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The Western Herbal Tradition: 2000 Years of Medicinal Plant Knowledge

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Abstract

The Western Herbal Tradition provides a comprehensive and critical exploration of the use of plant medicines through 2000 years of history from Dioscorides to the present day. It follows each of the 27 herbs through a wide range of key sources from European, Arabic and American traditions including Greek, Roman and Renaissance texts. A rich discussion of the historical texts is balanced with current application and research. The herbs have been selected on the basis of common use by practising herbalists. Each illustrated monograph contains: Species, identification and botanical description A study of the characterisation and medicinal use of the plants consistently drawn from featured herbals which includes the authorsâown translations from the Latin Assessment of past and current texts in the transmission of herbal knowledge Consideration of traditional therapeutics, including humoral and physiomedical approaches Suggestions towards a modern experiential approach through Goethean methodology Current evidence on pharmacological constituents Review of evidence on safety Recommendations for internal and external uses, prescribing and dosage.
... The bristles with hook enable the dispersal of the seeds on animal fur. It also spreads vegetatively by stout, woody, deep-lying rhizomes (21). ...
... Many centuries later, Fuchs named it 'Hepatorium' , because of its protective effects on the liver. Until the 18 th century Agrimony was known in the Linnaean classification under the title 'Eupatorion' , so Dioscorides (IV 41) named it the same (21). ...
... It should be used with caution when there is a constipation (21,33). Side effects of nausea and constipation with excessive doses are likely (21). ...
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Agrimonia eupatoria is a perennial herb belonging to the Rosaceae family that all its parts are used to treat various diseases. In this article, we aimed to present a comprehensive review on the phytochemical, pharmacological, and therapeutic effects of this plant. We searched various databases and summarized the data documented in literature from 1976 to 2020. Agrimonia eupatoria has effects on various kinds of cancer, oxidative stress, diabetes mellitus, hepatitis B, and liver damage. It also has anti-adhesive, antibacterial, antimicrobial, and wound healing properties. It induces nitric oxide and inhibits pro-inflammatory cytokines production. Phytochemical studies related to this plant has led to isolation and identification of tannins, coumarins, and flavonoids as the most active chemicals with biological effects. Based on this comprehensive review about Agrimonia eupatoria, there will be more opportunities for investigators to search and discover ways to use bioactive agents of this herb to develop new Agrimony based medicines.
... Pliny took 1800 mg cooked D. maritima with honey and vinegar as diuretic agent. One tablespoon of squill honey is combined with 2 tablespoons of sweet almond oil and 2-3 tablespoons of violet juice, then one tablespoon of it is used, every 6 h for treatment of asthma and cough (Tobyn et al. 2010). D. maritima is considered as mice poison or as mice and insects repellent in Italy (Viegi et al. 2003). ...
... D. maritima interacts with carbenoxolone calcium, thiazides, loop diuretics, and laxatives due to its additive effects with cardiac glycosides. Na + -K + -ATP ase is inhibited by cardiac glycosides, therefore, the active transport across the cell membranes is prohibited, the concentrations of intracellular Na + and extracellular K + increase, which leads to increase the contractility of myocardium as the result of increasing the intracellular Ca 2+ , thus the cardiac output with reduction in heart rates increases (Tobyn et al. 2010). Although, steroid cardiac glycosides of D. maritima causes the gastric irritation, and hypersensitivity reactions, but the recommended dose of squill Oxymel is not dangerous due to poor absorption of cardiac glycosides. ...
... According the Iranian traditional medicine, the daily permitted dose of squill is 3.18 g of squill (Ibn Sina 2004). 1800 mg of fresh squill is equivalent to 360 mg dried squill (Tobyn et al. 2010). ...
Article
Squill (Drimia maritima L.) as well- known medicinal plants from ancient times has been used for treatment of different ailments. This review article evaluated a comprehensive investigation on squill in modern medicine and its relation to traditional believes. The information were extracted from accessible resources (PubMed, Wiley, Springer, and Google) and Persian and English traditional books. Squill was traditionally used as good remedy for cough, asthma, indigestion, alopecia, pain and lice. Modern clinical studies confirmed the traditional believes on squill in treatment of nonalcoholic fatty liver, asthma, head lice, alopecia and inflammatory pains. Also, the antioxidant, anti-parasite, anti-cancer and insecticidal effects of squill have been confirmed in experimental studies. The results of investigations exhibited that squill had good potency in management of respiratory and gastrointestinal diseases, therefore, it can be more considerate in clinical future.
... Reports, found in the Corpus Hippocraticum and in Pharmacopoeias of seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, suggest Drimia maritima s. lat as emollient, diuretic, and expectorant, for uterine problems and as ingredient in ophthalmological pharmaceutical formulations [2,3]. Dioscorides recommends the cooked bulb of the plant for the treatment of asthma, chronic cough, and mucus [4]. Nowadays, D. numidica, a member of D. maritima s. lat. ...
... The difference between the structures of the examined bufadienolides lies on the presence of an acetoxy group at the position 6 of the scilliroside steroid nucleus, which may be the reason for its toxicity [29]. However, despite the toxicity of the plant, it has been reported that bufadienolides such as proscillaridin are of great interest for the treatment of congestive heart failure and atrial fibrillation [4]. ...
Article
Drimia species have been used since ancient times for their medicinal properties. Their bulbs are considered as the main source of secondary metabolites with biological activity but the chemical composition of the other plant parts has not yet been considered. The aim of this study is to contribute to the existing knowledge with new data on the total phenolic content, the antioxidant activity and the chemical profile of different parts of Drimia numidica. The total phenolic content was estimated by the Folin-Ciocalteu assay and the antioxidant activity with DPPH· and ABTS·+ reagents. The separation and the identification of the compounds were performed with liquid chromatography combined with time-of-flight high-resolution mass spectrometry (LC/Q-TOF/HRMS). The extract of leaves presented the highest phenolic content while the highest antioxidant activity was presented by the extract of flowers. Results of the chemical analysis verify the presence of bufadienolides and phenolic compounds.
... According to the number of effects that every herb has, as prescribed by Avicenna as effective on liver or spleen diseases or both, the herbs were scored (Figure 2). Ghāfith (Eupatorium cannabinum) was named "The eupatorion of Avicenna" (Tobyn et al., 2016) in old times, is one of the highly scored herbs. The present studies demonstrated choleretic and hepatoprotective effects of hemp agrimony (Lexa et al., 1989) although it contains pyrrolizidine alkaloids (Edgar et al., 1992;Hendriks et al., 1987) which have hepatotoxic and potentially carcinogenic and genotoxic effects and essential oils of E. cannabinum is notably toxic (Judzentiene et al., 2016). ...
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Objective Avicenna (Abu Ali al-Hossein ibn Abdullah ibn Sina) who had a special attention toward diseases treatments, gathered results of ages of herbal medicine experiments on humans and animals in his book “Al-Qānūn fī Ṭibb” or "The Canon of Medicine", which is a reliable book in Iranian traditional medicine. The aim of this research was to build a reliable list of plants effective against liver and spleen diseases, based on Avicenna's book (volume 2). Materials and Methods By studying the monographs, introduced agents that have been effective in liver and spleen diseases were identified. Upon their origin and effectiveness in diseases of the liver, spleen or both, treatments were organized. Results From a huge number of drugs, 163 plants from 73 families were found to be effective in treatment of liver and spleen illnesses. In addition, 30 non-herbal agents effective in treatment of liver diseases were detected. The Lamiaceae family have the most effective herbs for treatment of diseases of the liver, spleen or both. Hemp Agrimony, Irsā, and Fūdhanj achieved the highest scores. Conclusion The effects of different plants on liver and spleen diseases were indicated in Avicenna's book. Due to the report on the above book, further studies needed specially on the effect of Irsā (Iris ensata) and family Lamiaceae on liver and spleen diseases.
