Article

Synergistic antioxidant activity of tea with ginger, black pepper and tulsi

Authors:
  • Bora Institute of Allied Health Sciences, Lucknow
  • CMP College University of Allahabad
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Abstract

Food nutrients having antioxidant potential have been a major focus of research in recent years because they were regarded as magic bullets that could help to prevent many human diseases such as cancer, arthritis, Alzheimer, Parkinson and cardiovascular diseases, etc. In the present research, the four plants namely- tea (Camellia sinensis), ginger (Zingiber officinale), black pepper (Piper nigrum) and tulsi (Ocimum sanctum) have been selected as all these plants show antioxidant potential individually. People used to drink tea often by boiling it with ginger, black pepper and tulsi. However there is no data available on the antioxidant activity of these four plants in synergism. The aim of the present study was to study the antioxidant potential of the different combinations of above plants by 1,1,-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl assay. Appropriate combinations of all the four plants extract showed best antioxidant activity.

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... Moreover, fresh ginger has been found to be richer in phenol than dried ginger. Gupta et al. (2014) also measured the DPPH percent inhibition activity of methanol extract of ginger which was found to be up to 84.18%. In the present study, the SC-CO 2 extract of ginger (GE2) produced DPPH percent inhibition activity in the range above 80% and observed percent inhibition value nearer to the values reported by El-Ghorab et al. (2010) and Gupta et al., (2014). ...
... Gupta et al. (2014) also measured the DPPH percent inhibition activity of methanol extract of ginger which was found to be up to 84.18%. In the present study, the SC-CO 2 extract of ginger (GE2) produced DPPH percent inhibition activity in the range above 80% and observed percent inhibition value nearer to the values reported by El-Ghorab et al. (2010) and Gupta et al., (2014). In addition, the ethanol extract (GE1) of ginger obtained from soxhlet produced the highest DPPH percent inhibition activity (above 90%) and was found to be more than previously reported. ...
Article
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The present study has focused on the extraction and utilization of antioxidant compounds from the agricultural produce Zingiber officinale for its sustainable use in terms of stabilizing food from oxidation. Two extraction methods, traditional soxhlet and green supercritical CO2 (SC-CO2), were used to compare yields of antioxidant (6-gingerol) rich extracts. For the SC-CO2 method, operating parameters including pressure (10000-20000 kPa), temperature (30- 40°C) and CO2 flow rate (5-20 g/min.) were optimized to get maximum recovery of [6]-gingerol rich extracts. The results of the extraction study revealed that ginger extract collected after soxhlet extraction (GE1) gives more yield (3.85%) than the extract (2.41%) collected after SC-CO2 extraction (GE2) at an optimum condition of 20000 kPa pressure, 40°C temperature and 20 g/min. flow rate. Contrarily, the yield of [6]-gingerol was found to be greater in GE2 (389 mg/g) than GE1. Total phenol (TPC) and flavonoid (TFC) content of GE1 and GE2 were measured against equivalent concentrations of gallic acid and quercetin. TPC and TFC of GE1 show slightly higher values (38.50 mg GAE/g, 5.62 mg QE/g) than GE2. At the concentration of 3000 μg/mL, DPPH percent inhibition activity of GE1 was again higher (up to 94%) than GE2 (up to 82%). Stability study result of both GE1 and GE2 revealed on the basis of antioxidant indices, showed desirable antioxidant index by stabilizing all three experimented oils and also found to be comparable with synthetic antioxidants (BHA, BHT). Therefore, it could be concluded that [6]-gingerol rich extracts from the SC-CO2 method have comparable phenol flavonoid, antioxidant and stability potential as those found in ginger extracts from the traditional soxhlet method.
