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Two wild and three cultivated blueberry varieties ('Elliot', 'Bluecrop' and 'Duke') from Romania were analyzed comparatively in order to determine the total polyphenols, total anthocyanins, total flavonoids content and measuring the antioxidant activity using three different single electron transfer-based assays, Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (ABTS), ferric reducing ability (FRAP), 2,2-diphenylpicrylhydrazil radical scavenging capacity (DPPH) and one hydrogen atom transfer-assay, oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC). Total polyphenols content ranged from 424.84 - 819.12 mg GAE/100 g FW, total flavonoids ranged from 84.33-112.5 mg QE /100 g FW and total anthocyanins ranged from 100.58-300.02 C3GE/100g FW. The anthocyanins were separated and quantified using RP-HPLC-DAD. In Vaccinium myrtillus, petunidin-3-glucoside and delphinidin-3-glucoside have the highest contribution to the anthocyanin content while in Vaccinium corymbosum, peonidin-3-galactoside represent the major anthocyanin. Except for ORAC assay (r=0.765), all antioxidant activity values obtained were highly correlated with total polyphenol content (0.923. r .0.986). Wild blueberries had higher total polyphenols content and also antioxidant activity compared with cultivated ones.
Available online at
Not Bot Horti Agrobo, 2011, 39(2):70-76
Print ISSN 0255-965X; Electronic 1842-4309
Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici
Comparative Polyphenolic Content and Antioxidant Activities
of Some Wild and Cultivated Blueberries from Romania
Andrea BUNEA, Dumitriţa O. RUGINĂ, Adela M. PINTEA, Zoriţa
1University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, Cluj-Napoca, 3-5 Mănăştur Street, 400372,
Cluj-Napoca, România; (*corresponding author)
Two wild and three cultivated blueberry varieties (‘Elliot’, ‘Bluecrop’ and ‘Duke’) from Romania were analyzed comparatively in
order to determine the total polyphenols, total anthocyanins, total avonoids content and measuring the antioxidant activity using
three dierent single electron transfer-based assays, Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (ABTS), ferric reducing ability (FRAP), 2,2-
diphenylpicrylhydrazil radical scavenging capacity (DPPH) and one hydrogen atom transfer-assay, oxygen radical absorbance capacity
(ORAC). Total polyphenols content ranged from 424.84 - 819.12 mg GAE/100 g FW, total avonoids ranged from 84.33-112.5 mg
QE /100 g FW and total anthocyanins ranged from 100.58-300.02 C3GE/100g FW. e anthocyanins were separated and quantied
using RP-HPLC-DAD. In Vaccinium myrtillus, petunidin-3-glucoside and delphinidin-3-glucoside have the highest contribution to
the anthocyanin content while in Vaccinium corymbosum, peonidin-3-galactoside represent the major anthocyanin. Except for ORAC
assay (r=0.765), all antioxidant activity values obtained were highly correlated with total polyphenol content (0.923≤ r ≤0.986). Wild
blueberries had higher total polyphenols content and also antioxidant activity compared with cultivated ones.
Keywords: Vaccinium myrtillus, Vaccinium corymbosum, total polyphenols, anthocyanins, antioxidant methods
Abbreviations: TPC, total polyphenols content; TA, total anthocyanins; TF, total avonoids; FRAP, ferric reducing antioxidant
potential; ABTS, trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity; ORAC, oxygen radical absorbing capacity; DPPH, 2,2-diphenyl-1-
picrylhydrazyl method, TE, Trolox equivalents, Trolox, 6-hydroxy-2,5,7,8-tetrametylchroman-2-carboxylic acid
e interest for natural antioxidants, especially from
fruits and vegetables, has increased in recent years. Epide-
miological studies indicated that a higher level of natural
antioxidants (ascorbic acids, vitamin E, carotenoids and
phenolics) in human everyday diet can protect against
cardiovascular diseases, cataract, cancer and aging-related
disorders (Steen et al., 2003).