... Der amerikanische Historiker John Riddle zeigte z.B., dass die moderne Anwendung von Arzneipflanzen einschließlich einiger ihrer Kontraindikationen bereits in Werken des Dioskurides beschrieben wurde [19,20]. Inzwischen hat sich mit der systematischen Untersuchung historischer Texte ein eigener Forschungszweig herausgebildet, der für die phytotherapeutische Forschung hohe Bedeutung hat [21][22][23][24]. So konnten Therapien aus dem 16. und 17. ...
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Zusammenfassung Der Begriff «traditionelle Anwendung» wird einerseits häufig unreflektiert verwendet, hat andererseits aber hohe regulatorische Bedeutung im Rahmen der Registrierung bzw. Zulassung von Phytopharmaka. Daher scheint es sinnvoll, den Begriff «Tradition» aus sozial- und medizinhistorischer Sicht zu beleuchten. Dabei zeigt sich, dass eine Tradition durch die Weitergabe von Wissen und Gebräuchen über mindestens drei Generationen begründet wird, wobei die Generationsdauer nicht allgemeingültig festgelegt werden kann. Veränderungen wie die Anpassung an technische oder gesellschaftliche Rahmenbedingungen sind dabei möglich und für den Erhalt der Tradition auch notwendig. Die historische Forschung ermöglicht wertvollen Erkenntnisgewinn für die Bewertung von Arzneimitteln hinsichtlich Wirksamkeit und Unbedenklichkeit. Eine Verwendung des Traditionsbegriffs ist dabei Ergänzung, nicht aber Ersatz für moderne Evidenzkriterien und sollte historisch korrekt erfolgen.Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel
... To identify herbs traditionally, or more recently, used for the treatment of gout in Western herbal medicine, a selection of easily accessible historical and contemporary texts from Europe, North America and Australia, addressing the medicinal use of herbs was searched and all references to gout recorded. The texts spanned approximately 860 years, from around 1150 to 2011: 12th (Hildegard von Bingen, 1998), 17th (Culpeper, 1995), 19th (Cook, 1869Fernie, 1897Fernie, [transcribed 2006), 20th (Bartram, 1998;Grieve and Leyel, 1992;Priest and Priest, 1983;Vickery, 1995) and 21st centuries (Allen and Hatfield, 2004;Barker, 2007;Barnes et al., 2007;Bone, 2003;Felter, 1922;Fisher, 2009;Hoffmann, 2003;Kress, 2011;Menzies-Trull, 2009;Mills and Bone, 2000;Thomsen, 2005;Tobyn et al., 2011;Weiss, 2001;Wood, 2004Wood, , 2008aWood, , 2008b ...
Article
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Gout has been recognised as a clinically distinct disease for over four millennia. It is one of the most prevalent inflammatory arthropathies and a true crystal deposition disease. Current consensus holds that its management in primary orthodox healthcare is sub-optimal. This study aimed to identify whether herbal medicine offers an effective alternative or complementary approach for managing patients with acute and chronic gout. Three approaches were taken: a survey of medical herbalists to gauge contemporary approaches; historical and contemporary texts were scrutinised to identify any herbs indicated for gout; and an evidence review to establish the current evidence base for the herbal treatment of gout. While gout was not a frequent presentation in practice, the majority of medical herbalists surveyed had treated it at some point in time. Moreover, most reported herbal medicine had a definite benefit for patients with gout, usually taking effect within one or two months. In general, the herbs used in clinical practice were mainly chosen for their ability to eliminate uric acid (Apium graveolens, Urtica spp, Taraxacum officinale) or as anti-inflammatories (Harpagophytum procumbens, Filipendula ulmaria, Salix spp, Betula spp, Curcuma longa and Guaiacum spp.). There was some agreement in the more popular herbs cited for gout in herbal texts and prescribed by practitioners, and given the lack of scientific evidence identified, suggests herb choice was largely influenced by traditional use. A paucity of evidence was highlighted regarding the effectiveness of Western herbal medicine for gout, a single clinical trial was identified; however, it was of poor quality with unclear or high risks of bias. Given the effectiveness of herbal medicine in treating patients with gout reported by practitioners, together with the lack of a strong evidence-base identified in this study, further research is warranted. Practice-based evidence, such as the systematic collection of clinical treatment outcomes in practice, together with large, well-designed pragmatic clinical trials are required to establish the effectiveness of herbal medicine in the treatment of gout.
... In the ancient times, plants were the only available medicine (Tobyn et al., 2011). Nowadays products of plants are frequently considered less poisonous and having fewer side effects than synthetic drugs, and consequently still widely used by the population to treat several diseases. ...
... There has been a growing interest in research concerning the possible use of plants in their natural form for pest and disease control in agriculture, that are less damaging to the human health and environment (Wang et al., 2005;Hussain FIGURE 1 Mugwort (Artemisia vulgaris) (Tobyn et al., 2011(Tobyn et al., ). et al., 2008. ...
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Mugwort (Artemisia vulgaris L.) belongs to the genus Artemisia and is a well-known aromatic perennial plant with a characteristic scent, and possesses multiple medicinal applications, such as emmenagogue, nervine, digestive, diuretic and diaphoretic, food flavoring, and insect repellent properties. Aerial parts of Mugwort plant yield an essential oil with contents varying between 0.1 and 1.4%. Mugwort essential oil, which is mainly composed of β-pinene, α-pinene, camphor, and 1,8-cineole, has diverse applications including as an antioxidant, antibacterial, antifungal, food flavouring, and insect repellent. This chapter describes the botanical aspects, medicinal uses, and applications of the essential oil of Mugwort and explores its potential role in food science.
... These documents also indicate use by women for over 2,000 years as a means to control fertility. 1,2 More recently, ethnobotanical investigations have documented the use of DC seed as a method of fertility control by women in India 3 and North American grassroots herbalists have documented its use for contraception. 4 Scientific investigations have begun to assess the efficacy of DC seed as an anti-fertility agent and indicate between 40-100% anti-implantation activity in rodents. ...
Article
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The seeds of wild carrot (Queen Anne’s Lace, Daucus carota L., Family Apiaceae) have a long history of use relating to fertility, especially as an anti-fertility agent. Objectives: A literature review was conducted in an attempt to evaluate the potential efficacy of carrot seed as a contraceptive and to more clearly identify the mechanisms of its reported actions. Methods: Databases, including PubMed, Scopus, and Science Direct were searched, as were authoritative herbal and historical texts including Culpeper, Eclectic texts and Indian pharmacopoeias. Results: The use of carrot seed for contraception and abortion is recorded throughout European history, with contemporary reports from India and the United States. Scientific in vivo and ex vivo studies suggest that several modes of action may contribute to the anti-fertility effect, including an effect on the oestrous cycle and anti-progestogenic activity. Conclusions: Historical and ethnobotanical evidence make essential contributions to multidisciplinary research on herbal medicines. Further research is required to confirm the anti-fertility action of carrot seed and to provide a better understanding of the mechanism(s) of action and the compound(s) responsible.
... Indeed, Galenic treatment strategies and pharmacology held their place in medical practice in England until some way through the 19th century. 98 In the 21st century, medical writers who introduce a historical perspective into their studies find in Culpeper's works an accessible starting point for their discussions. one such article on the history of antidotes begins with the alexipharmic herbs listed in an early 18thcentury edition of Culpeper's herbal. ...
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Introduction to the 2nd edition of 'Culpeper's Medicine' which reviews alternative interpretations of key events in Nicholas Culpeper's life published by historians since my first edition, namely by Mary Rhinelander McCarl, Jonathan Sanderson, Elizabeth Lane Furdell and Benjamin Woolley.