... The next best was the mixture of tea, ginger and tulsi (1:1:1). 50 Similar synergistic effects were observed with the mixture of green tea of Camellia species with grape seed (Vitis vinifera L.), Amla (Phyllanthus emblica L.), Anar (Punica granatum L.), Chinese cinnamon (Cinnamomum cassia L.) and Maiden hair tree (Ginkgo biloba L.) in the ratio of 5:3:3:3:3. 42 Tea is usually consumed with honey, sugar, milk or lemon because people believe that these will enhance the benefit and taste of the beverage. ...
... & L.M. Perry] are all known for their health benefits and are added to tea to enhance sensory properties and provide healthy drinks. 50,91,129 Kundu et al. 129 assessed the organoleptic properties of herbal drinks (masala tea, ginger mint tea and tulsi tea) and concluded that ginger mint tea, a combination of 1 g (ginger), 5 g Mentha (mint) leaves, 100 mL water, 5 g green tea and 10 g honey had the best organoleptic properties and could be one of the best health drinks. ...
Article
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Tea is one of the most widely consumed non-alcoholic beverages in the world next to water. It is classified as Camellia sinensis and non-Camellia sinensis (herbal teas). The common bioactive compounds found mainly in green teas are flavan-3-ols (catechins) (also called flavanols), proanthocyanidins (tannins) and flavonols. Black tea contains theaflavins and thearubigins and white tea contains L-theanine and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), while herbal teas contain diverse polyphenols. Phytochemicals in tea exhibit anti-microbial, anti-diabetic and anti-cancer activities that are perceived to be helpful in managing chronic diseases linked to lifestyle. Many of these phytochemicals are reported to be biologically active when combined. Knowledge of the synergistic interactions of tea with other teas or herbs in terms of biological activities will be of benefit for therapeutic enhancement. There is evidence that various types of teas act synergistically in exhibiting health benefits to humans, improving consumer acceptance and economic value. Similar observations have been made when teas and herbs or medicinal drugs were combined. The aim of this review is to highlight potential beneficial synergies between combinations of different types of teas, tea and herbs, and tea and medicinal drugs.
... Medicinal plants prepared for tea infusions have been studied for their antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and other properties [1]. Herbal teas have also been reported to exhibit synergistic antioxidant effects, which increases their value as beverages for potential health benefits [2,3]. Common medicinal plants such as ginger, lemon and mint can be fused together as ginger lemon mint tea (GLMT) and be consumed as herbal tea to improve health being. ...
... Compounds identified as other phenolic compound were further divided into hydroxycoumarins (1), hydroxybenzaldehydes (1), hydroxybenzoketones (1), phenolic terpenes (1), tyrosols (3) and other phenolic compounds (2). A total of 9 phenolic compounds classified as other phenolic compounds were found in the samples. ...
Article
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Ginger (Zingiber officinale R.), lemon (Citrus limon L.) and mint (Mentha sp.) are commonly consumed medicinal plants that have been of interest due to their health benefits and purported antioxidant capacities. This study was conducted on the premise that no previous study has been performed to elucidate the antioxidant and phenolic profile of the ginger, lemon and mint herbal tea infusion (GLMT). The aim of the study was to investigate and characterise the phenolic contents of ginger, lemon, mint and GLMT, as well as determine their antioxidant potential. Mint recorded the highest total phenolic content, TPC (14.35 ± 0.19 mg gallic acid equivalent/g) and 2,2′-azino-bis(3-e-thylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid), ABTS (24.25 ± 2.18 mg ascorbic acid equivalent/g) antioxidant activity. GLMT recorded the highest antioxidant activity in the reducing power assay, RPA (1.01 ± 0.04 mg ascorbic acid equivalent/g) and hydroxyl radical scavenging assay, •OH-RSA (0.77 ± 0.08 mg ascorbic acid equivalent/g). Correlation analysis showed that phenolic content positively correlated with the antioxidant activity. Venn diagram analysis revealed that mint contained a high proportion of exclusive phenolic compounds. Liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionisation and quadrupole time of flight tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-QTOF-MS/MS) characterised a total of 73 phenolic compounds, out of which 11, 31 and 49 were found in ginger, lemon and mint respectively. These characterised phenolic compounds include phenolic acids (24), flavonoids (35), other phenolic compounds (9), lignans (4) and stilbene (1). High-performance liquid chromatography photometric diode array (HPLC-PDA) quantification showed that GLMT does contain a relatively high concentration of phenolic compounds. This study presented the phenolic profile and antioxidant potential of GLMT and its ingredients, which may increase the confidence in developing GLMT into functional food products or nutraceuticals.
