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In vivo evaluation of antiparasitic effects of Artemisia abrotanum and Salvia officinalis extracts on Syphacia obvelata, Aspiculoris tetrapetra and Hymenolepis nana parasites

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Objective: To evaluate the effects of Salvia officinalis and Artemisia abrotanum extracts against digestive system parasites of mice. Methods: The ethanol extract was prepared and dissolved in distilled water. The mebendazole was used as positive control and distilled water as negative control. After counting eggs per gram feces, infected mice with 16 eggs per gram feces contained two to three parasites of Syphacia obvelata, Aspicoloris terepetra and Hymenolipis nana designated in 4 groups. The first group was given extracts of Artemisia (150 mg/kg), the second group was given Salvia extract (150 mg/kg), the third group was given mebendazole (10 mg/kg) and finally the fourth group was given distilled water (2 mL/kg). Results: The ethanol extracts of Artemisia and Salvia plants reduced the number of parasite eggs per gram of feces. Results showed significant reduction (P-value
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... For example, the plant in question can be grown around the chicken house or crushed, and juices of particular plant parts smeared onto the chicken housing to repel predators getting near where the chickens are kept. Since the discovery of the medicinal plants and predator repellents, this knowledge has been passed on from one generation to another (Amirmohammadi et al., 2014). However, in the contemporary world, there is the increased use of conventional methods and marginalisation of environmentally friendly and affordable indigenous practices. ...
... Rural communities still rely on the traditional and indigenous methods to treat and control parasites in Indigenous chickens (Amirmohammadi et al., 2014). The use of medicinal plants is preferred over conventional methods mainly due to the high costs associated with modern veterinary practices. ...
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Rural communities rely heavily on chickens to meet their socio-economic needs. However, predators, diseases, and parasites deprive them of nutrients required for sustained growth and development. A cross-sectional survey and key informant interviews were conducted in selected villages of Limpopo Province, South Africa to find out the parasites and predators prevalent in indigenous chickens. Medicinal plants commonly used to control parasites as well as the household heads’ views on the preservation of indigenous chickens for sustained rural food security were investigated. Qualitative data gathered through interviews was analysed thematically using Atlas Ti version 8.1.4 while the IBM Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 25.0 was used to compute descriptive statistics and carry out cross-tabulations of quantitative data. Approximately, 72 % of the respondents reported that predation affected chicks with hens at (67 %) and cocks (63 %) following in that respective order. Snakes such as the king cobra (phakhu phakhu), birds such as the martial eagle (Goni), and wild animals, especially the genet cat (tsimba) were the predominant predators. Among the commonest parasites, fleas [Dermanyssus gallinae (thatha)] and mites [Siphonaptera (magomani)] were predominant. Sorghum (Sorghum bicolour) and aloe (Aloe vera) were the most common medicinal plants that were used to control the parasites. It is, therefore, recommended that farmers and extension officers alike, consider the profile of major predators, parasites, medical plants, and preservation of indigenous knowledge for the sustainability of indigenous chickens and enhanced rural food security. Keywords: Indigenous knowledge; parasites; predators; prevalent; rural communities; indigenous chickens’ health
... [50] against animal parasites Reduction in the number of eggs of Hymenolepis nana (dwarf tapeworm), Syphacia obvelata and Aspiculuris tetraptera (rodent pinworms) in the faeces of mice after administration of ethanolic extract from A. abrotanum leaves. [67] antiplasmodial ...
... On the seventh day of therapy, no eggs were detected in the faeces. The research results indicate that the traditional use of A. abrotanum extracts as an anti-parasitic agent has been justified [67]. ...