... During ancient times, celery (Apium graveolens, Apiaceae family) was used only for medical purposes such as: treatments for colds, flu, water retention, poor digestion, different types of arthritis, and certain diseases of a the liver and spleen [1]. Celery begins to be used as a vegetable in Italy in the fourth century [2] and Britain by sixteenth century [3]. Nowadays, all parts of celery are used for both nutrition and medicine purposes. ...
Article
Celery is recently the subject of various studies due to its role in human nutrition and for medicine purposes. One of the most speculated ideas is that celery contains high quantities of androsterone which makes it suitable for infertility treatments. Due to this trend, the purpose of this study was to develop an analytical method suitable to confirm and measure the quantity of androsterone from celery root. A LC-MS/MS method was developed using a Turbo V source in positive ionization mode. Analytical parameters such as: linearity, detection and quantification limits, accuracy and precision and matrix effect were evaluated. The calibration curve was developed in the range of 100 to 400 ng/ml with a correlation coefficient r² of 0.9968 and detection limit of 10 ng/ml. The extraction method was tested for the recovery degree. The recovery obtained was 92.1±2.2%. The method was used to determine the content of androsterone from three celery varieties from Romanian market.
... Traditionally, G. aparine has enjoyed a large number of medicinal applications for diverse health conditions. Briefly, the whole herb (stem, leaf, flower and seed) has been commonly used as cooling diuretic in fevers and for urinary tract infections, T in skin diseases such as eczema or psoriasis, ulcers, chronic sores, as a blood purifier i.e., to increase lymphatic flow, to reduce swellings, infection and inflammation, or to stop bleeding from wounds (Tobyn et al., 2016). ...
... Der amerikanische Historiker John Riddle zeigte z.B., dass die moderne Anwendung von Arzneipflanzen einschließlich einiger ihrer Kontraindikationen bereits in Werken des Dioskurides beschrieben wurde [19,20]. Inzwischen hat sich mit der systematischen Untersuchung historischer Texte ein eigener Forschungszweig herausgebildet, der für die phytotherapeutische Forschung hohe Bedeutung hat [21][22][23][24]. So konnten Therapien aus dem 16. und 17. ...
Article
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In phytopharmacy, the term 'traditional use' is widely found in colloquial language but has also great significance for registration procedures of medicinal products. It is therefore justified to explore its actual meaning from the perspective of social and pharmaceutical history. It is shown that a tradition is founded by transmission of knowledge and techniques over at least three generations, while the life span of a generation may vary widely. Changes and adaptations to technical advancements do not at all avoid but even constitute the development of traditions. Historical research provides valuable knowledge about effectiveness and risk of phytopharmaceuticals. Criteria of traditional use may complement but not substitute modern evidence based methods; however they always need to be applied historically sound.
... The above-mentioned author, Minta Collins, demonstrates how many herbals were not only codices for medical scholars but expensively illustrated books for bibliophiles, of equal interest to students of manuscripts, to historians of medicine and botany, and to art historians. Some years later, Tobyn et al. (2010) provided, in the illustrated color guide Western Herbal Tradition: 2000 Years of Medicinal Plant Knowledge, a comprehensive exploration of 27 plants that are central to the herbalist's repertoire and they offer analysis of these herbs through the examination of historical texts and discussion of current applications and research. ...
Chapter
Medicinal plants are used in traditional medicine practices from ancient times. Since these plants synthesise plenty of biologically active chemical compounds, they are important for defence against insects, fungi, diseases, and herbivorous animals. Wild medicinal plant species as a substantial component of natural phytocoenoses are also responsible for biodiversity and stability of natural ecosystems. This chapter is focused on responses of medicinal plants to the most important abiotic factors, such are drought, waterlogging, high or low temperature, highlight, salinity, acidity, ozone and toxic metals as well. There are analysed structural features (leaf anatomy, root structure), physiological processes (growth, photosynthesis, transpiration, water regime, stomata apparatus) and biochemical parameters (reactive oxygen species, photosynthetic pigments, activities of antioxidant enzymes) of these plants under above mentioned abiotic stresses in isolation and/or combination. Moreover, actual genetic engineering techniques are presented that offer many of applications in improvement of medicinal plants for abiotic stress tolerance. Potential of some medicinal plant species to be used in phytoremediation technologies is also outlined.
... The measurement was conducted at Physics Department/Yarmouk University, using a gamma spectrometer system consisting of p-type high purity germanium HPGe detector (Canberra Industries, USA) with 25% relative efficiency and resolution of 1.9 keV at 1.33 MeV of 60 Co gamma ray peak. The detector was shielded with a cylindrical lead of 100 mm thick to reduce the background radiations. ...
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Thirty two samples of different types of imported and locally produced medicinal plants consumed by adults in Jordan were analyzed using gamma-ray spectrometry system equipped with a high purity germanium (HPGe) detector. The activity concentrations of the natural radionuclides 226Ra, 232Th, 40K and 137Cs were measured. The annual equivalent dose rate was calculated. The measurements show that the average concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K in (Bqkg-1±SD) are 2.63±0.30, 1.44±0.18 and 593.97±63.47 respectively. The measured concentration of 137Cs was found only in Alkanet (Alkanna tinctoria) sample and is equal to 1.03±0.27 Bqkg-1. The values of annual equivalent dose for consuming the plants per individual adult for 226Ra, 232Th and 40K were ranged between (0.11-1.56) µSvy-1, (10.00x10-3 – 70.00x10-3) µSvy-1and (0.13-9.88) µSvy-1respectively. The obtained results were compared with the standard accepted international values, and were found to be within the acceptable limits. Therefore, medicinal plant samples investigated here do not pose any significant health hazard and are considered radiologically safe for adult consumption.
... The pharmacological properties of tormentil have been discussed in several reviews (Tomczyk and Latté, 2009;Tobyn et al., 2011;Melzig and Böttger, 2020). The monographs for tormentil are included in the State Pharmacopoeia of the Republic of Belarus (2007), in ESCOP (2013), in the British Pharmacopoeia (2014), and the European Pharmacopoeia 10th edition (2020). ...
Article
Ethnopharmacological relevance Herbal medicine in Russia has a long history starting with handwritten herbalist manuscripts from the Middle Ages to the officinal Pharmacopoeia of the 21st century. The "herbophilious" Russian population has accumulated a lot of knowledge about the beneficial effects of local medicinal plants. Yet, for a long time, Russian traditional and officinal herbal medicine was not well known to the international audience. In our previous comprehensive review, we discussed the pharmacological effects of specific plants included in the 11th edition of the Pharmacopoeia of the USSR, which was also for a while used in Russia. The 14th edition of the Russian Federation’s State Pharmacopoeia was implemented in 2018. Aim of the review The aims of the present review are: (i) to trace the evolution of medicinal plant handling from handwritten herbalist manuscripts to Pharmacopoeias; (ii) to describe the modern situation with regulatory documents for herbal medicinal products and their updated classification; (iii) to summarize and discuss the pharmacology, safety, and clinical data for new plants, which are included in the new edition of the Pharmacopoeia. Methods New medicinal plants included in the 14th edition of the Russian Federation’s State Pharmacopoeia were selected. We carefully searched the scientific literature for data related to traditional use, pharmacological, clinical application, and safety. The information was collected from local libraries in Saint-Petersburg, the online databases E-library.ru, Scopus, Web of Science, and the search engine Google scholar. Results Investigating the evolution of all medicinal plants referred to in the Russian Pharmacopoeias led us to the identification of ten medicinal plants that were present in all editions of civilian Russian Pharmacopoeias starting from 1778. In the 14th edition of the modern Russian Pharmacopoeia, medicinal plants are described in 107 monographs. Altogether, 25 new monographs were included in the 14th edition, and one monograph was excluded in comparison to the 11th edition. Some of the included plants are not endemic to Russia and do not have a history of traditional use, or on the other hand, are widely used in Western medicine. For 15 plants, we described the specificity of their application in Russian traditional medicine along with the claimed dosages and indications in officinal medicine. The pharmacology, safety, and clinical data are summarized and assessed for nine plants, underlining their therapeutic potential and significance for global phytopharmacotherapy. Conclusions In this review, we highlight the therapeutical potential of new plants included in the modern edition of the Russian Pharmacopoeia. We hope that these plants will play an imperative role in drug development and will have a priority for future detailed research.