Berries contain high concentration in bioactive com-
pounds such as polyphenols, including anthocyanins, phe-
nolic acids, tannins, carotenoids, vitamin A, C, E, folic acid
and minerals such as calcium, selenium and zinc (Kresty
et al., 2001; Pineli et al., 2011). Among them, blueber-
ries became well known and oen consumed due to their
uses for treating biliary disorders, coughs, tuberculosis,
diabetes (Martineau et al., 2006; Valentová et al., 2007)
and visual disorders (Canter and Ernst, 2004). Blueber-
ries contain high level of anthocyanin and phenolic com-
pounds with high in vitro antioxidant capacities compared
with other fruits (Wang and Jiao, 2000). e blueberries
phenolic content are aected by genetic dierences, the
cultivar type, growing location and the degree of maturity
at harvest (Zadernowski et al., 2005). e total amount
and the proportion between dierent classes of phenolic
compounds in berries cultivar may vary (Beekwilder et al.,
e methods used to determine the total antioxidant
capacity can be divided in two major groups: methods
based on single electron transfer (SET) and hydrogen
atom transfer reaction (HAT). e SET methods include
ABTS/TEAC assay (Trolox equivalent antioxidant ca-
pacity), FRAP (ferric reducing ability), CUPRAC assay
(copper reduction) and DPPH assay (2,2-diphenylpic-
rylhydrazil radical scavenging capacity). Hydrogen atom
transfer reaction (HAT) assay include ORAC (oxygen
radical absorbance capacity) and TRAP (total radical-
trapping antioxidant parameter) assay. ese assays are fre-
quently used to measure the total antioxidant capacity of
food extracts. Because their characteristics and because of
the dierences in the mechanisms of the reaction, a single
assay will not reect all the antioxidants present in the sys-
tem (Li et al., 2009). Hence, only by combining dierent
assays, information about the response of the compounds
present in samples in dierent experimental conditions
can be achieved (Sariburun et al., 2010).
Bunea A. et al. / Not Bot Horti Agrobo, 2011, 39(2):70-76
was carried out under stirring. e ltrates were combined
in a total extract, which was dried by vacuum rotary evapo-
rator at 40°C. Prior to each analysis, the dry residues were
redisolved in 10 ml of methanol, the samples were centri-
fuged at 5000 rpm and ltered through 0.45 μm nylon l-
ter (Millipore).
Total phenolics
e amount of total polyphenol in the blueberry ex-
tracts was determined using modied Folin-Ciocalteu
colorimetric method (Singleton et al., 1999). Stock so-
lution of sample extracts (25 μl each) were dissolved in
methanol and further dilution were performed to obtain
readings within the standard curve made with gallic acid
(R=0.997). e extracts were oxidized by the Folin-Cio-
calteu reagent (120 μl) and the neutralization was made
with Na2CO3 (340 μl), aer 5 minutes. e absorbance
was measured at 750 nm aer 90 minute in the dark, at
room temperature. e results were expressed as milligram
of gallic acid per 100 grams.
Total avonoids
e total avonoids content was determined using a
colorimetric method (Kim et al., 2003). e alcoholic ex-
tract was diluted to a nal volume of 5 ml with distilled
water. Aer adding 300 μl 5% NaNO2 the mixture was al-
lowed to stay 5 min. en 300 μl AlCl3 10% was added
and, aer 6 minutes, 2 ml NaOH 1N. e solution was
mixed well and the absorbance was measured against pre-
pared water blank at 510 nm. Total avonoid content was
expressed as mg quercetin equivalents/100 g fresh weight
Quantication of the anthocyanin content
e monomeric anthocyanin content of the blueberry
extract was measured using the pH-dierential method
(Giusti and Wrolstad, 2001). e blueberry extracts dis-
solved in methanol were diluted with 0.025 mol/l potassi-
um chloride (adjusted with HCl to pH 1.0) and 0.4 mol/l
sodium acetate (pH 4.5). Each sample and the standard
(cyanidin-3-glucoside) were diluted with the buer solu-
tion pH 1 and the absorbance was measured at 520 nm
and 700 nm using a UV spectrophotometer (Jasco V-630,
International Co. Ltd, Japan). A second aliquot of each
sample was diluted to the same value with the buer solu-
tion pH 4.5 and measured at 520 and 700 nm. e absor-
bance values were calculated as follows:
A = (Aλ520 - Aλ700)pH1.0 -(Aλ520 - Aλ700)pH4.5
e total anthocyanin content was calculated accord-
ing to the formula:
1 x ε
1000 x DF x MWA x
e results were expressed as mg cyanidin-3-glucoside
chloride per 100 g fruit using the molar absorbtivity (ε)
e literature data about blueberries antioxidant activ-
ity and total polyphenol content are diverse, more on culti-
vated than wild varieties (Castrejón et al., 2008; Dragović-
Uzelac et al., 2010; Garzón et al., 2010; Giovanelli and
Buratti, 2009; Howard et al., 2003; Koca and Karadeniz,
2009; Prior et al., 1998; You et al., 2011).
