ArticlePDF Available

DPPH free radical scavenging activity of tomato, cherry tomato and watermelon: lycopene extraction, purification and quantification

Authors:

Abstract and Figures

Objective: The present study was aimed to evaluate the antioxidant activity and nutritional quality of tomato (Lycopersicum Esculentum), cherry tomato (Solanum Lycopersicum var. cerasiforme) and watermelon (Citrullus Lanatus) fruits. Lycopene was extracted, purified and characterized. Methods: Antioxidant evaluation was carried out using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging assay. Lycopene was extracted with two extraction methods: acetone-petroleum ether and hexane extraction. Lycopene was purified on grade II alumina by column chromatography, which was evaluated by TLC. Elucidation of functional groups in lycopene was done by FTIR Spectroscopy. Results: The results showed variation in nutritional quality and antioxidant potential among these fruits. Tomato and cherry tomato exhibited high antioxidant activity which was closely followed by watermelon. In DPPH assay, all fruit samples exhibited better antioxidant activity in water than in methanol. Hexane extraction gave better yield of lycopene for all the three fruits. The highest lycopene content was recorded in cherry tomato. The pure lycopene content was calculated to be 55.84mg/kg, 74.53mg/kg and 88.87mg/kg in tomato, watermelon and cherry tomato, respectively. Elucidation of functional groups in lycopene was done by FTIR Spectroscopy. Conclusion: The results of the study showed that tomato, watermelon and cherry tomato, possess significant antioxidant activity. These results showed that the potential of these fruits should be used as medicine against the diseases caused by free radicals.
Content may be subject to copyright.
Research Article
DPPH FREE RADICAL SCAVENGING ACTIVITY OF TOMATO, CHERRY TOMATO AND
WATERMELON: LYCOPENE EXTRACTION, PURIFICATION AND QUANTIFICATION
TEHNIAT SHAHZAD, IJAZ AHMAD*, SHAHNAZ CHOUDHRY, MUHAMMAD K SAEED, MUHAMMAD N KHAN
Department of Biotechnology, Kinnaird College for Women, Lahore, Food and Biotechnology Research Centre, PCSIR Laboratories
Complex, Lahore, Pakistan, Applied Chemistry Research Centre, PCSIR Laboratories Complex, Lahore, Pakistan.
Email: ijazft@hotmail.com
Received: 08 Oct 2013, Revised and Accepted: 20 Jan 2014
ABSTRACT
Objective: The present study was aimed to evaluate the antioxidant activity and nutritional quality of tomato (Lycopersicum Esculentum), cherry
tomato (Solanum Lycopersicum var. cerasiforme) and watermelon (Citrullus Lanatus) fruits. Lycopene was extracted, purified and characterized.
Methods: Antioxidant evaluation was carried out using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging assay. Lycopene was extracted
with two extraction methods: acetone-petroleum ether and hexane extraction. Lycopene was purified on grade II alumina by column
chromatography, which was evaluated by TLC. Elucidation of functional groups in lycopene was done by FTIR Spectroscopy.
Results: The results showed variation in nutritional quality and antioxidant potential among these fruits. Tomato and cherry tomato exhibited high
antioxidant activity which was closely followed by watermelon. In DPPH assay, all fruit samples exhibited better antioxidant activity in water than
in methanol. Hexane extraction gave better yield of lycopene for all the three fruits. The highest lycopene content was recorded in cherry tomato.
The pure lycopene content was calculated to be 55.84mg/kg, 74.53mg/kg and 88.87mg/kg in tomato, watermelon and cherry tomato, respectively.
Elucidation of functional groups in lycopene was done by FTIR Spectroscopy.
Conclusion: The results of the study showed that tomato, watermelon and cherry tomato, possess significant antioxidant activity. These results
showed that the potential of these fruits should be used as medicine against the diseases caused by free radicals.
Keywords: Antioxidant activity, DPPH free radical scavenging assay, lycopene, TLC, FTIR Spectroscopy.
INTRODUCTION
Tomato (Lycopersicum Esculentum) is one of the world’s major
fruits. It is an excellent source of many nutrients and secondary
metabolites including folate, potassium, vitamins C and E,
flavonoids, β-carotene and lycopene which are essential for human
health [1].
Cherry tomato (Solanum Lycopersicum var. cerasiforme) is small in
size, has a sweeter taste and offers several significant nutritional
benefits. [2] noted that cherry tomatoes have intense color and
flavor, generally round in shape and weighing 10 to 30 g. Cherry
tomato (Solanum Lycopersicum) contains ascorbic acid, vitamin E,
flavonoids, phenolic acids and carotenoids [3]; also, is a major
source of vitamins, minerals and fiber, important for nutrition and
human health [4], and is the main source of lycopene [5]. Cherry
tomato contained significantly (p ≤ 0.05) higher nutrients including
fiber [6].
Watermelon (Citrullus Lanatus) is an important fruit vegetable in the
warmer regions of the world [7]. It has a juicy, sweet, usually red
interior flesh. [8] noted that red fleshed watermelons are an
excellent source of lycopene. Lycopene is the compound that is
responsible for red color of watermelon [9]. Watermelon is a key
source of lycopene [10].
The presence of carotenoids in the diet and their role in human
health has become a subject of extraordinary interest. Carotenoids
are beneficial in cardiovascular health [11]. The foods containing
lycopene may be beneficial in cardiovascular disease [12].
Carotenoids, due to their unique structure, protect tissues against
oxidative and photooxidative damage by free radicals or reactive
oxygen species produced as a result of the metabolic and
pathological processes [13].
Lycopene has unique structural and chemical features that
contribute to specific biological characteristics [14]. Carotenoids
have antioxidant properties and potential health benefits, selecting
varieties with high concentration of carotenoids is important for
breeding lines [9]. Carotenoids may be available from the diet and
absorbed, metabolized, or utilized by the human body [15].
Lycopene is a red-colored carotenoid with antioxidant properties
and potential health benefits [16]. Lycopene is a primary carotenoid
in human plasma, present naturally in greater amounts than β-
carotene and other dietary carotenoids. This perhaps is an
indication of its biological importance in the human defense system
[17]. Lycopene is major carotenoid pigment found in ripe tomato
and watermelon fruit [18]. A diet containing whole tomato powder
and dietary restriction inhibited the development of prostate cancer,
however a diet containing pure synthetic lycopene supplement
could not [19]. Lycopene may inhibit growth of prostate tumor [20],
provide protecting effects to maintain prostrate health [21] and
lower the risk of lung cancer in human [22]. Lycopene is a bioactive
red colored pigment naturally occurring in plants. Lycopene-rich
food is inversely associated to diseases such as cancers,
cardiovascular diseases, diabetes and others diseases [23].