... Then sugar is added to the liquid and the syrup is boiled to be more concentrated (Ghaeni Heravi, 1766). Sweet violet flower contains mucilage, anthocyanins, flavonoids, and methyl salicylate (Tobyn et al., 2011). Aqueous-methanol leaves extract possesses alkaloids, coumarins, tannins, phenolics, flavonoids, and saponins. ...
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Coronavirus disease 2019 is a worldwide pandemic resulting in a severe acute respiratory syndrome. Remdesivir is the only FDA-approved drug for hospitalized patients older than age 12. It shows the necessity of finding new therapeutic strategies. Functional foods (FFs) could have co-therapeutic and protective effects against COVID-19 infection. Traditional Persian medicine (TPM), one of the safest and most popular schools of medicine for hundreds of years, has recommended potential FF candidates to manage such a global pandemic. To reveal the potential of TPM in terms of antitussive FFs, traditional Persian pharmacopoeia “Qarabadin-e-Salehi” was searched using the keywords “Soaal” and “Sorfeh.” Also, a search of MEDLINE, PubMed Central, Google Scholar, and Science Direct was performed for the relevant literature published from the inception up to March 2021. A combination of search terms including “cough, antitussive, antioxidant, anti�inflammation, antiviral, COVID-19, mucoactive, mucolytic, expectorant, and mucoregulatory” was also applied. The potential mechanism of action in SARS-CoV-2 infection was discussed. Twelve TPM FFs were found including Laooqs, Morabbas, a Saviq, a soup, and a syrup. They are combinations of two to seven ingredients. Natural compounds of mentioned formulations have the main pharmacological mechanisms including antiviral, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antihistamine, bronchodilator, immunomodulatory, and mucoactive effects as well as central or peripheral antitussive activities. FFs are cost-effective, easily accessible, and safe options for both treatment and prevention of COVID-19. They might have positive psychological effects along with their pharmacological effects and nutritional virtues. They could also manage persistent respiratory discomforts after recovery from COVID-19.
... Due to a highly toxic bufadienolide glycoside, the red squill bulb can also cause a central nervous system failure. Thus, it causes convulsions and death as well as cardiovascular collapse (Tobyn et al. 2010). ...
... All plant parts (stem, leaves, flowers and seeds) have been used in fever and urinary tract infections, eczema or skin diseases, ulcers, chronic wounds. It has also been used to reduce swelling, infection, and inflammation, increase lymphatic flow, and stop bleeding [5]. It is also used as a local tea by boiling the herb. ...
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Objective: Plants are known to have many biological activities. In this study, the antioxidant, oxidant, antimicrobial and antiproliferative activities of Galium aparine L. were investigated. Material and Method: The antioxidant and oxidant potentials of the plant, the aerial parts of which were extracted with ethanol in a Soxhlet device, were measured using Rel assay kits. Antimicrobial activity against bacteria and fungi was determined using the agar dilution method. Lung carcinoma cell line (A549) was used to determine the antiproliferative activity. Result and Discussion: As a result of the studies, total antioxidant status (TAS) value of plant extracts was determined as 5.147 ± 0.237, total oxidant status (TOS) value as 18.679 ± 0.245 and oxidative stress index (OSI) value as 0.346 ± 0.018. Plant extracts were found to be effective against test microorganisms at concentrations of 50-200 µg/mL. In addition, it was determined that the antiproliferative activity of the plant extract showed potent effects depending on the increase in the extract concentration. Finally, it was determined that Galium aparine has high biological activity and can be used as a natural pharmacological agent in this context.
... Another way to reflect on the legacy of Dioscorides is to look at current use of the same herbs, and it is interesting to reflect on both the continuity and the changes in prescribing (Tobyn, Denham & Whitelegg 2011). In this section I will look at some of the recommendations of Dioscorides, and then of some recent ethnobotanic surveys carried out in Turkey. ...
... Due to a highly toxic bufadienolide glycoside, the red squill bulb can also cause a central nervous system failure. Thus, it causes convulsions and death as well as cardiovascular collapse (Tobyn et al. 2010). ...
Article
This study aimed to investigate the effects of wild indigo (Baptisia tinctoria) root extract as a functional food material, in terms of antioxidant and skin health-related activities. Both water and ethanol (50/50, v/v) extracts showed high phenol content. They were evaluated for antioxidant activity, such as 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS), antioxidant protection factor (PF), and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). While the DPPH radical scavenging activities of water and ethanol extracts were 84.23% and 89.30%, respectively, at 200 μg/mL total phenol content (TPC), the ABTS radical cation scavenging activities were 51.39% and 48.10%, respectively. The water and ethanol extracts also showed desirable antioxidant PF levels of 1.18 and 1.16, respectively. Furthermore, the antioxidant effects on TBARS significantly increased by 37.31% and 51.43%, respectively, in 200 μg/mL of water and ethanol extracts. Both the extracts showed high dose-dependent collagenase inhibitory activities, up to 27.60% and 77.39%, respectively. The ethanol extract showed an elastase inhibitory activity of 37.21%; the tyrosinase inhibitory effect (which facilitates natural skin-whitening) was 59.26% at 200 μg/mL TPC. The hyaluronidase activity inhibition, related to anti-inflammatory activity, was 20.02% for the water extract and 14.30% for the ethanol extract, at 200 μg/mL TPC. Therefore, B. tinctoria extract has potential applications in cosmetics and food supplements due to its antioxidant and skin health promoting activities.
Article
Objectives: To explore the recommendations of naturopathic medicine for the management of endometriosis, dysmenorrhea, and menorrhagia, drawing on traditional and contemporary sources. Design: Content analysis. Setting: Australia, Canada, and the United States of America (USA). Subjects: Contemporary sources were identified from reviewing naturopathic higher education institutions' recommended texts, while traditional sources were identified from libraries which hold collections of naturopathic sources. Sources were included if they were published from 1800 to 2016, were in English, published in Australia, Canada, or the USA, and reported on the topic. Included sources were as follows: 37 traditional texts; 47 contemporary texts; and 83 articles from naturopathic periodicals. Results: Across included sources, the most reported disciplines were herbal medicine, clinical nutrition, mineral medicines, homeopathy, hydrotherapy, and chemical-based medicines. Herbal medicines were extensively reported from all sources for the management of endometriosis, dysmenorrhea, and menorrhagia. Clinical nutrition was only recommended from contemporary sources for all three conditions. Mineral medicines were mentioned in both traditional and contemporary sources, but were only recommended for dysmenorrhea and menorrhagia. There were limited recommendations for homeopathy and hydrotherapy treatments in all conditions across all sources. Chemical-based medicines were only mentioned for dysmenorrhea and menorrhagia, and recommendations ceased after 1922. Recommendations for endometriosis were not present in any of the traditional sources, across all reported disciplines. Conclusions: The findings of this article provide insights into the documented historical and contemporary treatments within naturopathic medicine for endometriosis, dysmenorrhea, and menorrhagia. While philosophical principles remain the core of naturopathic practice, the therapeutic armamentarium appears to have changed over time, and a number of the original naturopathic treatments appear to have been retained as key elements of treatment for these conditions. Such insights into naturopathic treatments will be of particular interest to clinicians providing care to women, educators designing and delivering naturopathic training, and researchers conducting clinical and health service naturopathic research.
