green cultivars. Regardless of the light treatment applied, cultivar-specific VOC compositions changed tremendously in a developmental stage-dependent manner.
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Chapter
Sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.), one of the most widely used culinary herb, have a long history of use and mostly cultured in Belgium, France, Bulgaria, Hungary, India, Italy, Poland, Spain, and the United States. The origin of basil is known as the countries of India, Iran, and Africa. Traditionally, the use of basil as a medicinal plant is for the treatment of headaches, anxiety, nerve pain, repellent for mosquitoes, and kidney malfunction. Essential oils extracted from herbs can be used as aroma additives in food, pharmaceuticals, and cosmetics. Basil has several chemotypes or cultivars that result from an ease of crossing and genetic polymorphism. Thus, the morphological and chemical variability of the basil composes large chances for growing different cultivars of this valuable herbal plant and differs in their essential oil compositions. Major essential oil components were methyl chavicol (estragole), linalool, methyl eugenol, and methyl cinnamate. Basil genotypes obtained from different regions of the world are significantly different in all morphological traits and chemical composition of the essential oil. The purpose of this study was to investigate the essential oil components, biological activities, and some medicinal applications from a genetically improved basil genotype.
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Úgy a kenyér, mint a fűszerek fontos szerepet játszanak a mindennapi táplálkozásunkban. A bazsalikom egy rendkívül kedvelt fűszer, melynek jótékony hatásai már régóta ismertek. Ezért is végeztük el a kenyerek kereskedelmi forgalomban kapható szárított bazsalikommal való dúsítását. A bazsalikom esetében meghatároztuk annak antioxidáns hatású vegyület-, valamint elemtartalmát. E paraméterek tekin-tetében kiemelkedően előnyös tulajdonságokra utaló eredményeket kaptunk. A dúsítás során 6 különböző koncentrációt alkalmaztunk, valamint egy kontroll mintát készítettünk, amely nem tartalmazott bazsalikomot. A fűszer mennyiségének növelésével a kenyerekben nőtt az összes polifenol (TPC – Total Polyphenol Content)-, flavonoid- és makroelem tartalom. A nyerszsír tartalomban nem tapasztaltunk eltérést a termékek között. A fehérjetartalom esetében minimális növekedést mértünk a fűszer koncentráció-jának növelésével.
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Chapter
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Anthocyanins, the pigments responsible for spectacular displays of vermilion in the leaves of deciduous trees, have long been considered an extravagant waste of a plant's resources. Contemporary research, in contrast, has begun to show that the pigments can significantly influence the way a leaf responds to environmental stress. Anthocyanins have been implicated in tolerance to stressors as diverse as drought, UV-B, and heavy metals, as well as resistance to herbivores and pathogens. By absorbing high-energy quanta, anthocyanic cell vacuoles both protect chloroplasts from the photoinhibitory and photooxidative effects of strong light, and prevent the catabolism of photolabile defence compounds. Anthocyanins also mitigate photooxidative injury in leaves by efficiently scavenging free radicals and reactive oxygen species. Far from being a useless by-product of the flavonoid pathway, these red pigments may in some instances be critical for plant survival.
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There is currently much interest in phytochemicals as bioactive components of food. The roles of fruit, vegetables and red wine in disease prevention have been attributed, in part, to the antioxidant properties of their constituent polyphenols (vitamins E and C, and the carotenoids). Recent studies have shown that many dietary polyphenolic constituents derived from plants are more effective antioxidants in vitro than vitamins E or C, and thus might contribute significantly to the protective effects in vivo. It is now possible to establish the antioxidant activities of plant-derived flavonoids in the aqueous and lipophilic phases, and to assess the extent to which the total antioxidant potentials of wine and tea can be accounted for by the activities of individual polyphenols.
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GC/MS was used to identify compounds of essential oils from seven Ocimum taxa (O. americanum L., O. basilicum L., O. campechianum Mill., O. x citriodorum Vis., O. kilimandscharicum Baker ex Gürke and three botanical varieties and cultivars of Ocimum basilicum L.: ‘Genovese’, var. difforme and var. purpurascens). Preliminary screening of their antibacterial activity was done against a number of common pathogens (Enterococcus faecalis, Enterococus faecium, Escherichia coli 0157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, Listeria ivanovii, Proteus vulgaris, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermis) using the filter paper disc agar diffusion technique, while further analyses were done by modification of the disc diffusion method. A broad variation in the antibacterial properties of investigated essential oils was observed. E. coli 0157:H7 was inhibited by O. basilicum ‘Genovese’ essential oil, while Ocimum americanum and Ocimum x citriodorum essential oils were the most effective against Enterococcus faecalis, Enterococcus faecium, P. vulgaris, S. aureus and S. epidermis.