Lycopene, the predominant carotenoid found in tomatoes, showed
high antioxidant ability and may prevent cancer. In vivo studies have
revealed that lycopene inhibits tumor growth in the liver, lung,
prostate, breast, and colon. Clinical studies have shown that
lycopene protects against prostate cancer [24].
The higher level of antioxidants in the skin effectively reduces skin
roughness [25]. Tomato paste containing lycopene provides
protection against photo damage [26]. Diets rich in carotenoids can
prevent cell damage, premature skin aging, and skin cancer.
Topically applied antioxidants have shown an increase in radical
protection after VIS/NIR irradiation [27]. Lycopene is fat-soluble
[14] and well-absorbed if applied externally (e.g. in a cream or
lotion). Thus, lycopene is an essential nutraceutical compound that
provides significant health and medical benefits. Lycopene is
generally stable during processing as long as it is within the plant
tissue. The data about lycopene bioavailability, tissue distribution,
metabolism, and biological actions in experimental animals and
humans is being accumulated. However, much additional research is
still needed [14].
The extraction and purification of lycopene is essential to use it in
medicines, supplements, food ingredients and skin care creams etc.
The local varieties of tomato and watermelon are easily available in
the market. Keeping in view the nutraceutical importance of
International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences
ISSN- 0975-1491 Vol 6, Suppl 2, 2014
Academic Sciences
Ahmad et al.
Int J Pharm Pharm Sci, Vol 6, Suppl 2, 223-228
224
lycopene, this study was undertaken with the objective to evaluate
the contents and quality of lycopene in tomato, cherry tomato and
watermelon to generate useful information on qualitative and
quantitative aspects of lycopene from these fruits.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Materials
2, 2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and BHT were purchased
from Sigma Chemical Co (St Louis, MO, USA). All other chemicals
used, including solvents, were of analytical grade. Tomato and
watermelon were purchased from the local market. Cherry tomato
(imported from France) was also purchased from local market.
Preparation of samples
The fruit samples were chopped and homogenized in a laboratory
homogenizer to a paste-like consistency. To prepare powder,
samples were chopped and dehydrated in cabinet dryer (70oC) with
circulating hot air and ground in laboratory grinder.
Nutritional analysis
The nutritional analysis of samples were carried out for moisture
content, total ash, crude protein (nitrogen x 6.25), crude fat, crude
fiber, carbohydrate and energy value according to standard methods
of [28].
Antioxidant activity (DPPH assay)
The solubility of dehydrated samples (tomato, watermelon and
cherry tomato powders) was checked in distilled water, methanol
and distilled water-methanol solution (50% v/v). The samples were
more soluble in water and in methanol. So these were used for DPPH
assay. The purple colored DPPH is a stable free radical, which is
reduced to 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazine (yellow colored) by
reacting with an antioxidant [29]. A concentration of 1mg/ml was
prepared by adding 0.02 g sample in 20 ml distilled water or
methanol. This spectrophotometric assay uses the stable radical 2,
2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) as a reagent [30]. Sample
(100μl) was added to 3 ml of DPPH solution. After 30 min incubation
period at room temperature, the absorbance was read against blank
at 517 nm. The percentage inhibition of free radical (DPPH) was
calculated as under:
Inhibition % (DPPH) = (Ablank -Asample/ Ablank) x 100
Where, A=Absorbance.
Acetone-petroleum ether extraction
Sample (1.0-1.5 g powder) was extracted with 10mL acetone-
petroleum ether (50% v/v). The upper lycopene-containing organic
layer was removed by means of a pipette and collected in test tube.
Extraction was repeated. The extracts were combined, washed with
15mL saturated aqueous sodium chloride (NaCl) and removed the
aqueous wash with a micropipette. The extract was washed with
10mL of 10% aqueous potassium carbonate (K2CO3) and removed
the aqueous wash. The lycopene-containing organic layer was dried
with a drying agent (calcium chloride). The excess solvent was
allowed to evaporate at room temperature for a few minutes in the
dark. The tubes containing lycopene extracts were covered with
aluminum foil and stored in freezer until further analysis [31].
Hexane extraction
Sample (0.3 to 0.6 g powder) was weighed in a beaker, 5 mL BHT-
acetone solution (0.05%, w/v), 5 mL ethanol and 10 mL hexane was
added. The beaker was placed in a bowl of ice on a magnetic stirring
plate, stirred for 15 min and added 3 mL distilled water. It was
shaken for 5 min on ice and incubated at room temperature for 5
min to allow the separation of both phases. The upper layer
containing lycopene was isolated by means of a pipette and collected
in a test tube. The tubes containing lycopene extracts were covered
with aluminum foil and stored in the freezer until further analysis
[32].
UV-VIS Spectrophotometry
The absorbance value at 503nm was used for the determination of
lycopene content in tomato, cherry tomato and watermelon [33]. In
one quartz cuvette (1 cm optical path), hexane was use as blank.
Three absorbance values were obtained. The results were calculated
by using the formula (Beer-Lambert law) [32]. Absorbance values of
four fractions obtained by column chromatography were noted at
360, 443, 471 and 503nm [34].
Lycopene content (mg/kg) = Absorbance503 ×31.2
Column chromatography
Lycopene obtained by acetone-petroleum ether extraction from
tomato, cherry tomato and watermelon was purified by column
chromatography using Plastic column (20ml). Alumina (Grade II)
was used as adsorbent. Lycopene sample was added to the prepared
column. The column was filled with the solvent and the sample was
eluted from the column. Firstly, the yellow carotene band was eluted
by hexane. The eluting solvent was switched to 10% acetone-hexane
to elute the lycopene from the column [31].
Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC)
TLC was performed on crude lycopene (obtained by extraction) and
pure lycopene (obtained by column chromatography). Silica plates
(MERCK) were prepared by drawing a pencil line 1 cm from the
bottom of the TLC plate. Samples were spotted using glass spotters.
The organic solvent (9:1 petroleum ether and dichloromethane) was
used [35]. TLC plate was placed in the tank for 5-10 min. The edge of
plate was marked to indicate how far the solvent traveled up the
plate. TLC plate was dried in hood, the pigments were marked with a
pencil and the plate was analyzed under UV lamp.
Rf value = distance from origin to component spot (cm)/ distance
from origin to solvent front (cm)
Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy
Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy was performed on
purified lycopene samples. FTIR Spectrometer (BRUKER, Germany)
was used. The liquid samples are sandwiched between two plates.
The plates are transparent to the infrared light and do not introduce
any lines onto the spectra. Standard spectra of the samples were
collected individually [36].