Article
Arctium lappa or burdock (Compositae family) is a perennial plant, native to Europe, Northern Asia and North America. Burdock roots are known as detoxifying herb to clear toxins from the bloodstream. It seems that its effects are on the liver functions as the main part of body in detoxifying the bloodstream. The aim of this review article was to evaluate the potency of burdock in management of liver functions in detoxifying the bloodstream. The information was extracted from electronic resources (Google scholar, Science Direct, Springer, Magiran). The results of our investigation exhibited that the studies are limited to animal studies, but the results of investigations showed that burdock roots detoxify the liver against ethanol, carbon tetrachloride (CCL4), acetaminophen, cadmium and zinc oxide by improving the functions of liver enzymes. The antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and prebiotic effects of burdock roots may involve in its effects on liver enzymes and detoxifying the blood. The large clinical studies are required to confirm its efficacy on liver functions and detoxify the liver.
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The paper is an investigation on current and potential value of medicinal plants growing in six saline meadows in Aradului Plain. The list of species is based on previous original studies made in 2010-2012 (Dǎrǎban et al., 2012a, 2012b and unpublished data). A bibliographical investigation shows for many of them effectiveness and potential medicinal uses. Besides Achillea millefolium and Chamomilla recutita (common medicinals), Artemisia santonicum subsp. santonicum and Limonium gmelinii may become valuable for pharmaceutical uses. In the vicinities, we identified numerous ruderal species with high medicinal value (Cichorium intybus, Lythrum salicaria, Mentha sp., Ononis spinosa etc). The medicinal use and the conservation of studied halophilic communities (they are part of a Natura 2000 site) are not antagonistic objectives. Rediscovering local remedies from plants it is a way to involve people in conservation. Overgrazing (noticed especially in Vǎrşand and Socodor) is a threat for both plant diversity and their local uses.
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Fagopyrum Mill. Polygonum L. & Persicaria (L.) Mill. & Fallopia adan. Rheum L. Rumex L. References
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A chronic, life threatening and immuno-suppressing malady caused by Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is formally known as Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Currently, combinations of several anti-retroviral drugs are being used for the management of HIV infection. These drugs possess certain limitations and hence researchers across the globe are striving to explore treatment methodologies based on medicinal plants of natural origin in order to develop safe and effective treatment. In this review, various medicinal plants are categorized on the basis of target of action namely Reverse transcriptase enzyme, Protease enzyme, Integrase enzyme, cell fusion, CC chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) CXC chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4). Medicinal plants exhibiting multi-targeted activities against various targets of HIV are also reviewed. Detail description of medicinal plants with their habitat, common names, category of systems of medicines, phytoconstituents and their biological activities in terms of relative % inhibition or IC50 or EC50 are provided in this review. Anti-HIV benefits of these plants are observed due to phytoconstituents like terpenoids, tannins, alkaloids, polyphenols, coumarins, flavonoids, etc. In order to gain the structural knowledge for future developments of anti-HIV leads, ligand based pharmacophore was generated using phytoconstituents mentioned in this review. Structural modifications of these phytoconstituents on hydrophobic, donor and acceptor regions are beneficial for the potent anti-HIV activity. In conclusion, this study may prove to be a stepping stone towards the use of herbal medicinal plants for the management of HIV/AIDS and may aspire researchers to look for new treatment options from the natural sources.
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Chemical composition was estimated in a tea sample, i.e. infusion prepared from dried aerial herb of Centaurium erythraea. The plant was harvested in the Stara Planina mountain (Serbia, 42°43'00"N; 24°55'04"E) during the flowering stage. The flowering tops of the plant were dried to the moisture content of 7.89 (w/w) in a dark place. Qualitative analysis was done by Ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector-electrospray mass spectrometry (UH-PLC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS) method. The aim of this study was to detect and identify phytochemicals in the infusion prepared in a traditional way and present it as a good source of biologically active substances and bio-antioxidants. The analysis of C. erythraea infusion primarily indicated the presence of secoiridoid glycosides (sweroside, gentiopicroside, secologanoside, swertiamarin), xanthones and flavo-noids, which promises good quality of tea from Eastern Serbia.
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The aerial parts of 14 Fumaria species growing in Turkey afforded 49 alkaloids belonging to the skeletally eleven different groups of the isoquinoline alkaloids. These alkaloids alongwith their antiplatelet and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activities were also given in this study.
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From the aerial parts of Galium aparine L. (Rubiaceae) of Turkish origin, an isoquinoline type alkaloid has been isolated, This is the firsİ exaınple of the isolation of protopine from the Rubiaceae family.
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The genus Lamium (Lamiaceae) is represented by 30 species in the flora of Turkey. Lamium album, L. maculatum and several Lamium species have been used in Anatolian folk medicine. In this study, the genus Lamium is evaluated from the viewpoint of ethnobotany, pharmacology and phytochemistry.
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An HPLC-ESI/MS method that enables fast detection and identification of iridoid glycosides is described. Eleven iridoid glycosides known to occur in the genus Lamium-lamalbide, sesamoside, 6-β-OH ipolamiide, shanzhiside methyl ester, dehydropenstemoside, barlerin (= 8-O-acetylshanzhiside methyl ester), 6-O-syringyl-8-O-acetylshanzhiside methyl ester, lamerioside, lamiide, eriobioside, and ipolamiide, were identified by means of their retention time and ESI/MS data,. This method was successfully applied to the identification of the iridoid composition of the n-butanol extracts of Lamium eriocephalum Bentham subsp. eriocephalum, L. garganicum L. subsp. pulchrum R. Mill, L. garganicum L. subsp. laevigatum Arcangeli, and L. purpureum L. var. purpureum from the Turkish flora.
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The anti-conceptive, anti-fertility and reproductive effects of various R. graveolens extracts were tested in Sprague-Dawley adult female rats. Intragastric administration of 800 mg/kg of aqueous 1, aqueous 2, methanol, ethanol, hexane, ether or dichloromethane extracts of the R. graveolens aerial parts from day 1 to day 6 post-coitum had no significant anti-implantation activity in rats. The ether extract administered at 800 mg/kg exhibited severe toxicity and was inactive as anti-implantation agent when administered at 400 mg/kg into the rat. Administration of aqueous1, aqueous2, ethanol or hexane preparations significantly increased the number of resorbed embryos. None of the extracts had significant effect on maternal body weight gain. However, aqueous 2, methanol, ethanol or dichloromethane extracts showed a significant reduction in fetal body weight. Placental weight was significantly reduced in female's ingested methanol, ethanol, ether or dichloromethane extracts. On the other hand, administration of hexane extract (400 mg/kg) of R. graveolens on days 6-15 post-coitum significantly decreased the number of females with born fetuses and increased the mortality rate among the borne fetuses. Prenatal exposure (days 6-15 of gestation) of male and female rat offspring to 400 mg/kg hexane extract of R. graveolens caused a significant delay on the timing of testicular descent and vaginal opening, respectively. Likewise, administration of hexane extract (400 mg/kg) of R. graveolons for 30 consecutive days had no significant effect on the occurrence of pregnancy in female rats. The results strongly suggest that R. graveolens extracts had adverse effects on female rat reproduction.