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Artemisia abrotanum L. (southern wormwood) is a plant species with an important position in the history of European and Asian medicine. It is a species famous as a medicinal plant in Central Asia, Asia Minor, and in SouthEast and Central Europe. The raw materials obtained from this species are Abrotani herba and Abrotani folium. In the traditional European medicine, they have been used successfully most of all in liver and biliary tract diseases, in parasitic diseases in children and as antipyretic medication. In the official European medicine, this plant species is recommended by the French Pharmacopoeia for use in homeopathy. In many European countries, it is used traditionally in allopathy. The latest studies on the biological activity of extracts from the aboveground parts of the plant and/or the leaves, and/or the essential oil have provided evidence of other possible applications related to their antibacterial, antifungal, antioxidant, anticancer, and antiallergic properties. The latest studies have also focused on the repellent activity of the essential oil of this species and the possibility to use it in the prevention of diseases in which insects are the vectors. The main substances obtained from the plant that are responsible for this activity are: the essential oil, cou-marins, phenolic acids, and flavonoids. Some of the latest investigations emphasize the large differences in the composition of the essential oil, determined by the geographical (climatic) origin of the plant. A. abrotanum is recommended by the European Cosmetic Ingredients Database (CosIng) as a source of valuable cosmetic ingredients. Additionally, the leaves of this species possess a well-established position in the food industry. This plant species is also the object of biotechnological studies .
... Artemisia abrotanum, a common plant used in the culinary and cosmetics industries, has been reported to accumulate high levels of triquinane silphiperfol-5-en-3-one A (Muangphrom et al., 2019) [33]. Artemisia abrotanum and its active phytochemicals have been introduced as having antimalarial, antioxidant, cytotoxic, antispasmodic, anthelmintic, neuroprotective, antiinflammatory, and antimicrobial agents (Taleghani et al., 2020;Amirmohammadi et al., 2014) [32,34]. ...
... Artemisia abrotanum, a common plant used in the culinary and cosmetics industries, has been reported to accumulate high levels of triquinane silphiperfol-5-en-3-one A (Muangphrom et al., 2019) [33]. Artemisia abrotanum and its active phytochemicals have been introduced as having antimalarial, antioxidant, cytotoxic, antispasmodic, anthelmintic, neuroprotective, antiinflammatory, and antimicrobial agents (Taleghani et al., 2020;Amirmohammadi et al., 2014) [32,34]. ...
... It has a long history of medicinal and culinary use. Its leaves contain essential oils and tannins that can help to facilitate digestion with anticonvulsant, anti-fever, antiseptic, anti-diabetic, antibiotic, antifungal and anti-parasitic effects [24]. ...
... In addition, ginseng contains various pharmacological components such as polyphenolic compounds [40], that can interfere the energy generation mechanism by uncoupling the oxidative phosphorylation and also interfere with the glycoprotein of the cell surface of the parasites and cause death [41].Sage leaf contains tannic acid, oleic acid, ursonic acid, ursolic acid, cornsole, cornsolic acid, fumaric acid, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, niacin, nicotinamide, flavones, flavonoid glycosides, and estrogenic substance [42]. Amirmohammadi, et al. [24] found a significant reduction (P<0.001) in the number of eggs excreted by Hymenolepis nana, Aspiculuristetraptera, Syphaciaobvelata in mice and these results revealed that anti-parasitic effects of sage were reasonable and this plant might be used as antiparasitic natural product. ...
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CRYPTOSPORIDIUM parvum (C. parvum) is a worldwide zoonotic protozoan parasite infects most mammalian hosts causing a major health problem. The present study investigated the efficacy of ginger (Zingiber officinale), ginseng (Panax ginseng) and sage (Salvia of-ficinalis) methanolic extracts on the progression of cryptosporidiosis in the experimental mice. Forty five mice experimentally infected with C. parvum were treated with medicinal plants extracts (ginger, ginseng and sage) as compared to the reference drug, Nitazoxanide (NTZ). Mice fecal smears were examined daily for 4 weeks post infection (PI). The results interpreted by oocysts count and histological examination of mice intestinal mucosa.The obtained results recorded that there was a statistically significant reduction in oocyst shedding in high dose ginger, ginseng and NTZ treated groups till no oocysts were found at days 21 and 23 PI, respectively. The infected non-treated, NTZ and low dose of both, ginseng and sage treated mice groups returned to excrete oocysts at low levels at day 27 PI while the other animal groups' feces were still negative for C. parvum oocysts. The histopathological examination showed that NTZ, high dose ginger and ginseng treated mice had more protective and curative effect on infected mice intestinal epithelium in comparison with other treatments used.In conclusion, these results proved the therapeutic efficacy of ginger, ginseng and sage medicinal plants against the C. parvum in experimentally infected mice, and that theginger extract had an obvious effect on infected mice than other treatments and such results could be adapted in similar infections in susceptible animals and man.