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Cereal Chem. 76(3):350–354 A simple, rapid method for determining total anthocyanins was devel-oped for use in developing wheat cultivars with dark-blue grains. The method was evaluated as a screening test and for quantification of total anthocya-nins in blue and purple wheats and related cereals. Wheat anthocyanins were significantly more extractable in ethanol or methanol than in water at different pH levels. A sample-to-solvent ratio of 1:8 at pH 1 and 25°C was used. Anthocyanin extracts of pigmented wheat and barley grains exhibited absorbance spectra similar to cyanidin 3-glucoside. The absor-bance of anthocyanin extracts of 160 blue wheat experimental lines were significantly correlated with whole-grain Hunterlab color values. Total antho-cyanins averaged 157 mg/kg in blue wheat whole meal and 104 mg/kg in purple wheat whole meal, whereas blue wheat bran contained 458 mg/kg as compared with 251 mg/kg in purple wheat bran.
Article
The concentrations of caffeic acid derivatives within Lamiaceae and Echinacea (herb, spice, tea, and dietary supplement forms) readily available in the US marketplace (n = 72) were determined. After the first identification of chicoric acid in Ocimum basilicum (basil), the extent to which chicoric acid could be found within the family Lamiaceae was investigated. The dominant phenolic acid in all Lamiaceae samples was rosmarinic acid, which ranged from 2.04 mg/100 g (one of 12 oregano samples) to 622.28 mg/100 g (lemon balm). Of the herbs tested in this study (marjoram, oregano, peppermint, rosemary, sage, spearmint, and thyme from the family Lamiaceae), only basil and lemon balm (Melissa officinalis) con-tained chicoric acid. Basil samples (starting material and resulting end product) obtained from an industry cooperator, showed substantial phenolic deficiency as a result of process-ing (approximately 78% loss). Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Article
There is growing recognition that many phenolic secondary metabolites present in foodstuffs may possibly exert beneficial effects on human health. This may to some degree be mediated via antioxidant actions, but a range of more specific pharmacological effects have also been proposed. Given this background, there may be favourable consequences for the general health of Western populations as a result of optimising the phenolic content of the diet. This paper reviews what is known of the function of phenolics both in the plant and in man. It also describes current understanding of the biosynthesis of phenolics in plants, with emphasis on where potential controlling steps may exist. Finally, advances in identification and isolation of the genes coding for phenolic biosynthetic enzymes or regulatory proteins are also summarised. Taken together, this information provides a basis for attempts to modify and optimise the phenolic content of food crops, using either conventional plant breeding along with manipulation of agronomic practices, or else the more targeted approaches of modern molecular biology.© 2000 Society of Chemical Industry
Article
The antiradical activities of various antioxidants were determined using the free radical, 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH*). In its radical form. DPPH* has an absorption band at 515 nm which dissappears upon reduction by an antiradical compound. Twenty compounds were reacted with the DPPH* and shown to follow one of three possible reaction kinetic types. Ascorbic acid, isoascorbic acid and isoeugenol reacted quickly with the DPPH* reaching a steady state immediately. Rosmarinic acid and δ-tocopherol reacted a little slower and reached a steady state within 30 min. The remaining compounds reacted more progressively with the DPPH* reaching a steady state from 1 to 6 h. Caffeic acid, gentisic acid and gallic acid showed the highest antiradical activities with a stoichiometry of 4 to 6 reduced DPPH* molecules per molecule of antioxidant. Vanillin, phenol, γ-resorcylic acid and vanillic acid were found to be poor antiradical compounds. The stoichiometry for the other 13 phenolic compounds varied from one to three reduced DPPH* molecules per molecule of antioxidant. Possible mechanisms are proposed to explain the experimental results.