RESULTS
Nutritional analysis
The proximate analysis of edible fruit and vegetables plays a crucial
role in assessing their nutritional significance [37]. The nutritional
tests were performed on fresh sample of whole fruits of tomato and
cherry tomato. However, watermelon pulp, excluding the seeds was
used. The result of nutritional analysis showed variation in
concentration/ proportions of different constituent. Tomato
contained moisture 92.0%, ash 0.56%, protein 1.98%, fat 0.95%,
crude fiber 0.76% and carbohydrate 3.75% (Table 1). Cherry tomato
contained moisture 91.78%, ash 0.70%, proteins 1.77%, fat 0.55%,
crude fiber 0.40% and carbohydrate 4.80%.
Watermelon exhibited moisture 90.95%, ash 0.41%, proteins 0.71%,
fat 0.45%, crude fiber 0.96% and carbohydrate 6.52%. The energy
value was found to be 31.47, 31.23 and 32.97 Kcal/100g in tomato,
cherry tomato and watermelon, respectively.
Antioxidant activity
Antioxidant capacity DPPH radical was used as a stable free
radical to determined antioxidant activity of natural compounds.
According to [38] scavenging of the stable radical ( DPPH) is
considered a valid and easy assay to evaluate scavenging activity
of antioxidants. The antioxidant activity was determined in
terms of the ability of the antioxidants in the fruit to inhibit
oxidation. The comparison of antioxidant activity of fruit
extracts is presented in (Table 2).
Ahmad et al.
Int J Pharm Pharm Sci, Vol 6, Suppl 2, 223-228
225
Table 1: Nutritional values of tomato, cherry tomato and watermelon
Sr. No.
Constituents
Tomato
Cherry tomato
1
Moisture %
92.00
91.78
2
Ash %
0.56
0.70
3
Protein %
1.98
1.77
4
Fat %
0.95
0.55
5
Crude fiber %
0.76
0.40
6
Carbohydrate %
3.75
4.80
7
Energy kcal/100g
31.47
31.23
Table 2: Percent inhibition values and antioxidant activity by DPPH assay
Sr. No.
Fruit (powder)
Solution
Mean absorbance
Antioxidant activity (% inhibition)
1
Tomato
In distilled water
1.1064
44.65
In methanol
1.2457
37.68
2
Cherry tomato
In distilled water
1.2835
44.63
In methanol
1.1068
35.80
3
Watermelon
In distilled water
1.1814
40.90
In methanol
1.2571
37.11
Percent inhibition value of BHT (65.50%) was taken as reference point.
Table 3: Lycopene concentrations of tomato, watermelon and cherry tomato
Sr.
No.
Fruit
Acetone-petroleum ether extraction
Hexane extraction
Absorbance at 503nm
Lycopene mg/kg
Absorbance at 503nm
Lycopene mg/kg
1
Tomato
2.340
71.68
1.110
34.65
2
Cherry tomato
3.433
105.17
2.435
76.01
3
Watermelon
2.788
87.03
1.833
57.22
The antioxidant activity was found to be greater in water (44.65%,
44.63% and 40.90%) than in methanol (37.6 8%, 35.80% and
37.11%) for tomato, cherry tomato and watermelon, respectively
(Table 2).
Quantification of lycopene
Absorbance of the crude extracts was obtained at 503nm for
determining the content of lycopene in tomato, cherry tomato and
watermelon. Previously [33] also measured lycopene concentration
in acetone extracts of tomato at 503nm. The quantitative
spectrophotometric analysis (Table 3) showed that lycopene
contents from tomato, cherry tomato and watermelon obtained by
acetone-petroleum ether extraction were 71.68, 105.17 and 87.03
mg/kg, respectively; which were greater than those obtained by
hexane extractions (34.65, 76.01 and 57.22 mg/kg, respectively). As
higher lycopene concentration was obtained by acetone-petroleum
ether extraction. Thus the samples obtained by acetone-petroleum
ether extraction were purified by column chromatography for
further study
The absorbance values of the four fractions (obtained by column
chromatography) of each fruit at wavelengths 360, 443, 476 and
503nm are given in Table 4. The fraction 3 exhibited the maximum
absorbance (A) value at 476nm for all three fruits which is also a
confirmatory test for lycopene. Hence, fraction 3 was identified to be
the purified lycopene. The absorbance values of purified lycopene
from tomato, cherry tomato and watermelon at 476nm were 2.088,
3.087 and 2.692, respectively (Table 4). The absorbance values of
purified lycopene fraction at 503nm were used to determine the
final concentration of lycopene in tomato, watermelon and cherry
tomato. Cherry tomato exhibited higher Lycopene content 88.87
mg/kg, followed by watermelon 74.53 mg/kg and tomato 55.84
mg/kg (Figure 1)
TLC analysis
The results showed that crude extracts of tomato, watermelon and
cherry tomato also contained pigments other than lycopene. The Rf
values calculated for lycopene from tomato, cherry tomato and
watermelon by acetone-petroleum ether extraction were 0.620,
0.616 and 0.610; however by hexane extraction were 0.603, 0.643
and 0.630, respectively (Table 5).
TLC was performed after column chromatography for confirming
the purified nature of the lycopene. The Rf values calculated for
purified lycopene from tomato, cherry tomato and watermelon were
0.608, 0.615 and 0.608, respectively (Table 5).
55.84
74.53
88.87
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
Tomato Watermelon Cherry
tomato
Lycopene conte nt in mg/kg
lycopene c ontent in
mg/kg
Fig. 1: Purified lycopene contents in mg/kg in tomato, watermelon and cherry tomato
Ahmad et al.
Int J Pharm Pharm Sci, Vol 6, Suppl 2, 223-228
226
Table 4: Absorbance values of tomato, cherry tomato and watermelon fractions (acetone- petroleum ether extraction) obtained by
column chromatography at different wavelengths
Wavelength (nm)
Fraction 1
Fraction 2
Fraction 3 (lycopene)
Fraction 4
Absorbance values of tomato
360
0.110
0.163
1.434
0.151
443
0.043
0.155
1.634
0.069
476
0.038
0.153
2.088
0.066
503
0.036
0.123
1.823
0.065
Absorbance values of cherry tomato
360
0.141
0.255
1.521
0.147
443
0.076
0.494
1.940
0.087
476
0.073
0.574
3.087
0.084
503
0.072
0.410
2.901
0.081
Absorbance values of watermelon
360
0.154
0.195
1.296
0.165
443
0.078
0.185
1.905
0.091
476
0.072
0.184
2.692
0.090
503
0.070
0.122
2.433
0.088
Table 5: Rf values for tomato, watermelon and cherry tomato
Fruit
Before purification
After purification
Acetone-petroleum ether extraction
(Rf)
Hexane extraction (Rf)
Acetone petroleum-ether extraction (Rf)
Tomato
0.620
0.603
0.608
Cherry tomato
0.616
0.643
0.615
Watermelon
0.610
0.630
0.608
Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR)
Functional group analysis of the extracts from tomato, cherry
tomato and watermelon was performed via FTIR spectroscopy. The
IR spectra of extracted lycopene of tomato, cherry tomato and
watermelon showed typical bands arising from CH stretching (3000-
2800 cm-1). Other bands occurred at 1477-1400 cm-1 (C-H bending)
and 1400-1100 cm-1 (C-C and C-C-H stretching). Strong and broad
absorption bands of water were shown in the 3700-3500 cm-1.