e objectives of this study were (1) to investigate to-
tal polyphenols, total avonoids, total anthocyanins con-
tent of blueberry extracts, (2) to separate and character-
ize the anthocyanin content using RP-HPLC-DAD, (3)
to measure the antioxidant activity using three dierent
SET-based assays (ABTS, FRAP, DPPH) and one HAT-
based method (ORAC), (4) to correlate the antioxidant
methods applied with total polyphenol, total avonoid
and total anthocyanin content.
Materials and methods
e standard compounds, including cyanidin-3-O-
galactoside (purity 90%), cyanidin-3-O-glucoside (pu-
rity 95%), cyanidin (purity 95%), gallic acid (GAE)
(purity 97.5%), quercetin (purity 98%) and 2,2’-azobis
(2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (AAPH) 97% pu-
rity ,6-hydroxy-2,5,7,8-tetramethylchroman-2-carboxylic
acid (Trolox) 98% purity, uorescein 97% purity, 2,9-di-
metyl-1,10-phenanthroline (Neocuproine) 99% purity,
2,2-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid),
diammonium salt (ABTS) 98% purity, 2,2-diphenyl-1-
picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) 95% purity, 2,4,6-tripyrydyl-S-
triazine (TPTZ) 98% purity, potassium persulfate were
obtained from Sigma-Aldrich (Darmstadt, Germany).
Folin-Ciocalteu’s phenol reagent, HCl, Na2CO3, AlCl3,
NaNO2, H2O2, CuCl2 were purchased from Merck
(Darmstadt, Germany).
Samples extraction
ree varieties of cultivated highbush blueberries (Vac-
cinium corymbosum) ‘Elliot’, ‘Bluecrop’ and ‘Duke’ were
purchased directly from the producers, a farm situated
in North-West of Romania. e two types of wild blue-
berries (Vaccinium myrtillus, Wild 1 and Wild 2) were
harvested from two dierent mountainous geographical
zones: 45°24´44˝N and 46°44´37˝E of Romania. All ber-
ries were picked at the commercially ripe stage. Samples
were stored in a freezer at -20°C until analyzed.
For sample extraction, 5 g of blueberries, in three rep-
licated each, was extracted by grinding the sample 1 min
at 20,000 rpm in a blender (Ultra-Turrax Miccra D-9 KT
Digitronic, Germany) with 10 ml of acidied methanol
(85:15 v/v, MeOH:HCl) (El-Sayed and Hucl, 2003).
e homogenate was centrifuged at 3500 rpm for 10 min.
e extract was separated and the residual tissue was re-
extracted until the extraction solvents became colorless
(the total solvent volume was between 100-250 ml). Aer
adding 10 ml of the same solvent mixture, the extraction
Bunea A. et al. / Not Bot Horti Agrobo, 2011, 39(2):70-76
in methanol/HCl of 34300 (M-1 cm-1), molecular weight
(MW) of 484.8 and dilution factor (DF).
