Psychosocial, mechanical, and metabolic factors in adolescents’ musculoskeletal pain in multiple locations: A cross-sectional study

ArticleinEuropean journal of pain (London, England) 14(4):395-401 · August 2009with17 Reads
DOI: 10.1016/j.ejpain.2009.06.003 · Source: PubMed
Abstract
Recent studies indicate that adolescents often experience musculoskeletal pains in two or more body locations. However, previous studies have mainly focused on localized pains, and the determinants of multiple musculoskeletal pains in adolescents are not well known. The present study was set to evaluate the role of psychosocial, mechanical, and metabolic factors in adolescents' musculoskeletal pains in multiple locations. The study population consisted of the 1986 Northern Finland Birth Cohort; 15- to 16-year-old adolescents (n=6986), who responded to a mailed questionnaire in 2001. We assessed the associations of emotional and behavioral problems, physical activity, sitting time, sleeping time, overweight and smoking with musculoskeletal pains using multinomial logistic regression. Multiple pains were common, 23% of boys and 40% of girls reported feeling pain in at least three locations over the past 6 months. These pains were not only associated with anxious/depressed symptoms, withdrawn/depressed symptoms, somatic complaints, rule-breaking and aggressive behavior, social problems, thought and attention problems, but also with high physical activity level, long sitting time, short sleeping time and smoking, among both boys and girls. In addition, pain in three to four locations associated with overweight in girls. A high number of psychosocial, mechanical and metabolic factors associated strongly with multiple pains. In conclusion, multiple musculoskeletal pains were strongly associated with psychosocial complaints, but also with mechanical and metabolic factors. Reported musculoskeletal pains in multiple locations in adolescence may have both peripheral (trauma, decreased regenerative ability) and central (sensitivity) causes.
    • "Eventually, more insight herein could contribute to the development of effective prevention strategies for pain in young people. It is unknown whether the association between sleep problems and pain is symptom-or gender- specific [13,44] Sleep problems have been associated with musculoskeletal pain, headaches, and abdominal pain in cross-sectional studies [25,35,51]. Yet, almost all longitudinal studies concerned musculoskeletal pain [4,13,22]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sleep and pain are thought to be bidirectional related on a daily basis in adolescents with chronic pain complaints. In addition, sleep problems have been shown to predict the long-term onset of musculoskeletal pain in middle-aged adults. Yet, the long-term effects of sleep problems on pain duration and different types of pain severity in emerging adults (aged 18-25) are unknown. This study investigated the cross-sectional and longitudinal relations between sleep problems and chronic pain, and musculoskeletal pain, headache, and abdominal pain severity in a general population of emerging adults. We studied whether these relations were moderated by sex, and if symptoms of anxiety and depression, fatigue, or physical inactivity mediated these effects. Data of participants from the longitudinal Dutch TRacking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey were used. Follow-up data were collected in 1753 participants who participated in the fourth (N=1668, mean age: 19.0 years [SD=0.6]) and/or fifth (N=1501, mean age: 22.3 years [SD=0.6]) assessment wave. Autoregressive cross-lagged models were used for analyses. Sleep problems were associated with chronic pain, musculoskeletal pain, headache and abdominal pain severity, and predicted chronic pain and an increase in musculoskeletal pain severity at three years follow up. This prospective effect was stronger in females than in males, and was mediated by fatigue but not by symptoms of anxiety and depression or physical inactivity. Only abdominal pain had a small long-term effect on sleep problems. Our results suggest that sleep problems may be an additional target for treatment in female emerging adults with musculoskeletal pain complaints.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2015