DISCUSSION
Nutritional analysis of Pakistani tomato and watermelon, and
imported cherry tomato available in the Pakistani market revealed
that moisture contributed more to the fresh fruit weight. Cherry
tomato exhibited higher ash contents, indicating that it is relatively
rich in minerals. The nutritional analysis of tomato was found to be
in close conformity with the data already reported by [39]. They
found moisture 92-94%, protein 1-2%, fiber 0.4-0.7%, ash 0.4-0.6%
and fat 1-2% in tomato. Tomatoes are low in fat and rich source of
dietary fiber, minerals, and vitamins. Therefore, intake of tomato in
human diet is advised in cholesterol controlling and weight
reduction programs. The minor differences in the nutritional
composition may be due to the difference in the fruit variety, origin
and growth conditions. Antioxidants through their scavenging
power are useful for the management of various diseases. The
antioxidant activity was determined in terms of the ability of the
antioxidants in the fruit to inhibit oxidation. Percentage inhibition of
tomato and cherry tomato was found to be at par followed by
watermelon. Furthermore, better antioxidant activity was exhibited
in aqueous solutions than in organic solvent (methanol).
Acetone-petroleum ether extraction resulted in higher crude
lycopene yield than hexane extraction. During purification by
column chromatography, lycopene had more affinity with alumina
due to its high degree of unsaturation and was eluted after yellow-
orange carotene pigments. A typical carotenoid such as lycopene
displays maximum absorbance at 476nm [40]. Spectrophotometry
results revealed that lycopene showed maximum absorbance at
476nm, followed closely by absorbance at 503nm. The purified
lycopene content was found to be the maximum in cherry tomato
(88.87 mg/kg) as compared to Pakistani tomato (55.84 mg/kg) and
watermelon (74.53 mg/kg) (Fig 2). Lycopene content in tomato
ranges from 55 to 181 mg/kg [41], 4.31 to 5.97 mg/100 g fw [42].
Lycopene content varied significantly among the tomato varieties,
with cherry tomato having the highest lycopene content [3] and
depends on the variety, geographic location, technique of cultivation,
climatic conditions and degree of ripeness of tomato fruit [3, 41].
The results for lycopene contents in watermelon are also in
agreement with those reported by [43]. According to [44] 'Classica' a
Roma type of organically grown tomato, was highest in lycopene
content (106 mg/kg) and the other cultivars had 50-60mg/kg
lycopene in soft red fruit. Cherry tomatoes was analyzed by [45] for
antioxidant activity. They found significant differences among
different cultivars with respect to lycopene. The antioxidant activity
is mainly due to lycopene, and other pigments such as B-carotene
and xanthophylls also contribute to this activity [38]. Lycopene was
found in significant quantities in tomato, cherry tomato and
watermelon. These fruits also exhibited powerful antioxidant
activity indicating that lycopene is a major contributor of
antioxidant capacities of these fruits.
TLC of the purified samples resulted in only one pigment on the TLC
plate. Rf values calculated for the purified lycopene were 0.608,
0.615 and 0.608 for tomato, cherry tomato and watermelon,
respectively. The Rf values for lycopene are comparable with [46].
Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy is a well-
established, nondestructive technique for analyzing agricultural and
food products. It enables the identification of the functional groups
in the compounds. This method allows at least partial identification
of a compound’s chemical structure [36]. All these three spectra
showed typical bands arising as a result of CH stretching (3000-
2800 cm-1). Other bands occurred at 1477-1400 cm-1 (C-H bending)
and 1400-1100 cm-1 (C-C and C-C-H stretching). Strong and broad
absorption bands of water were shown in 3700-3000 cm-1. Purified
lycopene in all the three fruits displayed similar spectra. Thus FTIR
revealed that lycopene purified in all the three cases possessed the
same chemical entities.
CONCLUSIONS
The antioxidant activity of tomato, cherry tomato and watermelon
was measured in water and methanol extracts. These fruits vary in
antioxidant activity; however, high activity was recorded in tomato
and cherry tomato followed by watermelon. The aqueous solution
was found to be better solvent than methanol for antioxidant activity
of these fruits. Acetone-petroleum ether extraction was found better
for high lycopene yield than hexane extraction. Purified lycopene
Ahmad et al.
Int J Pharm Pharm Sci, Vol 6, Suppl 2, 223-228
227
can be easily obtained through single column purification. Tomato,
cherry tomato and watermelon also exhibited high lycopene
contents indicating that lycopene is major contributor of antioxidant
capacities of these fruits. The results of the present study suggests
that these fruits contained potential antioxidant bioactive
compounds particularly lycopene, which if properly utilized could
provide source of biologically active nutraceutical ingredient/
medicine application. It also shows its titanic importance as
therapeutic agent in preventing or curing the diseases caused due to
oxidative stress.
REFERENCES
1. Lumpkin HM. A comparison of lycopene and other
phytochemicals in tomatoes grown under conventional and
organic management systems. Technical Bulletin No. 34.
AVRDC publication number 05-623. Shanhua, Taiwan: AVRDC-
the World Vegetable Center 2005; p. 48.
2. Nuez F. Desarrollo de nuevos cultivares. In: F. Nuez (ed.). El
cultivo del tomate 1999; p. 625-669.
3. Kuti JO, Konuru HB. Effects of genotype and cultivation
environment on lycopene content in red-ripe tomatoes. Journal
of the Science of Food and Agriculture 2005; 85: 2021-2026.
4. Razdan M, Mattoo AK. Genetic improvement of solanaceous
crops. Vol. 2. Tomato. Science Publishers, Enfield, NH, USA
2007; p. 646.
5. Candelas MG, Alanis MJ, Bautista M, Del Rio F, García D.
Contenido de licopeno en jugo de tomate secado por aspersión.
Revista Mexicana de Ingeniería Química 2008; 4 (3): 299-307.
6. Opara UL, Al-Ani MR, Al-Rahbi NM. Effect of Fruit Ripening
Stage on Physico-Chemical Properties, Nutritional Composition
and Antioxidant Components of Tomato (Lycopersicum
esculentum) Cultivars. Food and Bioprocess Technology 2012;
5 (8): 3236-3243.
7. Paris HS, Daunay M-C, Janick J. Medieval iconography of
watermelons in Mediterranean Europe. Annals of Botany 2013;
112: 867-879.