Anthocyanin determination by RP-HPLC-DAD
Analyses were performed on a Shimadzu HPLC sys-
tem equipped with a binary pump delivery system LC-20
AT (Prominence), a degasser DGU-20 A3 (Prominence),
diode-array SPDM20 A UV-VIS detector (DAD) and a
Luna Phenomenex C-18 column (5μm, 25 cm x 4.6 mm).
e mobile phase consisted in: solvent A - formic acid
(4.5%) in bidistilled water and solvent B - acetonitrile. e
gradient elution system was: 10% B, 0-9 min; 12% B, 9-17
min; 25% B 17-30 min; 90% B, 30-50 min; 10% B, 50-55
min. e ow rate was 0.8 ml/min and the analyses were
performed at 35°C. e chromatograms were monitored
at 520 nm. e anthocyanins identication and peak as-
signments are based on their retention times, UV-VIS
spectra comparing with standards and published data. e
anthocyanin quantication was performed using cyanidin
Oxygen radical absorbance activity (ORAC)
e oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) mea-
sure the peroxyl radical scavenging activity using as stan-
dard 6-hydroxy-2,5,7,8-tetrametylchroman-2-carboxylic
acid (Trolox) (Huang et al., 2002). A uorescein stock
solution (4x10-3 μM) was made in phosphate buer (75
mM, pH 7.4) and kept in the dark at 4°C. Before utiliza-
tion, the uorescein stock solution was diluted with the
phosphate buer. e uorescein solution was added to
each Trolox standard and blueberry sample (25 μl) made
in phosphate buer and incubated for 30 min, at 37°C.
e reaction was initiated by adding 25 μl 2,2-azobis-2-
amidinopropane (AAPH) and the uorescence was mea-
sured kinetically at excitation wavelength 485 nm and
emission wavelength 535 nm, every minute using a uo-
rescence microplate reader BioTek (Synergy HT, BioTek
Instruments, Winooski, VT). e ORAC values for each
blueberry extract were calculated using the net area under
the decay curves and were expressed as micromoles Trolox
equivalents per gram sample (μmol TE/g).
ABTS radical cation decolorization assay (ABTS)
e ABTS assay is based on the capacity of a sample
to scavenge the ABTS radical cation (ABTS.+) compared
to a standard antioxidant (Trolox), adapted to 96 wells
microplate, described by Arnao et al. (2001). e ABTS.+
solution was produced by reacting 7mM ABTS stock solu-
tion with 2.45 mM potassium persulfate (nal concentra-
tion) for 12-16 h, in the dark, at room temperature. Prior
to use, the ABTS.+ working solution was prepared by di-
luting the stock solution with EtOH to an absorbance of
0.70 ±0.02 at 734 nm. e samples and Trolox standards
(20 μl) were combined with the ABTS.+ working solution
(170μl, absorbance 0.70 ±0.02) in 96-well microplate.
Aer 6 min of incubation at 30°C, the absorbance at 734
nm was read with a microplate reader. If the absorbance
of ABTS value was higher than the standard, the samples
were diluted and re-evaluated. e results were expressed
as micromoles Trolox equivalents per gram sample (TE
μmol /g).
Reducing power (FRAP)
e reducing capacity of methanolic blueberry ex-
tracts was measured as ferric reducing antioxidant power
(FRAP). Antioxidants are evaluated as reducers of Fe3+
to Fe2+, which is chelated by TPTZ to form Fe2+ - TPTZ
complex, with a maximum absorbance at 593 nm (Benzie
and Strain, 1996). e absorbance of the colored product
was monitored by Biotek Synergy HT spectrophotometer.
All solutions were used in the day of preparation. Briey,
2.5 ml TPTZ (10 mM in 40 nM HCl), 25 ml acetate buf-
fer (300 mM, pH=3.6) and 2.5 ml FeCl3 (20 mM) were
mixed and aer adding 180 μl FRAP reagent the mixture
was incubated for 3 min. en, 20 μl of each sample added
to each well and the absorbance was read immediately at
593 nm with a microplate reader. Samples dilution were
perfomed when the values were over the linear range of the
curve of 0 to 1 μM Fe2+/ml, using FeSO4x7H2O.
DPPH· scavenging activity assay
e DPPH scavenging activity assay was done accord-
ing to a method reported by Brand-Williams et al. (1995).