... The maximum decrease (53.06%) was found in combination of black tea with 2 g ginger (BT2G2). In contrast to our results, Gupta et al. (2014) reported synergistic antioxidant activity between tea and ginger [17]. ...
... The maximum decrease (53.06%) was found in combination of black tea with 2 g ginger (BT2G2). In contrast to our results, Gupta et al. (2014) reported synergistic antioxidant activity between tea and ginger [17]. ...
Article
Background: Tea possesses strong antioxidant activity which may protect human body from free radical-induced diseases. The aim of present study was to examine the effect of ginger on antioxidant capacities of black and green tea. Methods: Infusions of black and green tea with different quantities of ginger were prepared and their antioxidant activities investigated using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2-azinobis-3-ethylenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS) methods. Results: The addition of ginger decreased DPPH radical scavenging activity of both black and green teas. The higher doses of ginger resulted in the larger decrease in antioxidant activity of the tea. The maximum decrease in antioxidant activity of black and green tea was 53.06% and 27.36%, respectively. Similarly, ginger reduced ABTS radical scavenging activity of black and green tea up to 49.94% and 37.21%, respectively. Conclusion: The results indicated that ginger decreased significantly the antioxidant activity of tea. Further studies are needed to ascertain the exact mechanism of the decreasing effect of ginger on antioxidant activity of the tea.
... A very common tea preparation method in Indian households, using ginger, black pepper and tulsi were found to be beneficial as assessed by in vitro DPPH assay [9]. Tea supplemented with lemon juices is also consumed greatly in India, probably to lower the astringency of the infusion. ...
... It might be due to synergistic, additive or antagonistic interaction among different compounds. In depth research also showed that polyphenols like gingerols and their corresponding dehydration products shogaols in ginger and piperine in black pepper are responsible for antioxidant activity in tea preparations in experimental conditions [9]. ...
Article
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Objective: The present study was designed to adjudicate the change in contents of phytochemicals and in vitro antioxidant potential of tea infusions supplemented with herbs.Methods: The phytochemical screening of tea infusions with or without supplemented herbs was done along with their antioxidant capacities using some common in vitro assays. Infusions were prepared by soaking tea leaves and subsequent herbs in boiled water for 10 minutes.Results: ABTS radical scavenging ability did not improve after herb supplementation of the infusions, although DPPH radical scavenging ability improved in some samples, especially in ginger tea. This proves that less polar phytochemicals are supplemented mostly when herbs are added in the tea infusions. Tannin contents were mostly preserved except for the ginger tea. Most prominent effect was observed in their hydroxyl radical scavenging abilities, which commensurate with the lipid peroxidation inhibitory activities of the supplemented infusions. Conclusion: Present study provides firm evidence to support that an augmenting effect exists between black tea and some supplemented herbs, when infusions were prepared with the both.
... O. sanctum (L) contains some important compounds such as linalool, eugenol, methyl charicol and cineole. It has the antioxidants property due to presence of eugenol [23]. Several studies have proved that Ocimum sanctum contains therapeutic property to treat the gastrointestinal [24][25], cardiovascular [26][27], antitumor [28], antifertility [29] and anti-inflammatory [30] diseases. ...
... DPPH free radical scavenging ability of samples is due to their hydrogen donating ability. DPPH inhibitory capacity of water and methanol extracts of black pepper was reported as 35.2 and 45.66% (Gupta et al., 2014). Ethyl acetate and water extract of black pepper showed a concentration dependent increase in their DPPH radical scavenging ability (Asimi et al., 2013). ...