8. Perkins-Veazie P, Collins J. Flesh quality and lycopene stability
of fresh-cut watermelon. Postharvest Biology and Technology
Journal 2004; 31 (2): 158-166.
9. Davis AR, Collins JK, Fish WW, Webber III CL, Perkins-Veazie P,
Tadmor YK. A rapid hexane-free method for analyzing total
carotenoid content in canary yellow-fleshed watermelon. In:
Cucurbitaceae: Proceedings, Asheville, North Carolina.
September 17-21, 2006; p. 545-552.
10. Vaughn KLS, Edgar CC, Jerry WK, Luke R, Julie C. Extraction
conditions affecting supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) of
lycopene from watermelon. Journal of Bio-resource Technology
2008; 99 (16): 7835-7841.
11. Kraemer K, Packer L, Sies H, and Ute O-J. Carotenoids and
Retinoids: Molecular Aspects and Health Issues. Illinois, USA:
AOCS Publishing. AOCS Press Champaign; 2005.
12. Peter L and Erdman Jr JW. Lycopene and risk of cardiovascular
disease. Oxidants and antioxidants in biology: A conference
organized by the Oxygen Club of California (OCC) and co-
sponsored by the Linus Pauling Institute. Fess Parker’s Double
Tree Resort Santa Barbara, California. March 10-13, 2004.
13. Dembinska-Kiec A. Carotenoids: risk or benefit for health.
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 2005; 1740: 93-94.
14. Chauhan K, Sharma S, Agarwal N, Chauhan B. Lycopene of
tomato fame: its role in health and disease. International
Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences Review and Research 2011;
10 (1): 99-115.
15. Khachik F. 2004. Chemical and Metabolic Oxidation of Carotenoids.
Oxidants and antioxidants in biology: A conference organized by
the Oxygen Club of California (OCC) and co-sponsored by the Linus
Pauling Institute. Fess Parker’s Double Tree Resort Santa Barbara,
California. 10-13 March, 2004.
16. Davis AR, Fish WW, Perkins-Veazie P. A rapid Hexane-free
method for analyzing lycopene content in watermelon. Journal
of Food science 2003; 68 (1): 328-332.
17. Wilcox JK, Catignani GL, Lazarus C. Tomatoes and
cardiovascular health. Critical Reviews in Food Science and
Nutrition 2003; 43 (1): 1-18.
18. Shi J, Le Maguer M, Bryan M. Lycopene from Tomatoes in
Functional Foods: Biochemical and Processing Aspects. CRC
Press, Boca Raton. 2002.
19. Boileau TW, Liao Z, Kim S, Lemeshow S, Erdman Jr JW, Clinton
SK. Prostate carcinogenesis in N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (NMU)-
testosterone-treated rats fed tomato powder, lycopene, or
energy-restricted diets. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2003; 95: 1578-86.
20. Obermuller-Jevic U, Olano-Martin E, Weerden WV, Kramer K,
Cross CE, Schroder FH, Packer L. Lycopene and Prostate Health.
Oxidants and antioxidants in biology: A conference organized
by the Oxygen Club of California (OCC) and co-sponsored by
the Linus Pauling Institute. Fess Parker’s Double Tree Resort
Santa Barbara, California. March 10-13, 2004.
21. Stacewicz-Sapuntzakis M, Bowen PE. Role of lycopene and
tomato products in prostate health. Biochimica et Biophysica
Acta 2005; 1740: 202-205.
22. Wang X-D. Biological activity of lycopene against smoke-induced
lung lesions. Oxidants and antioxidants in biology: A conference
organized by the Oxygen Club of California (OCC) and co-sponsored
by the Linus Pauling Institute. Fess Parker’s Double Tree Resort
Santa Barbara, California. March 10-13, 2004.
23. Kong KW, Khoo HE, Prasad KN, Ismail A, Tan CP, Rajab NF.
Revealing the power of the natural red pigment lycopene.
Molecules 2010: 15 (2): 959-987.
24. Trejo-Solís C, Pedraza-Chaverrí J, Torres-Ramos M, Jiménez-
Farfán D, Salgado AC, Serrano-García N, Osorio-Rico L, Sotelo1
J. Multiple Molecular and Cellular Mechanisms of Action of
Lycopene in Cancer Inhibition. Evidence-Based
Complementary and Alternative Medicine. Hindawi Publishing
Corporation. Article ID 705121, 17 pages. Volume 2013.
25. Darvin M, Patzelt A, Gehse S, Schanzer S, Benderoth C, Sterry W,
Lademann J. Cutaneous concentration of lycopene correlates
significantly with the roughness of the skin. European Journal
of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics 2008; 69: 943-947.
26. Rizwan M, Rodriguez-Blanco I, Harbottle A, Birch-Machin MA,
Watson REB, Rhodes LE. Tomato paste rich in lycopene
protects against cutaneous photodamage in humans in vivo: a
randomized controlled trial. British Journal of Dermatology
2011; 164: 154-162.
27. Meinke MC, Friedrich A, Tscherch K, Haag SF, Darvin ME,
Vollert H, Groth N, Lademann J, Rohn S. Influence of dietary
carotenoids on radical scavenging capacity of the skin and skin
lipids. European Journal of Pharmaceutics and
Biopharmaceutics 2013; 84: 365-373.
28. AOAC. Official Methods of Analysis. The Association of Official
Analytical Chemists.18th Ed. Arlington, Virginia, USA: 2005.
29. Ivanišová E, Tokár M, Mocko K, Bojňanská T, Mareček J,
Mendelová A. Antioxidant activity of selected plant products.
Journal of Microbiology, Biotechnology and Food Sciences
2013; 2: 692-1703.
30. Brand-Williams W, Cuvelier ME, Berset C. Use of free radical
method to evaluate antioxidant activity. LWT Food Science and
Technology 1995; 28 (1): 25-30.
31. Lehman JW. Operational organic chemistry. A problem-solving
approach to the laboratory course. 4th ed. Prentice Hall. 2009.
32. Ravelo-pérez LM, Hernández-borges J, Rodríguez-delgado MA,
Borges-miquel T. Spectrophotometric analysis of lycopene in
tomatoes and watermelons: A Practical Class. The Chemical
Educator 2008; 13 (1).
33. Souza MCD, Singha S, Ingle M. Lycopene Concentration of
Tomato Fruit can be estimated from Chromaticity Values. Plant
and Soil 1992; 27 (5): 465-466.
34. Naviglio D, Pizzolongo F, Ferrara L, Arag A, Santini A. Extraction of
pure lycopene from industrial tomato by-products in water using a
new high-pressure process. Journal of the Science of Food and
Agriculture 2008; 88 (14): 2414-2420.
35. Vasta JD, Sherma J. Analysis of lycopene in nutritional
supplements by silica gel high- performance thin-layer
chromatography with visible-mode densitometry. Acta
Chromatographica 2008; 20 (4): 673-683.