Article
A large number of plants, which have been used as food and herbs in Thailand, were investigated for their antioxidant activity by using a β-carotene bleaching method. The contents of plant chemicals, such as vitamin C, vitamin E, carotenoids, tannin, and total phenolics, were also determined. The results showed that the highest antioxidant activity was found in the plant Gymnema inodorum, followed by Piper sarmentosum and Mentha arvensis, respectively. G. inodorum also contained the highest amount of vitamin E, and M. arvensis contained the highest amount of total xanthophylls. Correlations between the chemical content of each plant and the antioxidant index were observed. The results suggest that chemicals such as vitamin C, vitamin E, carotenoids, and phenolic compounds are the contributors to the antioxidant activity in the plants.
Article
This is the first report to identify the presence of chicoric acid (cichoric acid; also known as dicaffeoyltartaric acid, which is a caffeic acid derivatized with tartaric acid) in basil leaves. Rosmarinic acid, chicoric acid and caftaric acid (in the order of most abundant to least; all derivatives of caffeic acid) were identified in fresh basil leaves. Rosmarinic acid was the main phenolic compound found in both leaves and stems. Chicoric acid was not detected in sweet basil stems, although a small amount was present in Thai basil stems. Other cinnamic acid monomers, dimers and trimers were also found in minor quantities in both stems and leaves. Basil polyphenolic contents were determined by blanched methanol extraction, followed by HPLC/DAD analysis. The characterization of the polyphenolics found in the basil extracts were performed by HPLC/DAD/ESI–MS/MS and co-chromatographed with purchased standard. The influence of inoculation with an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (AMF), Glomus intraradices, on plant phenolic composition was studied on two basil cultivars,‘Genovese Italian’ and ‘Purple Petra’. Inoculation with AMF increased total anthocyanin concentration of ‘Purple Petra’ but did not alter polyphenolic content or profile of leaves and stems, of either cultivar, compared to non-inoculated plants. In the US diet, basil presents a more accessible source of chicoric acid than does Echinacea purpurea, in which it is the major phenolic compound.
Article
The herbs of lemon balm, oregano, and peppermint were analysed immediately after harvest and after drying to determine their antioxidant activity and content of total phenolics, l-ascorbic acid, and carotenoids. The strongest inhibition of linoleic acid (LA) peroxidation was found for fresh and dried oregano. For peppermint and lemon balm it was significantly lower and decreased after drying. The ability to scavenge the free radical DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) was very high in almost all tested samples, exceeding 90%. The three species tested had a very high content of total phenolics and drying of oregano and peppermint resulted in their considerable increase. The highest content of ascorbic acid was determined in fresh peppermint and lemon balm and carotenoid content was at a similar level in all the species tested. Drying caused great losses of these compounds.
Article
Fruits and vegetables (FAVs) are an important part of the human diet and a major source of biologically active substances such as vitamins and secondary metabolites. The consumption of FAVs remains globally insufficient, so it should be encouraged, and it may be useful to propose to consumers FAVs with enhanced concentrations in vitamins and secondary metabolites. There are basically two ways to reach this target: the genetic approach or the environmental approach. This paper provides a comprehensive review of the results that have been obtained so far through purely agronomic approaches and brings them into perspective by comparing them with the achievements of genetic approaches. Although agronomic approaches offer very good perspectives, the existence of variability of responses suggests that the current understanding of the way regulatory and metabolic pathways are controlled needs to be increased. For this purpose, more in-depth study of the interactions existing between factors (light and temperature, for instance, genetic factors × environmental factors), between processes (primary metabolism and ontogeny, for example), and between organs (as there is some evidence that photooxidative stress in leaves affects antioxidant metabolism in fruits) is proposed.
Article
Fresh basil (Ocimum basilicum) leaves contain chicoric acid, which is the principal phenolic compound in Echinacea purpurea and purportedly an active ingredient in dietary supplements derived from E. purpurea. Here the concentrations of chicoric acid in dried and fresh basil products available to consumers, and how these concentrations compare to those from E. purpurea are reported. A wide range of chicoric acid concentrations (6.48-242.50 mg/100 g or 100 mL) were found in the dried basil flakes, fresh basil leaves, E. purpurea extracts, and E. purpurea capsules. Fresh basil leaves had higher concentrations of chicoric acid than dried basil flakes. Although E. purpurea extracts and capsules contained higher concentrations of chicoric acid than fresh basil leaves, basil could be an economical and more readily available source for chicoric acid for consumers. Additionally, cultivar selection, dehydration processing improvements, and proper storage methods may improve the final chicoric acid levels of future basil crops and products.