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Present study evaluated in vitro antioxidant activity and cytotoxicity of four important Piper species (P. nigrum L., P. chaba Hunter, P. longum L. and P. colubrinum Link.) and six black pepper varieties (Sreekara, Subhakara, IISR Malabar Excel, Panniyur-1, Panchami and IISR Thevam). It was performed with sequential extracts of the dried berries/fruits using n-hexane, chloroform, methanol and water in the order of increasing polarity. Concentrated extracts were tested for total phenolic content, in vitro antioxidant activity and cytotoxicity. Methanol and chloroform extracts showed high antioxidant activity than hexane and water extracts. Among black pepper varieties, methanol extract of IISR Malabar Excel followed by that of Panchami and among Piper species chloroform extract of P. colubrinum expressed highest antioxidant activity. Significant positive correlation between total phenol and antioxidant activity was noted for methanol and chloroform extracts. In vitro cytotoxicity of the extracts was tested on cervical cancer cell line CaSki by MTT assay and compared with that of synthetic anticancer drug Doxorubicin. Results showed more cytotoxicity with more extract and increased time of exposure with CaSki. Chloroform extract of P. longum and P. colubrinum were found to be highly toxic to CaSki than other extracts. By considering three time intervals, chloroform extract of IISR Malabar Excel was more toxic to CaSki than other black pepper varieties. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report regarding in vitro antioxidant activity and cytotoxicity on CaSki for sequential extracts of P.colubrinum fruits cultivated in India. This is also the first report on variability in antioxidant activity and cytotoxicity (on CaSki) of sequential extracts from black pepper varieties selected for the study.
... In this study, combination of bioactive components in synbiotic yoghurt with the addition of red ginger extract, caused antagonistic effect, indicated by the decrease in antioxidant activity. [29] The higher the dose of red ginger extract added to synbiotic yoghurt, the antioxidant activity got increased, but compared to the antioxidant activity in raw ginger extract, it got decreased. The result was compatible with one study about jelly drink product with the addition of ginger essence. ...
Article
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Antioxidant related to oxidative stress can caused the metabolic disorders. A functional food that high in antioxidant can be use as the alternative prevention. The addition of red ginger extract in yoghurt could form a functional food, that high in antioxidant, synbiotic and fiber. The influence of red ginger extract on yoghurt synbiotic against lactic acid bacteria, antioxidant activity and acceptance were analyzed. This was an experimental research with one factor complete randomized design, specifically the addition of red ginger extract 0%; 0,1%; 0,3% and 0,5% into synbiotic yoghurt. Total plate count method used to analyze the lactic acid bacteria, 1-1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method for antioxidant activity, and acceptance analyzed with hedonic test. The higher the dose of extract added to synbiotic yoghurt, the antioxidant activity got significantly increased (ρ=0,0001), while the lactic acid bacteria got insignificantly decreased (ρ=0,085). The addition of 0,5% red ginger extract obtained the antioxidant activity of 71% and 4,86 × 10¹³ CFU/ml on lactic acid bacteria, which the requirement for probiotic on National Standard of Indonesia is >10⁷ CFU/ml. The addition of extract had a significant effect on acceptance (ρ=0,0001) in flavor, color, and texture, but not aroma (ρ=0,266). The optimal product in this research was the yoghurt synbiotic with addition of 0,1% red ginger extract. To summarize, the addition of red ginger extract in synbiotic yoghurt had significant effect on antioxidant activity, flavor, color, and texture, but no significant effect on lactic acid bacteria and aroma.
... From the analysis of variance of the obtained means (Figure 1), it was found that the antioxidant activity of the combination of EOs was significantly higher than their respective individual EOs. Similar trends are observed by Gupta et al. (2014) who reported that a mixture of aqueous extracts of tea, ginger, black pepper and basil exhibited a very high antioxidant activity compared to the individual ones. Bandopadhyay et al. (2007) reported that a combination of ginger and beet had higher antioxidant activity than their individual activities. ...