... e use of chemical drugs to combat parasites is effective, but there are drawbacks, such as drug resistance, drug residues, and undesirable side effects. Alternative remedies need to be studied [156]. e leaf extract is effective against Egyptian species of schistosomes at concentrations of 6, 25, 12.5, 25, 50, 100, and 200 mg/mL [118]. ...
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Medicinal plants are the primary raw materials used in the production of medicinal products all over the world. As a result, more study on plants with therapeutic potential is required. The tropical tree Ziziphus spina belongs to the Rhamnaceae family. Biological reports and traditional applications including management of diabetes and treatment of malaria, digestive issues, typhoid, liver complaints, weakness, skin infections, urinary disorders, obesity, diarrhoea, and sleeplessness have all been treated with different parts of Z. spina all over the globe. The plant is identified as a rich source of diverse chemical compounds. This study is a comprehensive yet detailed review of Z. spina based on major findings from around the world regarding ethnopharmacology, biological evaluation, and chemical composition. Scopus, Web of Science, BioMed Central, ScienceDirect, PubMed, Springer Link, and Google Scholar were searched to find published articles. From the 186 research articles reviewed, we revealed the leaf extract to be significant against free radicals, microbes, parasites, inflammation-related cases, obesity, and cancer. Chemically, polyphenols/flavonoids were the most reported compounds with a composition of 66 compounds out of the total 193 compounds reported from different parts of the plant. However, the safety and efficacy of Z. spina have not been wholly assessed in humans, and further well-designed clinical trials are needed to corroborate preclinical findings. The mechanism of action of the leaf extract should be examined. The standard dose and safety of the leaf should be established.
... e use of chemical drugs to combat parasites is effective, but there are drawbacks, such as drug resistance, drug residues, and undesirable side effects. Alternative remedies need to be studied [156]. e leaf extract is effective against Egyptian species of schistosomes at concentrations of 6, 25, 12.5, 25, 50, 100, and 200 mg/mL [118]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Medicinal plants are the primary raw materials used in the production of medicinal products all over the world. As a result, more study on plants with therapeutic potential is required. The tropical tree Ziziphus spina belongs to the Rhamnaceae family. Biological reports and traditional applications including management of diabetes and treatment of malaria, digestive issues, typhoid, liver complaints, weakness, skin infections, urinary disorders, obesity, diarrhoea, and sleeplessness have all been treated with different parts of Z. spina all over the globe. The plant is identified as a rich source of diverse chemical compounds. This study is a comprehensive yet detailed review of Z. spina based on major findings from around the world regarding ethnopharmacology, biological evaluation, and chemical composition. Scopus, Web of Science, BioMed Central, ScienceDirect, PubMed, Springer Link, and Google Scholar were searched to find published articles. From the 186 research articles reviewed, we revealed the leaf extract to be significant against free radicals, microbes, parasites, inflammation-related cases, obesity, and cancer. Chemically, polyphenols/flavonoids were the most reported compounds with a composition of 66 compounds out of the total 193 compounds reported from different parts of the plant. However, the safety and efficacy of Z. spina have not been wholly assessed in humans, and further well-designed clinical trials are needed to corroborate preclinical findings. The mechanism of action of the leaf extract should be examined. The standard dose and safety of the leaf should be established.
... High concentrations of tannins have been shown to have antinutritional effects in monogastric animals because tannins can decrease feed intake, nutrient digestibility and growth performance of chickens [17,18]. However, recently in poultry production, tannins have garnered a great deal of attention as an alternative for AGP because of their antimicrobial, antioxidants and anti-inflammation properties [19][20][21]. In addition, many tannins are considered sustainable feed additives, as they derive from byproducts of plant-based agriculture and industry. ...
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The poultry industry has an important role in producing sources of protein for the world, and the size of global poultry production continues to increase annually. However, the poultry industry is confronting diverse challenges including bacterial infection (salmonellosis), coccidiosis, oxidative stress, including that caused by heat stress, welfare issues such as food pad dermatitis (FPD) and nitrogen and greenhouse gasses emissions that cumulatively cause food safety issues, reduce the efficacy of poultry production, impair animal welfare, and induce environmental issues. Furthermore, restrictions on the use of AGP have exacerbated several of these negative effects. Tannins, polyphenolic compounds that possess a protein precipitation capacity, have been considered as antinutritional factors in the past because high dosages of tannins can decrease feed intake and negatively affect nutrient digestibility and absorption. However, tannins have been shown to have antimicrobial, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, and as such, have gained interest as promising bioactive compounds to help alleviate the challenges of AGP removal in the poultry industry. In addition, the beneficial effects of tannins can be enhanced by several strategies including heat processing, combining tannins with other bioactive compounds, and encapsulation. As a result, supplementation of tannins alone or in conjunction with the above strategies could be an effective approach to decrease the need of AGP and otherwise improve poultry production efficiency.