A DPPH· solution (80 μM) was freshly prepared in 95%
methanol. A volume of 250 μl of this solution was allowed
to react with 35 μl sample and the absorbance was mea-
sured at 515 nm, for 30 minutes. e chemical kinetics of
blueberries extract was recorded. e antioxidant activity
was calculated as follows:
% DPPH· scavenging activity = (1-[Asample/Acontrol t=o]) 100
Statistical analysis
e data’s are expressed as mean ± standard deviation
(SD) from three parallel measurements. In order to deter-
mine the signicant dierences between values, analysis
of variance (ANOVA) and Duncan’s multiple range tests
were performed. Signicance of dierence was dened at
the 5% level (p<0.05). All statistical analysis was carried
out using Graph Pad Version 4.0 (Graph Pad Soware
Inc; San Diego, CA, USA). Pearson’s correlation coe-
cient was calculated using Microso Excel 2003.
Results and discussion
Total polyphenols content
e comparative data about total polyphenols, a-
vonoids and anthocyanins content in wild and cultivated
blueberries are presented in Tab. 1.
e total polyphenols content (TPC) was determined
using the Folin-Ciocalteu method. Gallic acid was used
as calibration standard and the results (expressed as gallic
acid equivalents) were expressed as means ±standard devia-
tion of triplicate analysis. e TPC values in the blueberry
extracts analyzed was in the range of 424.84 - 819.12 mg
Bunea A. et al. / Not Bot Horti Agrobo, 2011, 39(2):70-76
GAE/100 g fresh weight. Among all the varieties analyzed,
the Wild 1 blueberry revealed the highest TPC at 819.12
gallic acid equivalents/100 g FW followed by Wild 2 blue-
berries (672.59 mg GAE/100g). Between the cultivated
blueberries, ‘Bluecrop’ has the highest TPC at 652.27 mg
GAE/100 g while the lowest value was found for ‘Duke’
variety (424.84 mg GAE/100g). Signicant dierences
were found in total phenolic content when compared all
the varieties analyzed (p<0.05).
e TPC data’s obtained are comparable to previ-
ous ndings which reported values between 251-310 mg
GAE/100 g for some cultivated blueberries and between
577 and 614 mg GAE/100 g for wild Italian blueberries
(Giovanelli and Buratti, 2009). Lee et al. (2004) obtained
between 367-1286 mg GAE/100 g total polyphenols for
V. membranaceum and for V. ovalifolium species 677-
1054 mg GAE/100 g. Prior et al. (1998) reported values
between 181 and 390 mg/100g for V. corymbosum L spe-
cies. Dragovič-Uzelac et al. (2010) reported for ‘Bluecrop’
variety higher amount compared with ‘Duke’, while Prior
et al. (1998) obtained higher TPC values for ‘Duke’ vari-
ety. It is known that phenolics show quantitative variation
at dierent genetic levels within species.
Total avonoids content
e total avonoids content of the extracts was deter-
mined using aluminium chloride colorimetric method
and the results are shown in Tab. 1. e total avonoids
content ranged from 84.33 mg QE/100 g in ‘Duke’ vari-
ety to 112.5 mg QE/100 g in Wild 2 blueberries. For the
other blueberry varieties the TFC were as follows: Wild 1
(110.36 mg QE/100 g), ‘Bluecrop’ (103.18 mg QE/100
g), ‘Elliot’ (92.82 mg QE/100 g ) and ‘Duke’ (84.33 mg
QE/100 g ). ere were no signicant dierences in total
avonoid content among ‘Elliot’, ‘Bluecrop’, Wild 1 and
Wild 2 (p<0.05). ‘Duke’ variety has the lowest total a-
vonoid content, signicantly dierent than other varieties
analyzed. ere are no data regarding the total content
of avonoids in blueberries. In blackberry varieties, the
TFC content range between 29.07-82.21 mg QE/100 g
(Sariburun et al., 2010).