Article
The study investigated the addition of essential oils (EO) of tumeric, ginger and cardamon (as sources of natural antioxidants) to burfie, an Indian heat desiccated dairy dessert. Essential oil incorporation significantly (P < 0.05) increased antioxidant activity of the product. Samples with a combination of EOs had a higher antioxidant activity than with addition of individual EOs, but antioxidant activity was less (P < 0.05) than samples with addition of butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA). The addition of EOs had no significant (P > 0.05) effect on instrumental colour, textural attributes and composition of the burfi samples, but flavour was significantly affected. Clustering revealed the sample with added BHA had the best attributes followed by the sample with addition of a combination of all the EOs. The combination of EOs significantly (P < 0.05) delayed the growth of the native microbiota in the burfi.
... Van et al. (1988) studied theaflavin values of different tea clones according to them explains the highest grade of broken orange pekoe fanning (BOPF) is Theaflavin content. Gupta et al. (2014) studied the ginger, black pepper and tulsi combination with tea gives good synergistic anti-oxidant activity. Ginger with tea derived to be the best synergistic combination. ...
... In this study, a stable free radical DPPH * is used to measured the scavanging activity of antioxidants because it is very susceptible to detect the active ingredient at small concentration 24 . As previous study 12,25,26 showed that antioxidant activity of plants are depend upon the existence of phenolics, curcuminods, essential oil, terpinoids and flavonids, hence the higher antioxidant capacity of methanol and ethyl acetate extracts of mango ginger can be atributed to good amounts of caffeic acid, gentisic acid, ferulic acid, gallic acid, cinnamic acid, curcumin, demethoxicurcumin, besdemethoxicurcumin, β-myrcene, α-asarone, difurocumenol and amadannulen. The phenolics and other bioactive compounds present in dichloromethane and aqueous extracts of mango ginger may be in a smaller amount, but they have still ability of radical scavenging activity. ...
Article
The Zingiberaceae has the great importance in the plant kingdom because the members of this family give up spices, perfumes, dyes and valuable medicines. Alongside, a number of species of this family are cultivated for flowering. Mango ginger is one of the important species of this family having medicinal and biological properties such as antiageing, antibacterial, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiallergic, antifungal, platelet aggregation inhibition activity and analgesic activity. In Ayurveda and Unani medicines of system, its rhizomes are useful as expectorant, appetizer, alexteric and laxtative. The rhizomes of mango ginger are also used in skin diseases, bronchitis, asthama and inflammatiom. Present examination aims to evaluate and compare antioxidant potential of different extracts of mango ginger using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl assay. In this study, methanol and ethyl acetate extracts of mango ginger rhizomes was estimated as good antioxidant activity which is may be due to phenolics, curcuminoids, essential oil, terpinoids and flavonids present in good amounts in these extracts, whereas dichloromethane and aqueous extracts has very little capability of radical scavenging activity.
... To support our antioxidant results previously also several antioxidant activities of neem (6,(19)(20)(21), tulsi (9,(22)(23)(24) and cow urine (5,(25)(26)(27) are studied. The synergistic antioxidant activity of tulsi, ginger, tea, and black pepper is studied by Gupta et al. (28) ...