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Artemisia and its allied species have been employed for conventional medicine in the Northern tem-perate regions of North America, Europe, and Asia for the treatments of digestive problems, morning sickness, irregu-lar menstrual cycle, typhoid, epilepsy, renal problems, bron-chitis malaria, etc. The multidisciplinary use of artemisia species has various other health benefits that are related to its traditional and modern pharmaceutical perspectives. The main objective of this review is to evaluate the traditional, modern, biological as well as pharmacological use of the essential oil and herbal extracts of Artemisia nilagirica, Artemisia parviflora, and other allied species of Artemi-sia. It also discusses the botanical circulation and its phy-tochemical constituents viz disaccharides, polysaccharides, glycosides, saponins, terpenoids, flavonoids, and carot-enoids. The plants have different biological importance like antiparasitic, antimalarial, antihyperlipidemic, antiasthmatic,antiepileptic, antitubercular, antihypertensive, antidiabetic, anxiolytic, antiemetic, antidepressant, anticancer, hepatopro-tective, gastroprotective, insecticidal, antiviral activities, and also against COVID-19. Toxicological studies showed that the plants at a low dose and short duration are non or low-toxic. In contrast, a high dose at 3 g/kg and for a longer dura-tion can cause toxicity like rapid respiration, neurotoxicity, reproductive toxicity, etc. However, further in-depth studies are needed to determine the medicinal uses, clinical efficacy and safety are crucial next steps.
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Escherichia coli bacteria as a gram-negative bacilli of Enterobacteriaceae family causes different diseases in human such as wound infection, pneumonia, urinary tract infections, meningitis, premature and weak children birth, peritonitis and cholecystitis. One of the major pathogens that has shown resistance to most antibiotics is Escherichia coli. Therefore, development of natural antibacterial agents such as medicinal plants for the treatment of infectious diseases is necessary. This study was aimed to present the phototherapy of Iranian native medicinal plants with anti-Escherichia coli effect. The required information was obtained by searching key words such as Esherichia coli, Native medicinal plant of Iran, medicinal plant extracts or essential oils of related published articles in authentic scientific databases. Results showed that different native medicinal plants were effective against E. coli in Iran, including Cuminum cyminum, Mentha piperit,
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Background: Aquatic leech invade mucosal membrane and causes anemia. Until now, there is not any commercial effective drug for controlling of this parasite. In this experimental study, investigated the effect of some chemical and herbal drugs against leech (Limnatis nilotica). Methods: Methanolic extract of Artemisia kermanensis and Artemisia spp and hydroalcoholic extracts of Scrophularia deserti, Quercus brantii and Achillea spp was prepared. . Each drugs was tested in one group with 9 replicates. Each leech preserve in one separated jar and drugs were added to each jar. Albendazole used as commercial anti-parasite and distilled water was used as negative control. The movement and respond of each Leech was recorded for 720 minutes. Also, the leeches were monitored for paralysis and death in this duration. Results: In this study, leeches receiving albendazol (600mg) died at 138 min after exposure with albendazol. But exposure with methanolic extracts of Artemisia kermanensis (600 mg), Artemisia spp (600 mg) and hydroalcoholic extracts of Quercus brantii (600 mg), Achillea spp (600 mg) and Scrophularia deserti (600 mg) have no effect on liviability of leeches. Methanolic extract of Artemisia kermanensis with doses of 1800 and 2400 mg, caused death in leeches after 720, 635 and 188 minutes, respectively. Also, methanolic extracts of Arthemisia spp with doses of 1200, 1800 and 2400 mg, caused death in leeches after 720 , 600 and 601 minutes, respectively. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that the herbal drugs that used in this study with compare to albendazole have no considering effect on Limniatis nilotica.