36. Bunghez IR, Raduly M, Doncea S, Aksahin I, Ion RM. Lycopene
determination in tomatoes by different spectral techniques
(UV-VIS, FTIR and HPLC). Journal of Nanomaterials 2011; 6 (3):
1349-1356.
Ahmad et al.
Int J Pharm Pharm Sci, Vol 6, Suppl 2, 223-228
228
37. Saeed MK, Shahzadi I, Ahmad I, Shahzad K, Ashraf M, Viqar-un-
Nisa. Nutritional analysis and antioxidant activity of Bitter
gourd (Momordica charantia) from Pakistan.
Pharmacologyonline 2010; 1: 252-260.
38. Suhaj M. Spice antioxidants isolation and their antiradical
activity: a review. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis
2006; 19: 531-537.
39. Gupta A, Kawatra A, Sehgal S. Physical-chemical properties and
nutritional evaluation of newly developed tomato genotypes.
Journal of Food Science 2011; 2 (7): 167-72.
40. Aghel N, Ramezani Z, Amirfakhrian S. Isolation and
quantification of lycopene from tomato cultivated in Dezfoul,
Iran. Jundishapur Journal of Natural Pharmaceutical Products
2011; 6 (1): 9-15.
41. Garcia E, Barrett DM. Assessing lycopene content in California
processing tomatoes. Journal of Food Processing and
Preservation 2005; 30 (530): 56-70.
42. Kaur C, Walia S, Nagal S, Walia S, Singh J, Singh BB, Saha S,
Singh B, Kalia P, Jaggi S, Sarika. Functional quality and
antioxidant composition of selected tomato (Solanum
lycopersicon L) cultivars grown in Northern India. 2013. LWT -
Food Science and Technology 2013; 50: 139-145.
43. Tlili I, Hdider C, Lenucci MS, Riadh I, Jebari H, Dalessandro G.
Bioactive compounds and antioxidant activities of different
watermelon (Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Mansfeld) cultivars as
affected by fruit sampling area. Journal of Food Composition
and Analysis 2011; 24: 307-314.
44. Perkins-Veazie P, Roberts W, Collins JK. Lycopene content
among organically produced tomatoes. Journal of Vegetable
Science 2006; 12 (4): 93-106.
45. Lenucci MS, Cadinu D, Taurino M, Piro G, Dalessandro G.
Antioxidant composition in cherry and high-pigment tomato
cultivars. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 2006; 54
(7): 2606-13.
46. Mritunjay K, Mondal DB, Ananya D. Quantification of catechin
and lycopene in Calendula officinalis extracts using HPLC
method. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research
2011; 4 (2): 128-129.
... The excess solvent was allowed to evaporate at room temperature for a few minutes in the dark. The tubes containing lycopene extracts were covered with aluminium foil and stored in freezer until further analysis [4]. ...
... The upper layer containing lycopene was isolated by means of a pipette and collected in a test tube. The tubes containing lycopene extracts were covered with aluminium foil and stored in the freezer until further analysis [4]. ...
... The purified lycopene content was found to be the maximum in cherry tomato (88.87 mg/kg) as compared to Pakistani tomato (55.84 mg/kg) and watermelon (74.53 mg/kg). Lycopene content in tomato ranges from 55 to 181 mg/kg [41], 4.31 to 5.97 mg/100 g fw [4] ...
Article
Full-text available
Lycopene is a carotenoid pigment and phytochemical found in tomatoes, water melon and other fruits mostly red coloured. The antioxidant properties of lycopene have attracted attentions due to its biological properties and are thought to be primarily responsible for its benefits in health related problems. Extraction and isolation of lycopene can be done with various methods. Several studies have been undertaken for the extraction of lycopene and for its quantification in various natural sources.
... The highest antioxidant activity of 67.02 ± 5.11% was for the TP-2-SFE-B fraction, enriched in carotenoids. Comparable values of 36-38% were presented by Shahzad et al. [43] from whole tomatoes, while Kehili et al. [13] obtained 38-86% from tomato peels. ...
... Total antioxidant activity of tomato extract samples was assessed using the DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) free radical scavenging assay [43] with some modifications. Briefly, 0.1 g of extract was vortexed at 2500 rpm for 5 min with 20 mL of methanol. ...
Article
Full-text available
Lycopene, β-carotene and ω-fatty acids are major compounds in tomatoes with known antioxidant activity, capable of preventing health disorders. The identification of potential natural sources of antioxidants, extraction efficiencies and antioxidant activity assessments are essential to promote such products to be used in the food, pharmaceutical or cosmetic industries. This work presents four added-value products recovered from tomatoes: pigmented solid oleoresin, pigmented oil and two raw extracts from supercritical and Soxhlet extraction. Different parameters including the matrices of tomatoes, extraction methods, green solvents and operating parameters were varied to obtain extracts with different qualities. Extract analysis was performed using UV-VIS, FT-IR, GC-MS, Folin-Ciocalteu and DPPH methods. The highest-quality extract was the solid oleoresin obtained from pomace using supercritical CO2 extraction at 450 bar, 70 °C and 11 kg/h: 1016.94 ± 23.95 mg lycopene/100 g extract, 154.87 ± 16.12 mg β-carotene/100 g extract, 35.25 ± 0.14 mg GAE/g extract and 67.02 ± 5.11% inhibition DPPH. The economic feasibility of the three extraction processes (1:10:100 kg dried pomace/batch as scalability criterion) was evaluated. The most profitable was the supercritical extraction process at the highest capacity, which produces pigmented solid oleoresin and oil with high content of lycopene valorized with a high market price, using natural food waste (pomace).
... Watermelons appear on the market for a very short span during the summer season and are usually used during hot days to quench thirst. In recent years, watermelon juice has gained widespread popularity due to its sensory, physical, and nutritional benefits [11].As the temperature (>30°C) remains high in Punjab for nearly 8 months, it would be fittingforwatermelon juice to be available for most of the time throughout the year. ...
Article
Full-text available
In recent years, consumers have increasingly demanded nutritious, healthy, and fresh-like food products with high organoleptic quality. Watermelon is rich in water, which is 92% mandatory for body functioning, and contains several vitamins, amino acids, antioxidants, carotenoids, and lycopenes with various health benefits. The present studyexamines the combined effect of ultrasound (US) and microwave (MW) on the physico-chemical and phytochemicals of watermelon juice during storage (up to 120 days). Sonication was employed for different time intervals, particularly from 2 to 8 min at 20kHz frequency and 525W power, while microwave was applied at two different time intervals (1min 50 s and 2min) at 1000W power and a frequency of 2450MHz.The product was stored at 4°C up to 120 days for further examination. Our results revealed that treatment T5 (10min ultrasound & 1min 50s microwave) manifested the maximum cloud value (3.00), acidity (0.15%), vitamin C content (202.67mg/100mL), phenolics (852.57mgGAE/100mL), flavonoids (1970.9µg CE/100mL), and total antioxidant activity (8650.3µg equivalent of ascorbic acid/mL of juice). Sonication in combination with microwave proved to be an efficient technique for increasing the antioxidant potential of watermelon juice. Thus, US and MW treatments may be incorporated for enhancing the phytochemical release and shelf life of watermelon juice.