Article
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Background: Neem (Azadirachta indica), Tulsi (Ocimum sanctum) and Cow urine (Bos indicus) has been widely used as a therapeutic potential or additive agent in different ethnomedicinal practices as well as modern science also proved its therapeutic potential to treat various diseases and balance the body conditions. Aims: Alone study on Neem, Tulsi and Cow urine (CU) has been widely performed but this study aims to evaluate the individual as well as synergistic antioxidant and antibacterial activity of Neem, and Tulsi's leaves extract in different organic solvents and Cow urine. Materials and Methods: Antioxidant activity was carried out by using 2,2-Diphenyl1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity and the antibacterial activity was tested by the agar disc diffusion method against gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus) and gram-negative (Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris and Klebsiella species) bacteria. Results: The antioxidant and antibacterial activity is concentration-dependent. The neem extract in chloroform shows the highest ZOI against S. aureus (14±2). Similarly, the neem extract in cow urine (8±0.86) and tulsi extract in methanol (8±1.04) shows the highest ZOI against E. coli. Against K. species cow urine is most effective (9±0.29) followed by neem extract in chloroform and cow urine (8±0.77). In P. vulgaris almost all sample shows ZOI around 7 mm. In synergistic antibacterial study tulsi and neem extract in cow urine shows the highest ZOI against E. coli (12±1.75) and P. vulgaris (10±1.44). The tulsi and neem extract in hexane is not effective against S. aureus and E. coli but effective in P. vulgaris and K. species (ZOI 7 mm). Tulsi and neem extract in chloroform, methanol, and cow urine show similar ZOI (9 mm). In DPPH free radical scavenging activity the methanolic extract of tulsi shows the highest inhibition of free radicle (96.35±0.001), followed by methanolic extract of neem (84.85±0.042). The fresh cow urine inhibits (25.19±0.037) followed by neem extract in chloroform (24.53±0.003), neem ext ract in cow urine (21.8±0.012), tulsi extract in chloroform (20.86±0.047), tulsi extract in hexane 19.5±0.031), tulsi extract in cow urine (18.33±0.023) and the least inhibition by neem extract in hexane (6.74±0.042). Conclusion: This study concludes that the neem, tulsi and cow urine has good antioxidant and antibacterial activity individually as well as synergistically and the effect is concentration-dependent. Hence the combination formulation could be a better option to study deep in the future.
... Potensi sinergisitas antioksidan juga ditunjukkan oleh ekstrak air dari campuran jahe, teh, lada hitam, dan tulsi meskipun masih lebih rendah dari ekstrak metanolnya. Sinergisitas tersebut terlihat dari aktivitas antioksidan yang paling tinggi dibandingkan dengan individual atau campuran lainnya (Gupta et al. 2014). Minuman campuran dari jahe, coklat, dan bunga Hibiscus memperlihatkan sifat antioksidan yang tinggi baik pada ekstrak air dingin atau air panasnya, meskipun penambahan jahe dinilai tidak mempengaruhi peningkatan aktivitas antioksidan secara signifikan (Awe et al. 2013). ...
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Tulsi (Ocimum sanctum Linn.) herb has been known from as early as the Vedic period. Its extract has numerous pharmacological activities like hypoglycaemic, immunomodulatory, antistress, analgesic, antipyretic, anti-inflammatory, anti-ulcerogenic, antihypertensive, CNS depressant, radioprotective, antitumour and antibacterial. The active constituents of the herb include volatile oil chiefly eugenol and β-caryophyllene, flavonoids and a number of other components present in fixed oil. This article outlines the present knowledge of pharmacological and other studies on this plant. © 2014, National Institute of Science Communication and Information Resources (NISCAIR). All rights reserved.
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Water and ethanol crude extracts from black pepper (Piper nigrum) were investigated for their antioxidant and radical scavenging activities in six different assay, namely, total antioxidant activity, reducing power, 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging, superoxide anion radical scavenging, hydrogen peroxide scavenging, and metal chelating activities. Both water extract (WEBP) and ethanol extract (EEBP) of black pepper exhibited strong total antioxidant activity. The 75 microg/ml concentration of WEBP and EEBP showed 95.5% and 93.3% inhibition on peroxidation of linoleic acid emulsion, respectively. On the other hand, at the same concentration, standard antioxidants such as butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and alpha-tocopherol exhibited 92.1%, 95.0%, and 70.4% inhibition on peroxidation of linoleic acid emulsion, respectively. Also, total phenolic content in both WEBP and EEBP were determined as gallic acid equivalents. The total phenolics content of water and ethanol extracts were determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu procedure and 54.3 and 42.8 microg gallic acid equivalent of phenols was detected in 1 mg WEBP and EEBP.