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The changes of aroma ingredients during the process of flower opening from Bulgarian rose were monitored by head space method and solvent extraction.W e also analyzed contents of glycosidic alcoholic aroma together with activities of the hydrolytic enzymes throughout the flower development and the opening. At flower petal opening time, the total amount of aromas in the head space gas reached the highest level. The concentration of citronellol was abundant in the head space gas at this stage, whereas the concentration o f 2-phenylethanol became higher than that of citronellol 4 hr after the opening stage. In the volatile extracts, higher accumulation was observed in 2-phenylethanol than those of monoterpenoids at this stage, and the content of the former still increased after flower opening. Glycosidic citronellol, geraniol, and other m onoterpenes started their accumulation ju st before flower opening stage and then reached the maximum level. The amount of these glycosidic compounds were less than those in the volatile extracts. In contrast to the monoterpenes, 2-phenylethyl glycosides accumulated in a higher level than in the volatile extracts starting at least 12 hr before the opening stage. The amount of the glycosidic precursors of 2-phenylethanol detected in the rose petals before flower opening always was higher than the amount of 2-phenylethanol which was released later. The decline of glycosidic 2-phenylethanol at flower opening stage may be due to partial enzymatic hydrol­ysis. Thereafter a drastic decline was observed, indicating that rapid enzymatic hydrolysis occurred during these stages.
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Artemisia vulgaris L. (mugwort) is an introduced rhizomatous perennial found primarily along roadsides, in waste areas, and in non-containerized nursery crops in eastern regions of Canada and the United States. Artemisia vulgaris is rapidly spreading throughout the Northern Hemisphere, and is currently found in nine Canadian provinces, as well as half of the states in the United States. Historically, A. vulgaris has been used as an herbal remedy and for flavouring beer, but recently has been identified as a primary pest of nurseries and urban landscapes, largely because of its ability to propagate easily from small rhizome fragments, and because of ineffective control strategies. The recent expansion of the nursery/landscape sector has accelerated the spread of A. vulgaris into turfgrass and landscape settings throughout the Northern Hemisphere, but especially westward towards the Pacific Coast. With few effective strategies for control, this aggressive weed has rapidly colonized new areas, often forming dense monospecific stands. Not surprisingly, species diversity of native flora in these habitats has declined following A. vulgaris colonization. The mechanisms of interference (e.g., allelopathy and competition) and current strategies for the control of A. vulgaris are discussed.
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The intrafamilial relationships of the Gentianaceae are investigated by means of a cladistic analysis based on morphological and to a lesser extent on chemical data. The 21 genera that are selected for the analysis represent all tribes and subtribes except Leiphaimeae, Rusbyantheae and Voyrieae. The large genus Gentiana is represented by three of its sections. The former loganiaceous genera Anthocleista and Fagraea are used as outgroups. Standard parsimony analyses and analyses using weights that are based on the cladistic reliability of the characters give congruent results as far as the global relationships are concerned The best supported clade contains Eustoma (Tachiinae) and all included Gentianinae, Erythraeinae and Chironiinae. The basal division in this clade is between Ixanthus and the other genera. In this way Ixanthus, an endemic of the Canary Islands, connects the mostly woody tropical and the mostly herbaceous temperate taxa. Subtribe Gentianinae (excluding Ixanthus) is monophyletic, unlike Erythraeinae and Chironiinae. In most analyses, however, both subtribes together (and including Eustoma) are the sister-group of Gentianinae. possibly Erythraeinae, Chironiinae and Eustoma should be merged. The basal parts of the cladograms, involving the woody tropical representatives and Exacum, are poorly resolved. More extensive sampling, especially among the tropical representatives, is necessary to elucidate these basal relationships. The tropical ancestry of the family,the switch from a woody to a herbaceous life form, and the position of critical taxa, such as Swertia and Halenia or Tripterospermum, are discussed.
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Examining the complex interactions associated with clinical toxicological events and chemical exposure of drug administration, this updated and revised Second Edition functions as a stand-alone text or reference of clinical toxicology for professionals, students of toxicology and pharmacy, as well as forensic toxicologists, occupational healthcare workers, industrial hygienists, and safety engineers. This all-inclusive source has been updated to include the latest issues and the most current research in clinical toxicology. Key features in Clinical Toxicology: Principles and Mechanisms include: •Convenient and organized categorization of compounds into therapeutic and non-therapeutic agents •Tables, drawings, and figures that provide readily accessible, precise data •Tables for easy usage and cross-reference to names, indications, effects, adverse reactions, and drug interactions for over 70 common herbal products •The brand, generic, and street names of therapeutic agents Topics covered in the Second Edition include: •Symptoms of diseases and pathology caused by toxins and clinical drugs •Biological and chemical toxins, changes in protocols for managing toxic ingestions, new antidotes, changes in treatments, and the pharmacology and toxicology of herbal products •The effects of biological and chemical agents cited by the U.S. and U.N. as potential bioterrorist weapons •General physiology and pharmacology principles •The widely distributed chemical agents and currently used therapeutic drugs that have hazardous effects.
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The antifertility activity of a polyherbal formulation (PHF) consisting of dried aqueous extracts of Aegle marmelos leaf, Carica papaya seed, Cariandrum sativum seed, Embelia ribes fruits, Daucus carotaseed and Hibiscus rosasinensis flower was studied. The acute and subchronic toxicity studies were performed to access the safety of the formulation. The PHF was found to be safe until 3240 mg/kg and no macroscopical organ abnormality were observed in acute and subchronic models. The extract exhibited 60% antifertility activity at 324 mg/kg and 90% antifertility activity at 1620 mg/kg dose level.
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A historical cross-section from antiquity via the »father of botany« to modern times A pre-occupation with the history of Artemisia reveals clearly how the plant has asserted itself for hundreds of years, if not thousands of years, as an important remedy in medicine. It is not just the use of Artemisia in ancient medicine that enabled it to be ranked first on the list of herbal remedies as highlighted under the name »mater herbarum« (mother of all herbs). The Teutonic as well as Anglo-Saxons regarded it as a magical plant and Christianity valued its apotropaic characteristics. Throughout the Middle Ages, Artemisia was used as the most important herbal remedy in the gynaecological and urological fields; it also received manifold applications in traumatological recipes in the sphere of vulnerary medicine. Artemisia has never lost its importance in Traditional Chinese Medicine and for several years now, the Artemisia variety Artemisia annua L. has achieved noteworthy successes in the treatment of malaria.
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This is the first definitive book to draw on unique, unpublished, professional expertise about the reshaping of herbal medicine in the UK. This book outlines the outcomes of recent examinations, and poses challenging questions about the direction of future herbal medicine policy within the UK. Contributions from Senior Members of the European Herbal Practitioners Association Well written and presented Includes vital issues such as divergent herbal traditions in the UK, history of herbal medicine in Europe, Patient and Public safety and Cultural issues faced integrating traditional systems of medicine within an allopathic medical model.
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A cultural as well as botanical guide to the flora of England, Scotland and Wales, including accounts of the role of wild plants in social life, customs and landscapes. The treatment is by plant family, describing each species and its occurrence, interspersed with general sections on plants in churchyards and hedges, plants connected with places and names, spring festivals, wild foods, midwinter greenery, urban commons, plant medicine, and meadow plants. In total, the book covers 1000 species, including trees and ferns, many in considerable detail. Much of the material is anecdotal, consisting of contributions from the general public and excerpts from the popular literature, attesting to the continuing relationships between nature and people. The result is a record of the popular culture, domestic uses and social meanings of Britain's wild plants at the end of the twentieth century.
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Dried flowers of Viola lutea Huds., V. calcarata E. and V. odorata E. were distinguished by their botanical characters and by chemical composition. The contents of main constituents average respectively: anthocyanins (6.1, 2.6 and 4.0%), total flavonoids (4.6, 4.0 and 1.1%), rutoside (1.8, 0.8 and 0.4%), mucilage (20.6, 18.2 and 18.0%), ashes (7.5, 6.6 and 8.5%). The interest of the substitution of Viola odorata flower by V. lutea and V. calcarata flowers is discussed.