... The excess solvent was allowed to evaporate at room temperature for a few minutes in the dark. The tubes containing β-carotene and total phenolic content extracts were covered with aluminum foil and stored in the freezer until further analysis [29]. ...
Article
Full-text available
The study was conducted on extraction and quantification of lycopene, β-carotene and total phenolic contents from edible parts of papaya fruits and formulation of two lycopene enriched fruit drinks. Different solvent extraction methods were used and solvent extracts were analyzed by spectrophotometer. Significant differences were observed among the lycopene, β-carotene and total phenolic contents of papaya fruits in different solvent extractions. Hexane:ethanol:acetone (2:1:1) solvent extract contain the highest quantity of lycopene, i.e. 1.02 mg/100g of fresh weight (F.W), which is significantly higher than ethyl acetate extract (0.03mg/100g of F.W). The β-carotene level was highest in acetone-petroleum ether extract (4.22 mg /100g of F.W) which is significantly more than ethyl acetate extract (0.17 mg/100g of F.W). Soxhlet extraction using ethyl acetate has a comparatively higher content of β-carotene (1.50mg/100g of F.W) than ethyl acetate with normal extraction (0.17mg/100g of F.W.). Soxhlet extraction has a comparatively higher content of total phenolic contents than normal solvent extraction. Soxhlet extraction with ethyl acetate has the highest content of total phenolic (5.67 mg/100g of F.W.) which is significantly more than ethyl acetate with normal extraction (1.64 mg/100g of F.W.). Two lycopene enriched fruit drinks have been formulated where tomato puree and watermelon pulp were added with papaya pulp as a natural lycopene source. Formulation of fruit drink-1 (Lycopene enriched papaya drink) tomato puree of 10 % added with 20% papaya pulp and formulation of fruit drink-2 (Lycopene enriched mixed fruit drink) 10% papaya, 10% tomato and 10 % watermelon were added. The total pulp content of the fruit drinks formulations was maintained at 30 %. Lycopene enriched mixed fruit drink has the highest lycopene content (3.9mg/100 ml) which is significantly more than lycopene enriched papaya drink (1.60 mg /100 ml). But in sensory evaluation lycopene enriched papaya drink is more acceptable than mixed fruit drink. Physicochemical and microbiological quality of the lycopene enriched fruit drinks indicated that the fruit drinks were acceptable during three months of storage at room temperature. No significant changes were found in total soluble solids, titrable acidity and pH during storage of lycopene enriched papaya drink. But reducing sugar and total sugar were increased and ascorbic acid content was decreased with increase in storage period.
... Some phenolic compounds include antioxidants, lycopene, B vitamins, phosphorus, potassium, magnesium, calcium and iron, citrulline and arginine. [2][3][4]. Therefore, watermelon and its products have large commercial volume as a functional food. About 93% of the total weight of watermelon is water. ...
... Estudios recientes, han sido realizados mayormente en variedades de tomates tipo pera, capresa, manzano, cherry y montenegro (Thybo et al., 2006;Vinha et al., 2014) (Habu & Ibeh, 2015). Shahzad, et al. (2014) presentaron valores de DPPH para tomate tipo cherry que pueden ser comparables con los del presente análisis. ...
Article
Full-text available
RESUMEN La tendencia mundial se orienta hacia un mayor consumo de frutas y vegetales debido al creciente interés por tener una dieta más balanceada y a la evidencia científica asociada a la disminución del riesgo de enfermedades cardiovasculares en las personas que consumen al menos 400 g de frutas y verduras al día. En esta investigación se plantea evaluar compuestos bioactivos con potencial antioxidante y características sensoriales en tomates cosechados en vivero, de los cultivares: fiesta (rojo, morado y amarillo), cubelli, cocktail, cherry y grape (rojo, verde y amarillo). En los cultivares analizados se obtuvieron compuestos como el ácido ascórbico, polifenoles totales y licopeno los cuales aportan en la mayoría de los casos, una buena capacidad antioxidante. Mediante la aplicación de la metodología de perfil rápido fue posible la caracterización los cultivares en estudio y se identificaron los atributos que pudieran modular la aceptabilidad de los productos. Palabras clave: Cultivar, tomate, antioxidantes, composición proximal. SUMMARY The worldwide trend is towards a higher consumption of fruits and vegetables due to a growing interest in having a more balanced diet and the scientific evidence associated with the decrease in the risk of cardiovascular disease in people who consume at least 400 g of fruits and vegetables daily. Therefore, in this research it is proposed to evaluate bioactive compounds and sensory characteristics in the tomatoes harvested in greenhouse, of the cultivars: Fiesta (red, purple, yellow), cubelli, coktail, cherry and grape (red, green and yellow). In the cultivars under study were found compounds such as ascorbic acid, total polyphenols, and lycopene which contribute in most cases to a good antioxidant capacity. The application of the flash profile methodology it was possible to characterize the cultivars under study and identify the attributes that could modulate acceptability of the products.
... Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) is one of the world's major vegetables. It is a good source of nutrients and some secondary metabolites like folate, potassium, vitamins C and E, flavonoids, β-carotene and lycopene are essential for human health [1]. In Tanzania, among others vegetables crops, tomato production is higher with a total annual production estimation of 235,000 t [2]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Effects of Commiphora swynnertonii, Synadenium glaucescens and Allium sativum extracts on the tomato leaf miner, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) were evaluated on the adults and in screen house conditions. The adult stage was involved with 30 adults that were reared in an insectarium, the experimental design was a completely randomized design (plant extracts from three plants species  three doses of 2%, 4% and 8%). In the screen house, experimental dispositive was a completely randomized block design (two varieties of tomatoes  three plants extracts). Larval counts were performed after 0, 1, 2, 3 and 7 d of treatment, 40 tomato leaves (10  4 replicates) were randomly taken from each treatment. The mean percentage mortality of adults was recorded daily for 5 d. Results indicated that, each plant extract caused significant mortality to adults of T. absoluta after 5 d in comparison to the control. Leaf dipping against adult of T. absoluta proved to be the most effective for all plant extracts at 30%-100%. Commiphora resulted in the adults' mortality of 100%. In the screen house Commiphora showed the high reduction of infestation for Tanya and Cal J varieties. Treatment with this plant extract resulted in the highest fruit yield and the lowest yield loss compared to all the plant extracts. C. swynnertonii extract is recommended into integrated pest management strategies for the control of T. absoluta.