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The antioxidative activity of a total of 92 phenolic extracts from edible and nonedible plant materials (berries, fruits, vegetables, herbs, cereals, tree materials, plant sprouts, and seeds) was examined by autoxidation of methyl linoleate. The content of total phenolics in the extracts was determined spectrometrically according to the Folin-Ciocalteu procedure and calculated as gallic acid equivalents (GAE). Among edible plant materials, remarkable high antioxidant activity and high total phenolic content (GAE > 20 mg/g) were found in berries, especially aronia and crowberry. Apple extracts (two varieties) showed also strong antioxidant activity even though the total phenolic contents were low (GAE < 12.1 mg/g). Among nonedible plant materials, high activities were found in tree materials, especially in willow bark, spruce needles, pine bark and cork, and birch phloem, and in some medicinal plants including heather, bog-rosemary, willow herb, and meadowsweet. In addition, potato peel and beetroot peel extracts showed strong antioxidant effects. To utilize these significant sources of natural antioxidants, further characterization of the phenolic composition is needed.
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The 70% aqueous acetone extracts of ten Taiwanese native plants were evaluated by various antioxidant assays, including 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), hydroxyl (.OH) radicals, and reducing power assay. In the present study, extracts of Acer buerferianum var. formosanum, Cleyera japonica var. morii, Cyclobalanopsis stenophylla var. stenophylloides, and Machilus zuihoensis exhibited stronger activity against DPPH radicals, and their IC50 values ranged from 5.4 to 8.3 microg/ml. The ten selected extracts effectively inhibited the formation of .OH generated in the Fenton reaction system. Among the extracts whose reducing power activities were determined, A. buerferianum var. formosanum, C. japonica var. morii, C. stenophylla var. stenophylloides, Eriobotrya deflex, and M. zuihoensis showed high activity. The results indicate the 70% aqueous acetone extracts of A. buerferianum var. formosanum, C. japonica var. morii, C. stenophylla var. stenophylloides, and M. zuihoensis with great potency in these assay systems and may be candidates for the development of natural antioxidants.
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Tea, in the form of green or black tea, is one of the most widely consumed beverages in the world. Extracts of tea leaves also are sold as dietary supplements. However, with the increasing interest in the health properties of tea and a significant rise in scientific investigation, this review covers recent findings on the medicinal properties and noncancer health benefits of both green and black tea. In Part II, a review of anticancer properties of green tea extracts is presented. Green tea contains a unique set of catechins that possess biological activity in antioxidant, anti-angiogenesis, and antiproliferative assays potentially relevant to the prevention and treatment of various forms of cancer. Although there has been much focus on the biological properties of the major tea catechin epigallocatechin gallate (EGCg) and its antitumor properties, tea offers other health benefits; some due to the presence of other important constituents. Characteristics unrelated to the antioxidant properties of green and black teas may be responsible for tea's anticancer activity and improvement in cardiac health and atherosclerosis. Theanine in green tea may play a role in reducing stress. Oxidized catechins (theaflavins in black tea) may reduce cholesterol levels in blood. Synergistic properties of green tea extracts with other sources of polyphenolic constituents are increasingly recognized as being potentially important to the medicinal benefits of black and green teas. Furthermore, due to presumed antioxidant and antiaging properties, tea is now finding its way into topical preparations. Each of these aspects is surveyed.
Antioxidant activity of black pepper (Piper nigrum L.) oil obtained by supercritical CO2 In: III Iberoamerican conference on surpercritical fluids. Cartagena de Indias (Colombia)
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Andrade KS, Ferreira SRS. Antioxidant activity of black pepper (Piper nigrum L.) oil obtained by supercritical CO2 In: III Iberoamerican conference on surpercritical fluids. Cartagena de Indias (Colombia), 2013; 1-5.
The antioxidant and radical scavenging activities of black pepper seeds
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Glucin I. The antioxidant and radical scavenging activities of black pepper seeds. Int J Food Sci Nutr 2005; 56: 491-499.