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A differential pulse polarographic method used to analyse the rutin contents of aerial parts of Galium verum L. and the hesperidin content of aerial parts of Galium aparine L. and Galium humifusum Bieb. after the selective extraction. Differential pulse polarograms of rutin and hesperidin show distinct peaks at -1.83 V and -1.70 V vs. Ag/AgCl reference electrode in Sorenson buffer at pH 6.0 respectively. The linear calibration curve of rutin and hesperidin have been found in the concentration ranges of 10 to 100 and 5 to 50 ppm. The relative standard deviations at 20 ppm level were found to be as 0.75% and 0.82% for rutin and hesperidin respectively. It was concluded that of the reduction process at the dropping mercury electrode was diffusion controlled in nature. The result of an analysis of Galium species studied found by the differential pulse polarography has been compared with classical methods of analysis.
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Samples of Arctii Fructus, fruits of Arctium lappa, commercially obtained in various provinces of China were found to be adulterated with fruits of five species, Arctium tomentosum, Silybum marianum, Amorpha fruticosa, Onopordum acanthium and Aucklandia lappa. HPLC revealed that the chemical compositions of the fruits of Ar. tomentosum was very similar composition to that of Arctium lappa, the origin plant of Arctii Fructus. The fruits of O. acanthium and Au. lappa contained arctiin, but, their chemical compositions were slightly different from that of Ar. lappa. The fruits of S marianum and Am. fruticosa showed quite different HPLC profiles.
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Dried flowering tops of Agrimonia eupatoria L. and A. procera Wallr. were distinguished by their botanical characters and by their chemical composition. The levels of principal constituents average respectively: tannins 7.4 and 9.5%, total flavonoids 0.90 and 0.72%, rutin 0.17 and 0.16%, hyperoside 0.37 and 0.18%, isoquercitrin 0.21 and 0.13%, quercitrin 0.05 and 0%, ashes 7.3 and 6.5%. The interest of the substitution of A. eupatoria flowering top by that of A. procera was discussed. 11 batches of commercial origine were also examined for a comparative study. Pharmacopoeial specifications are proposed for a monography 'Agrimoniae Herba '.
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A total of 6109 women, 21 to 28 weeks pregnant, were interviewed about the use of any medicine (including herbal teas) to try to start menstrual flow. Of those, 14.4% responded to have tried medicines, and 35.6% of the cases the medicines used were teas. The most used teas were senna, rue, canella and boldo. The use of teas to start menstrual flow was associated with unplanned pregnancy, lesser schooling, increasing number of children, absence of a husband or other partner and use of oral contraceptives. The literature references and the observed associations suggest that the use of teas to start menstrual flow can represent an unsuccessful abortion attempt.
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The antioxidative properties of aqueous plant extracts were evaluated using common methods such as the Rancimat and 2,2’-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical method. Moreover, a voltammetric procedure based on the protective effect of antioxidants against the oxidative DNA damage was employed using a disposable DNA biosensor fabricated as a screen-printed electrode chemically modified by calf thymus double stranded (ds) DNA. The total polyphenols were also determined spectrophotometrically with the Folin-Ciocalteu agent. The extracts of oregano and lemon balm exhibited significantly higher activity than those of thyme and agrimony. The results were treated statistically and their operational character is discussed.
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The volatile compounds (VC) of four cultivars of Apium graveolens L. (cv. Black Celery of Trevi, cv. D'Elne, cv. Dorato d'Asti, and cv. Verde Pascal) were determined with HS-SPME and GC/ MS. Eleven compounds were identified in cv. Black Celery of Trevi, seventeen compounds in cv. D'Elne and twenty-one compounds in cv. Verde Pascal. The main constituent of these cultivars was limonene. Twenty-one compounds were identified in cv. Dorato d'Asti. The main constituent was γ-terpinene. The cv. Black Celery of Trevi is different with respect to the other cultivars, particularly due to the low amount of γ-terpinene.
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This study uses numerical methods to describe, illustrate and assess the taxonomic significance of morphological and anatomical features of Scrophularia ilwensis C. Koch, S. capillaris Boiss. & Ball., S. nodosa L., S. libanotica Boiss. var. pontica R. Mill, S. lucida L. and S. cinerascens Boiss. collected from NE Anatolia. Features related to peculiarities of the leaf, bracteole, alar pedicel and corolla were found to be important in separating the taxa morphologically, but principal component analysis of all characters showed some anatomical characters (mean number of stomata, diameter of vascular bundle and scleranchymatic sheath) to be more important than morphological ones in explaining the variation between the examined taxa.
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Specimens of Ocimum basilicum L., O. grattisimum and O. sauve L. were collected at Coyah, Kindia and Faranah in the Republic of Guinea (voucher specimens were deposited in the herbarium of the Environmental Studies and Research Center (ERSC), University of Conakry-Guinea). Steam distillation of the specimens was done at ESRC. The essential oil obtained was analysed by GC and GC-MS, and had the following major constituents: linalool (69%), eugenol (10%), t-α-bergamotene (3%) and thymol (2%) for O. basilicum; thymol (46%), p-cymeme (12%) and γ-terpene + t-sabiene hydrate (17%) for O. gratissimum; and p-cymeme (59%), α-thujene (10%), myrcene (7%) and thymol (7%) for O. sauve. A list of compounds is given for each plant species.
Article
Proximate composition of Apium graveolens L. seeds and the physico-chemical characteristics of the volatile oils were determined. The GC-MS analysis of the volatile oils showed the presence of 44 constituents of which limonene (50.9%), β-selinene(19.53%), 3-n-butylphthalide (6.92%) nerolidol (2.29%), α-selinene (1.63%), β-pinene (1.22%), d-carvone (1.86%), n-amylbenzene (1.63%), β-myrcene (1.3%) and cis-limonene oxide (1.12%) were the major constituents. Deterpenation of the volatile oil gave about 13% terpeneless oil. The yield of celery seed oleoresin was about 24% and the oleoresin was found to keep well when stored in cold (8-10°C) for 60 days even without the addition of antioxidants.
Article
The antitumor activities of various extracts from the roots of Agrimonia pilosa LEDEB. were studied. Each extract was given intraperitoneally to mice once at 4 d before the intraperitoneal inoculation of mouse mammary carcinoma MM2 cells, and the non-sugar fractions with median polarity showed antitumor activity. Agrimoniin was isolated from the antitumor active fractions. Agrimoniin itself showed antitumor activity when given as a pre- or posttreatment ; a single dose of 10 to 30 mg/kg of agrimoniin resulted in almost complete rejection of the tumor by the test mice. Agrimoniin also possessed a high degree of cytotoxicity but this activity was significantly reduced by the addition of serum to the culture medium.
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To explore machanism of Verbena offcinalis L. and mefepristone with anti-early pregnancy activity on cell level and to investigate the active portion in the Verbena of offcinalis on anti-early pregnancy activity. In this experiment, A, B, C and D were extrated by different ways respectively. By means of cell culture technique, the effect of Verbena of offcinalis L and mefepristone on the morphology and viability, proliferation, apoptosis and cellcycle proliferation was greatly changed and the viability was significantly inhibited when the decidual cells were preincubated with A, B, C( > 12.5mg/ml) and mefepristone (80 μg/ml). The higher the concentration of A, B, C was the more significant inhibition was. A, B, C(25 mg/ml) and Mifeprestone (80 μ g/ml) could enhence apotosis in decidual cell, but had no significant effect on cellcycle. D had no obvious effect in above aspects. In conclusion, Verbena offcinalis L and mefepristone can terminate early pregnancy by inhibiting proliferation and enhancing apoptosis of decidual stromal cells.