    • "Our purpose was to summarize the complex cortisol data in a parsimonious manner, as done in previous studies with GBTM using time-based cortisol data [35, 36]. As there are sex differences in pain and cortisol responses, males and females were modelled separ- ately [17, 26, 29]. The GBTM with one to five latent groups was assessed in both sexes. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background In this study, we investigated whether an abnormal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis response to psychosocial stress at 18 years of age is associated with musculoskeletal (MS) pain alone and MS pain combined with increased pain sensitivity at 22 years of age. Methods The study sample included 805 participants from the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study who participated in the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) at age 18 years. Number of pain sites, pain duration, pain intensity and pain frequency were assessed at age 22 to measure severity of MS pain. Cold and pressure pain thresholds were determined at age 22. Group-based trajectory modeling was applied to establish cortisol response patterns based on the TSST. Logistic regression was used to study the association of TSST patterns with MS pain alone and MS pain combined with increased cold or pressure pain sensitivity, adjusted for relevant confounding factors. All analyses were stratified by sex. Results The mean (standard deviation) age during the TSST was 18.3 (0.3) years, and during MS pain assessment it was 22.2 (0.6). Forty-five percent of the participants were female. Three cortisol response patterns were identified, with cluster 1 (34 % of females, 21 % of males) reflecting hyporesponse, cluster 2 (47 %, 54 %) reflecting intermediate response and cluster 3 (18 %, 24 %) reflecting hyperresponse of the HPA axis. MS pain was reported by 42 % of females and 33 % of males at age 22 years. Compared with females in cluster 2, females in cluster 1 had an increased likelihood of having any MS pain (odds ratio 2.3, 95 % confidence interval 1.0–5.0) and more severe MS pain (2.8, 1.1–6.8) if their cold pain threshold was above the median. In addition, females in cluster 1 had an increased likelihood (3.5, 1.3–9.7) of having more severe MS pain if their pressure pain threshold was below the median. No statistically significant associations were observed in males. Conclusions This study suggests that a hyporesponsive HPA axis at age 18 years is associated with MS pain at 22 years in young females with increased pain sensitivity.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2015
    • "Sedentary activity had a stronger association to musculoskeletal pain compared to low physical activity, which we found significant in females in the univariate analysis. This is in contrast to Hoftun et al. who found it so in both genders [11] and to Paananen et al. who found high physical activity to be associated with musculoskeletal pain [9]. In regard to our post hoc results one can argue that both groups are at higher risk, but hypothesize that it is more likely due to mechanical factors, such as injuries, in highly active individuals. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background Pain is common in otherwise healthy adolescents. In recent years widespread musculoskeletal pain, in contrast to single site pain, and associating factors has been emphasized. Musculoskeletal pain has not been examined in Arctic indigenous adolescents. The aim of this study was to explore the prevalence of widespread musculoskeletal pain and its association with psychosocial factors, with emphasis on gender- and ethnic differences (Sami vs. non-Sami), and the influence of pain related functional impairment. Methods This is a cross-sectional study based on The Norwegian Arctic Adolescent Health Study; a school-based survey responded by 4,881 10th grade students (RR: 83%) in North Norway, in 2003–2005. 10% were indigenous Sami. Musculoskeletal pain was based on reported pain in the head, shoulder/neck, back and/or arm/knee/leg, measured by the number of pain sites. Linear multiple regression was used for the multivariable analyses. Results The prevalence of musculoskeletal pain was high, and significantly higher in females. In total, 22.4% reported 3–4 pain sites. We found a strong association between musculoskeletal pain sites and psychosocial problems, with a higher explained variance in those reporting pain related functional impairment and in females. There were no major differences in the prevalence of musculoskeletal pain in Sami and non-Sami, however the associating factors differed somewhat between the indigenous and non-indigenous group. The final multivariable model, for the total sample, explained 21.2% of the variance of musculoskeletal pain. Anxiety/depression symptoms was the dominant factor associated with musculoskeletal pain followed by negative life events and school-related stress. Conclusions Anxiety/depression, negative life events, and school-related stress were the most important factors associated with musculoskeletal pain, especially in those reporting pain related functional impairment. The most important sociocultural aspect is the finding that the indigenous Sami are not worse off.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2014
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