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Aim: Infections caused by protozoa of the genus Leishmaniaare major worldwide health problems with high endemicity in developing countries. The incidence of leishmaniasis has increased in the absence of a vaccine. Usual drugs for treatment of the disease have many side effects; therefore, there is an urgent need to find new effective alternatives. The plant kingdom is a valuable source of new medicinal agents. Methods: In this randomized, one-blind clinical trial, the in vitro leishmanicidal effects of Artemisia aucheri and Camellia sinensis on Leishmania major were evaluated. The methanolic extracts were prepared by percolation method. The extracts were dried and redissolved in PBS+DMSO 1% solvent. L. major cells treated with five concentrations (150, 300, 450, 600, and 750 μg/ml) of the extracts and an untreated control group were used in the study. The number of promastigotes in each concentration was calculated using a hemocytometer slide at time zero and at 24, 48, and 72 hours after being harvested. Results: Methanolic extract of A. aucheri inhibited the parasite multiplication at doses of 150, 300 and 450 μg/ml at 48 and 72 hours of culture. Doses of 600 and 750 μg/ml showed the same effect at 24, 48 and 72 hours of culture (P< 0.05). Methanolic extract of C. sinensis showed inhibition of parasite multiplication when administered at doses of 150, 300, 450, 600 and 750 μg/ml at 72 hours (P<0.05). Conclusion: These results provide a new perspective on drug development against Leishmania. The extract of A. aucheri at 750 μg/ml is strikingly potent against Leishmania, inhibiting the growth of promastigotes of L. major after 72 hours.
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This paper describes a selection of the ethnoveterinary medicines used for herd dogs in the southern regions of Ilam province, Iran. Traditional botanical medicine is the primary mode of healthcare for most of the rural population in Ilam province. In this study, a questionnaire was distributed among 45 residential areas in 22 rural zones of the southern areas of Ilam province. The objective of this study was the recognition of natural medicinal methods using medicinal plants, and the classification of ethnoveterinary applications and collection of domestic science. Twenty-two medicinal plants from 16 families were identified. The main application of these plants was for the detection and treatment of digestive disorders using Citrullus colocynthis, Aristolochia clematis, Scrophularia deserti, Quercus brantii, Ceracus microcarpa, Echium strigosa, Pistacia atlantica, and Pistacia khinjuk which have been applied using Euphurbia graminifolius, Peganum harmala, Salsola rigida, Artemisia herba-alba, Amygdalus arabica, jolbak of salt water, Peganum harmala L., and Nicotina tabacum for external and internal parasite disorders. S. deserti for ophthalmic disorders, and P. atlantica, P. khinjuk, and Q. brantii for respiratory disorders were applied. The present study confirmed the traditional medical effects of some plants and revealed the unique medical effects of other plants, which if recognized could be useful in the creation of new ideas and increasing knowledge for the modern pharmaceutical industry. Since very few clinical trials have been conducted on plants native to Ilam province, it is necessary that more research be conducted to ensure that labeled and standardized products are introduced for human consumption.
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Use of raw medicinal plants is common not only in human medicine but also in veterinary medical practice. The aim of this research was identification and listing of medicinal plants applied in a remote area of Iran in order to possible application of their ingredients in modern medicine and industrial pharmacy. The study was accomplished between June and October 2008 in the South part of Ilam Province. In this regard, questionnaires containing 36 veterinary diseases and syndromes were designed and distributed among 45 animal owners (55-75 years old, 7 female and 38 male) from 22 villages. Samples of plants were collected from all villages and were sent to the Natural Resource Research centre of Ilam Province to identify their genus and species. Based on our findings, 46 different plants were identified with beneficial effects on 36 diseases and syndromes. However, none of them may have any reasonable influence on 11 important illnesses and syndromes, i.e. dystocia, icterus, maseter muscule paralysis, hematuria, suspended or decreased milk production, anestreus, nymphomania, hyperthermia and enterotoxemia. Some effects were attributed to 25 plants, which were not mentioned in published literature. Finally, 16 plants out of 46 were species known to exert toxic effects. It is concluded that Ilam province of Iran is a rich resource of medicinal plants that can be used either in raw or processed forms in veterinary medical practice. INTRODUCTION pharmacopeias. Medicinal plants are a title for costly
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Objective: To investigate the antimicrobial and antioxidant properties of Et2O/MeOH/petrol extract and three isolated compounds from Artemisia kulbadica (A. kulbadica). Methods: The antimicrobial activity was tested by using the disc-diffusion method and determining the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) using the agar dilution method against Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria, and fungi. The antioxidant activities of crude extract and tree isolated compounds were evaluated using 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging assays. Results: The plant extract was showed moderate values DPPH radical scavenging activity (IC50= (422.4 暲 2.4) 毺 g/mL) while it was showed no considerable antimicrobial activity against tested microorganisms. Three isolated compounds tested for the first time, demonstrated antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. Two sesquiterpenes showed higher antimicrobial activity than the flavone while the later compound was better antioxidant than the sesquiterpens. Conclusions: The present study clearly demonstrated that A. kulbadica and some of its isolates each one separately possess antimicrobial or antioxidant properties and may act as potential antioxidant for biological systems susceptible to free radicalmediated reactions.