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"Women's Health in Complementary and Integrative Medicine is a new resource that takes an evidence-based approach to complementary and integrative medicine in women's health - examining when, how, and for whom these therapies can be effective."--BOOK JACKET.Title Summary field provided by Blackwell North America, Inc. All Rights Reserved This book covers the most common areas of concern in women's health. It provides a truly integrative approach, showing when, how, and for whom complementary/integrative therapies can benefit women in continuity with their regular medical care. This is an evidence-based, clinically-oriented book that presents the background and range of complementary and alternative therapies related to common medical conditions and functional complaints and disorders. It summarizes and analyzes scientific studies on the safety and efficacy of these therapies for various women's health conditions. Each chapter includes a description of commonly used treatments, discussions of safety issues (including adverse effects and drug interactions), a comprehensive summary and methodological assessment of clinical trials on the subject (with animal and in vitro data included as appropriate), and advice on counseling patients. Provides a clear review of the scientific evidence relating complementary and integrative medicine to the care of women. Offers a roadmap to the options in the treatment of women with complementary and integrative medicine - expanding the clinician's practice, whatever their specialty, with realistic possibilities. Features comprehensive coverage of safety issues. Written by leading experts in the field. Sidebars within each chapter provide at-a-glance advice for patients and practitioners. Includes key coverage of non-gynecologic issues such as nutrition, headache, depression, cancer, and heart disease. Offers comprehensive coverage of commonly used treatments and related safety issues, such as possible adverse effects and drug interactions, plus a helpful appendix on Botanical Products. A focused table of contents makes it easy to find the right treatment for each patient based on their condition. Features advice on talking with patients about self-treatments they may have read about in books or on the Internet.
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The aim of this work is the quantitative determinations of iridoids, flavonoids and verbascoside by HPLC in leaves of Verbena officinalis during three vegetative periods. The effects of plant age, date of harvest, type of soil, climate, as well as a comparision between two different locations, Ilundain and Lezaun, are been investigated in order to evaluate the development and content of major compounds in Verbena leaves, verbenalin mainly, because it is the active principle. The highest amount of iridoids and flavonoids was found in the leaves during the pre-flowering period. After flowering the total compound content in the leaves decreases, whereas verbascoside content increases. The amount of iridoids and phenolic components are increasing by the years. Verbenalin content is greater in Lezaun than in Ilundain every vegetative cycle.
Article
Four new notonipetranone-type sesquiterpenoids, 7β-(3-ethyl cis-crotonoyloxy)-14-hydroxy-notonipetranone, 14-acetoxy-7β-anageloyloxy-notonipetranone, 14-acetoxy-7β-senecioyloxy-notonipetranone and tussilagolactone, were isolated together with 7β-(3-ethyl cis-crotonoyloxy)-14-hydroxy-1α-(2-methylbutyryloxy)-notonipetranone and 7β-(3-ethyl cis-crotonoyloxy)-1α-(2-methylbutyryloxy)-3, 14-dehydro-Z-notonipetranone from the flower buds of Tussilago farfara L. (Compositae). The structures of new compounds were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic evidence.
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A new triterpenoid, bauer-7-ene-3β,16 α-diol, and two known triterpenoids, bauerenol and isobauerenol, were isolated from dried flower buds of Tussilago farfara L. (Compositae). The structure of the new compound was elucidated by the spectroscopic data.
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Many epidemiological researches suggest that biofunctional components in vegetables could play an important role in keeping health well. The contents of biofunctional components (chlorogenic acid, 1-O-,5-O-dicaffeoylquinic acid and 1-O-,5-O-dicaffeoyl-3-O-succinylquinic acid) in the root of burdock (Arctium lappa L., Compositae, total 13 cultivars and market items, each 5-10 samples), which is one of very popular vegetables in Japan, were estimated by HPLC. The mean values of total contents varied from 1.7 to 7.9 mg/g dry weight. The content of each component varied significantly among many of the cultivars, although the ratios of three components were roughly the same.
Article
Five new oplopane-type sesquiterpenoids, 7β-senecioyloxyoplopa- 3(14)Z,8(10)-dien-2-one (1), 7β-angeloyloxyoplopa-3(14)Z,8(10)-dien-2-one (2), 7β-(4-methylsenecioyloxy)oplopa-3(14)E,8(10)-dien-2-one (3), 1α- angeloyloxy-7β-(4-methylsenecioyloxy)oplopa-3(14)Z,8(10)-dien-2-one (4) and 1α7β-di(4-methylsenecioyloxy)oplopa3(14)Z,8(10)-dien-2-one (5), were isolated from the flower buds of Tussilago farfara L. (Compositae). The structures of these compounds were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic evidence.
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The carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance spectra of five alditol-form oligosaccharides and a polysaccharide having the fundamental structural units of the Malvaceae plant mucilages were measured in aqueous solution and the signals were assigned.
Article
A representative mucilage, named Althaea-mucilage OL, has been isolated from the leaves of Althaea officinalis L. The final Preparation was homogeneous as determined by ultracentrifugal analysis, cellulose acetate membrane electrophoresis, and gel chromatography. Its water solution gave an intrinsic viscosity value of 49.0. It was mainly composed of partially acetylated acidic polysaccharide, and its molecular weight was estimated to be about 1800000. The polysaccharide was composed of L-rhamnose : D-galacturonic acid : D-glucuronic acid in the molar ratio of 1.5 : 1.1 : 1.0. Analysis of component sugars, together with reduction and methylation, and partial degradation studies made it possible to deduce the structural features of the polysaccharide moiety in the mucilage.
Article
PHYSICIANS AND PATIENTS HAVE BEEN FRUSTRATED by the lack of reliable information on unconventional therapies. To help fill this gap in the area of breast cancer therapy, the Canadian Breast Cancer Research Initiative formed a task force to advise it on how best to promote research into unconventional therapies. As part of the work of the task force, a review of the available literature was carried out for each of the fol-lowing products: Essiac, green tea, Iscador, hydrazine sulfate, vitamins A, C and E, and 714-X. The first article in this series on unconventional therapies for cancer de-scribes the methodology used to obtain and evaluate the information and provides a summary of the findings on Essiac. Subsequent articles will cover the other products. For most of the products reviewed, there has been some indication of possible bene-fit but no definitive evidence. Innovative and collaborative research needed to meet the information needs of growing numbers of patients and their physicians is now being sponsored by the Canadian Breast Cancer Research Initiative. Open commu-nication between patients and physicians is also necessary for the maintenance of an appropriate therapeutic partnership and for the identification and control of side effects. The Ontario Division of the Canadian Cancer Society, a partner in the Can-adian Breast Cancer Research Initiative, supported the preparation of a patient-information piece on unconventional therapies to accompany the series. This item will assist patients who are considering such therapies and will promote open com-munication between patients and their physicians.
Article
A pentacyclic triterpenoid, ursolic acid (1), two iridoid glucosides, verbenalin (2) and hastatoside (3), and a phenylpropanoid glycoside, verbascoside (4), were isolated from Verbena officinalis Linn. (Verbenaceae), a plant listed in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia and the British Herbal Pharmacopoeia. A procedure for the optimised extraction of these constituents for quantitative estimations has been established. An HPTLC method was employed for the determination of 1 using Liebermann Burchard reagent. A reversed-phase HPLC system with photodiode array detector was used to resolve compounds 2, 3 and 4 in the methanol extracts of different parts of the plant. Tender parts of the plant were rich in all of these constituents (0.24–0.34%, w/w) while the roots, which are not official in the Pharmacopoeias, contained a maximum amount (0.32%, w/w) of the bioactive verbascoside (4). The assay methods described are simple, rapid and accurate, and may form part of future drug authentication protocols. Copyright © 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.