Article
Diets high in flavonoids have long been associated with nutritional recommendations, a healthy lifestyle, and the prevention of chronic diseases. However, identification of specific beneficial effects from specific flavonoids and flavonoid-rich foods has been a challenging area, probably due to a nonessential or conditional role for flavonoids in human nutrition. Nonetheless, recent efforts in the area of high flavonoid-containing foods and cardiovascular disease have begun providing the first demonstrations of specific effects and mechanisms of action in well-controlled studies. The early studies have shown that flavonoids have several anti-atherosclerotic activities including anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antiproliferative, antiplatelet, and provessel function activities. Cholesterol-lowering and antihypertensive effects of flavonoids have been studied and appear minimal in humans. The studies also demonstrate several possible mechanisms and pleiotropic effects of flavonoids that may be active in reduction in the risk of cardiovascular disease. Several subclasses of flavonoids may contribute toward the apparent beneficial effects and include flavones, flavonols, flavanones, catechins isoflavones, proanthocyanidins, and anthocyanidins. Further studies are necessary for confirmation of the beneficial effects, identification of dose-response relationships, and identification the most bioactive flavonoids.
Article
Notwithstanding the wide range of biological and pharmacological activities reported for sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.), many discrepancies are still present in the evaluation of its health-promoting properties. These discordances could be at least in part due to insufficient details of qualitative and quantitative composition, connected to the ample variability of this species. Furthermore, many investigations have been carried out in vitro, with few data available on the effectiveness in biological systems. In this study, the protective effect of essential oils and water-soluble extracts derived from three different cultivars of sweet basil has been evaluated in cultured cardiomyocytes. To verify the effectiveness of supplemented oils/extracts in counteracting oxidative damage, cardiomyocytes were stressed by the addition of hydrogen peroxide. The results indicate that (a) in vitro antioxidant activity is not predictive of biological activity and (b) basil can yield extracts with substantially different protective effects, in relation to composition and extraction techniques. Variation among different cultivars has also been detected.
Article
Many herbs and spices have been shown to contain high levels of polyphenolic compounds with potent antioxidant properties. In the present study, we explore how nutrient availability, specifically nitrogen fertilization, affects the production of polyphenolic compounds in three cultivars (Dark Opal, Genovese, and Sweet Thai) of the culinary herb, basil ( Ocimum basilicum L.). Nitrogen fertilization was found to have a significant effect on total phenolic levels in Dark Opal ( p < 0.001) and Genovese ( p < 0.001) basil with statistically higher phenolic contents observed when nutrient availability was limited at the lowest (0.1 mM) applied nitrogen treatment. Similarly, basil treated at the lowest nitrogen fertilization level generally contained significantly higher rosmarinic ( p = 0.001) and caffeic ( p = 0.001) acid concentrations than basil treated at other nitrogen levels. Nitrogen fertilization also affected antioxidant activity ( p = 0.002) with basil treated at the highest applied nitrogen level, 5.0 mM, exhibiting lower antioxidant activity than all other nitrogen treatments. The anthocyanin content of Dark Opal basil was not affected by applied nitrogen level, but anthocyanin concentrations were significantly impacted by growing season ( p = 0.001). Basil cultivar was also determined to have a statistically significant effect on total phenolic levels, rosmarinic and caffeic acid concentrations, and antioxidant activities.
Article
A simple, automated test measuring the ferric reducing ability of plasma, the FRAP assay, is presented as a novel method for assessing "antioxidant power." Ferric to ferrous ion reduction at low pH causes a colored ferrous-tripyridyltriazine complex to form. FRAP values are obtained by comparing the absorbance change at 593 nm in test reaction mixtures with those containing ferrous ions in known concentration. Absorbance changes are linear over a wide concentration range with antioxidant mixtures, including plasma, and with solutions containing one antioxidant in purified form. There is no apparent interaction between antioxidants. Measured stoichiometric factors of Trolox, alpha-tocopherol, ascorbic acid, and uric acid are all 2.0; that of bilirubin is 4.0. Activity of albumin is very low. Within- and between-run CVs are <1.0 and <3.0%, respectively, at 100-1000 micromol/liter. FRAP values of fresh plasma of healthy Chinese adults: 612-1634 micromol/liter (mean, 1017; SD, 206; n = 141). The FRAP assay is inexpensive, reagents are simple to prepare, results are highly reproducible, and the procedure is straightforward and speedy. The FRAP assay offers a putative index of antioxidant, or reducing, potential of biological fluids within the technological reach of every laboratory and researcher interested in oxidative stress and its effects.