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Liver is a vital organ play a major role in metabolism and excretion of xenobiotics from the body. Liver injury or liver dysfunction is a major health problem that challenges not only health care professionals but also the phar-maceutical industry and drug regulatory agencies. Liver cell injury caused by various toxic chemicals (certain anti-biotic, chemotherapeutic agents, carbon tetrachloride (CCL4), thioacetamide (TAA) etc.), excessive alcohol con-sumption and microbes is well-studied. The available synthetic drugs to treat liver disorders in this condition also cause further damage to the liver. Hence, Herbal drugs have become increasingly popular and their use is wide-spread. Herbal medicines have been used in the treatment of liver diseases for a long time. A number of herbal preparations are available in the market. The present review is aimed at compiling data on promising phytochemi-cals from medicinal plants that have been tested in hepatotoxicity models using modern scientific system.
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Objective To investigate the pharmacognostic characters of important medicinal plant, Artemisia parviflora (A. parviflora) Roxb.Methods The pharmacognostic studies were carried out in terms of macroscopical, microscopical characters, physicochemical parameters of A. parviflora. Samples of different plant parts were fixed with formalin, acetic acid and ethyl alcohol (FAA), sectioned with rotary microtome and studied under microscope.ResultsSome of the diagnostic features of the leaves and stems are the presence of amphistomatic epidermis, cyclocytic stomata, and collateral vascular bundles. Macroscopic study showed basal and lower stem leaves cuneate, oblong-obovate to flabellate, coarsely dentate to incised-dentate at the apex; middle and upper stem leaves mostly basally auriculate, palmatifid to deeply palmatisect or irregularly incised laciniate into linear to narrow lanceolate, acute segments. Further, ash and extractive values were calculated as per WHO guidelines. The preliminary phytochemical screening showed the presence of alkaloids, sterols/terpenoids, flavonoids, tannins, phenols and coumarins.Conclusion Various pharmacognostical characters were observed in study which can help in identification and standardization of A. parviflora.
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Objective To evaluate methanolic extracts of leaves of Artemisia nilagirica, Mimosa pudica and Clerodendrum siphonanthus for phytochemical analysis, antibacterial activity and free radical scavenging activity.Methods Antibacterial activity was performed by disc diffusion method against two gram positive and four gram negative strains. Free radical scavenging potential was evaluated using total antioxidant activity (thiocyanate method) and diphenyl-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) assay.ResultsResults of the present study showed that Clerodendrum siphonanthus exhibited significant antibacterial effect against Klebsiella pneumoniae (30 mm), Proteus mirabilis (16 mm), Salmonella typhi (16 mm), Staphylococcus aureus (12 mm), Escherichia coli (11.5 mm) and Bacillus subtilis (10 mm). Mimosa pudica and Artemisia nilagirica showed good antibacterial effects. Clerodendrum siphonanthus was found to be extremely effective in scavenging lipid peroxide (IC50 8 mg/mL) and DPPH radicals (IC50 7 mg/mL), whereas Artemisia nilagirica and Mimosa pudica showed moderate activity. Phytochemical analysis of these plants revealed presence of tannins, alkaloids, flavanoids, terpenoids and glycosides.Conclusions This study showed that Artemisia nilagirica, Mimosa pudica and Clerodendrum siphonanthus may serve as a potential agent for new therapeutics.