Article
Full-text available
Despite Lycopene content in tomato germplasm (both local and exotic) was evaluated against isolates of tomato mosaic virus (ToMV), using a locally preferred hybrid i.e., Rio Grande as a control. Promising lines with resistance to ToMV were assessed by total carotenoid and lycopene content in virus-challenged tomato genotypes using spectrophotometry and RP-HPLC. Our data showed that virus infection significantly lessens the total carotenoid and lycopene content in tomato fruit. Lycopene content was significantly reduced in infected tomato compared to healthy, in locally cultivated hybrid Rio Grande. The germplasm GT-47 (CLN-2123-E) showed 60% decrease in lycopene content in infected tomato when in comparison to healthy produce. The virus infection, however, exhibited less deleterious effect on DPPH-based anti-oxidant potential of the ToMV infected tomato genotypes.
Article
The negative impact of chemical pesticides on the environment and the increased resistance of tomato leafminer (Tuta absoluta) field populations to chemical pesticides have promoted research on alternative control measures. Biological control with Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) may be an alternative, especially against larval instars of T. absoluta. A total of five B. thuringiensis strains were isolated from soil sampled from two different Cow range lands in Zaria, Nigeria; and they were screened for the presence of the cry1 genes using polymerase chain reaction. Of the five isolates, two (40%) showed the presence of the cry1 genes. Results of the bioassay conducted against 2nd instar larvae of T. absoluta at 28±2°C indicated that each of the concentrations (25, 50, 75 and 100 ppm) of the spore crystal mixtures derived from the isolates harbouring cry1 genes caused significant mortality to larvae of T. absoluta after 72 hours in comparison to the control (0 ppm). Probit analysis was used to determine the LC50 and LT50 values. When the treatments were assessed at 48 and 72 hours, LC50 values against larvae were 74.1 and 25.3 ppm for isolate F3, while the LT50 values of that same isolate F3 at 100 ppm and 75 ppm were 36.3 and 42.7 hours, respectively. B. thuringiensis strain F2 achieved 68.7% reduction in T. absoluta damage on tomato plants, while B. thuringiensis isolate F3 achieved 71.3% reduction. Therefore, the spore crystal mixture derived from indigenous Bt strains is the candidate to be used for foliar application against T. absoluta and it is recommended into integrated pest control strategies for the management of T. absoluta.
Article
Full-text available
Plants and plants products have been claimed to have health-promoting effects, which may be related to the antioxidant activity in vivo. The aim of this study was to determine antioxidant activity of selected plant products – wine, apples and spices. We found that these products are very good source of antioxidant compounds. The aim of this study was also to mention the potential use of biologically active component of plant product - substances from these products can be isolated and after treatment, which causes their efficiently usable for human body, they can be used for fortification of wide range of food products.
Article
Full-text available
Lycopene is a pigment principally responsible for the characteristic deep-red color of ripe tomato fruits and products. It, as a natural source of antioxidants, has attracted attentions due to its biological and physicochemical properties. In this study tomato paste prepared from tomato cultivated in Dezfoul (Khozestan) was dehydrated with methanol, then lycopene was extracted with methanol-carbon tetrachloride mixture. Pure lycopene was obtained by twice crystallization of crude product from benzene through addition of boiling methanol. Further purification was achieved using column chromatography with alumina as the adsorbent. Identification of chemical structure of the isolated lycopene was done using UV, IR, NMR and Mass spectroscopy. Average quantity of extracted pure lycopene was calculated as 2.313 mg per 100 g tomato paste.
Article
Calendula officinalis is used as diuretic, diaphoretic, stimulant and possesses spermicidal activity because of its varied sources of biological activities like anti-inflammatory, antimutagenic, diuretic, and antispasmodic. High performance thin layer chromatography is an important tool that can be used qualitatively as well as quantitatively for checking the purity and identifying the major chemical constituents of crude drug, and also for quality control of finished product. In the present study, (+) catechin and lycopene were detected against their standard in ethanolic extract of the floral part of C. officinalis by TLC using ethyl acetate: glacial acetic acid: formic acid: water [100:11:11:25, v/v/v/v/v] as solvent system. A migration distance of 75 mm with running time 30 min was required for the detection of the spots of standard lycopene and catechin with Rf =0.45 and 0.87, respectively. The highest content of catechin and lycopene were found to be 6.88 mg/g and 13.54 mg/g extract using the HPTLC method. Quantification of lycopene and catechin in C. officinalis floral part extract revealed its potential for further use in the prevention and treatment of various deadly diseases.
Article
Recently antioxidants and secondary metabolites have attracted a great deal of attention for their effect in preventing disease due to oxidative stress, which leads to degeneration of cell membranes and many pathological diseases. Momordica charantia (Cucurbitaceae), also known as "Karela", is a wild variety of bitter gourd in Pakistan. It is commonly consumed as vegetable and also used as a popular folk medicine. In this study, the nutrients and antioxidant of bitter gourd's seed, peel and flakes were evaluated. The results from nutritional analysis showed that it is good source of micronutrients (ash), and macronutrients (carbohydrate, protein, fiber contents). The results obtained from the DPPH assay and reducing power activity indicated that bitter gourd extracts exhibits potent antioxidant activity. Bitter gourd's flakes extract possess potent free radical scavenging activities (63.20%) followed by seed (33.05%), DPPH (%Inhibition) at 2mg/mL concentration, which was compared with standard antioxidant BHT. These antioxidant activities could have contributed, at least partly, to the therapeutic benefits of the certain traditional claims of bitter gourd.
Article
Chromaticity values (L*, a*, b*) of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. `Celebrity', `Early Pick', and `Mountain Delight') were measured using a Minolta CR-200b tristimulus colorimeter. Lycopene concentrations in acetone extracts of skin disks or pericarp plugs were measured spectrophometrically at 503 nm. The L* or a* value was related to lycopene concentration in all the cultivars; however, the ratio of (a*/b*) provided the best R for all cultivars (0.75). These relationships allow the use of a portable colorimeter for rapid, nondestructive estimation of tomato fruit lycopene concentrations in laboratory or in situ studies.
Article
Lycopene is one of the most important and abundant carotenoids. It has been shown to play a very important role in human nutrition, mainly due to its high antioxidant activity. In order to show our students of analytical chemistry a practical application of food analysis as well as the different steps of the analytical methodology, we have carried out a practical analytical chemistry class which consists on the determination of lycopene in both tomato and watermelon samples by means of a quick spectrophotometric method with data analysis. The proposed class, which will be described (as well as the results obtained by our students), can be applied in subjects related with analytical chemistry, food analysis, agriculture, etc.