Total anthocyanins content
e total anthocyanins content (TAC) of the blueber-
ries extract were also determined (Tab. 1). e highest
anthocyanins content was found in wild blueberries Wild
1 (300.02 mg/100g), followed by wild blueberries Wild
2 (252.23 mg/100g ), ‘Elliot’ (163.4 mg/100g ), ‘Blue-
crop’ (160.76 mg/100g) and the lowest TAC was found
in ‘Duke’ variety (69.58 mg/100g). ere were signicant
dierences (p<0.05) in anthocyanins content between
Wild 1, Wild 2 and ‘Duke’. However, signicant dierenc-
es in the total anthocyanin content were not observed be-
tween ‘Elliot’ and ‘Bluecrop’ (p<0.05). e levels of TAC
in TPC are between 23% and 37% and they are in agree-
ment with the data’s reported by other authors (Giovanelli
and Buratti, 2009). e present TAC values obtained are
in agreement with other studies (Dragovič-Uzelac et al.,
2010; Prior et al., 1998).
Tab. 1. Total polyphenols, total avonoids and total
anthocyanins content in wild and cultivated blueberries
GAE mg/100 g
mg QE/100 g
C3GE mg/100 g
Vaccinium corymbosum
‘Elliot’ 526.3 ± 26d92.82 ± 8.4a163.40 ± 16.4c
‘Bluecrop’ 652.27 ± 30c103.18 ±10.2a160.76 ± 13.9c
‘Duke’ 424.84 ± 20e84.33 ± 8b100.58 ± 13.5d
Vaccinium myrtillus
Wild 1 819.12 ± 36a110.36 ±12.3a300.02 ± 27.9a
Wild 2 672.59 ± 30b112.50 ±15a252.23 ± 18b
GAE mg/100g, QE mg/100g, and C3GE mg/100g represent mg of gallic
acid equivalents, mg of quercetin equivalents and mg of cyanidin-3-glucoside
equivalents per 100g of fresh blueberry, respectively. For each measurements,
the data marked by dierent letters indicate signicant dierence (p<0.05)
Tab. 2. Concentration of individual anthocyanins in blueberries (expressed in mg/100 g fruit)
Compound Retention
Vaccinium myrtillus Vaccinium corymbosum
Wild 1 Wild 2 ‘Bluecrop’ ‘Elliot’ ‘Duke’
Delphinidin-3-galactoside 9.2 217; 277; 523 113.67±11 73.43±8.1 53.29±7.2 ND ND
Delphinidin-3-glucoside 10.6 217; 277; 523 119.86±14 87.14±8.2 24.53±2 53.62±7 23.69±2.4
Cyanidin-3-galactoside 12.4 217; 279; 518 91.85±10 37.95±4.3 9.96±1.8 ND ND
Delphinidin-3-arabinoside 13.01 217; 277; 529 66.64±9.2 76.35±8.8 31.78±2.6 41.07±5.1 13.64±1.1
Cyanidin-3-glucoside 14.4 217; 279; 518 96.48±11 43.34±6.1 2.08±0.4 3.09±0.6 0.11±
Petunidin-3-galactoside 15.09 217; 277; 524 38.36±5.2 17.53±0.9 28.54±2.5 ND ND
Petunidin-3-glucoside 16.9 217; 278; 521 146.27±18 85.19±7.8 25.14±2.5 21.35±1.9 8.18±0.9
Peonidin-3-galactoside 19.4 217; 278; 520 8.71±1.3 ND ND 125.79±12 37.114.3
Petunidin-3-arabinoside 20.3 217; 277; 525 12.80±1.9 9.66±1.2 12.70±1.9 ND ND
Peonidin-3-glucoside 22.4 217; 278; 521 108.81±12 28.91±2.2 54.37±7.5 12±0.9 12.14±1.1
Malvidin-3-galactoside 25.3 217; 278; 527 119.53±12 39.00±4.3 37.97±2.6 67.45±9 27.55±2.4
Malvidin-3-glucoside 27.4 217; 277; 528 17.51±3.2 6.04±1.1 34.75±2.5 ND ND
Malvidin-3-arabinoside 29.5 217; 277; 528 tr tr ND ND ND
Bunea A. et al. / Not Bot Horti Agrobo, 2011, 39(2):70-76
Total antioxidant activity
For measuring the total antioxidant activity of the
blueberry extracts, four dierent assays were used. Tab.
3 includes the mean values for antioxidant activity mea-
ORAC assay is probably the most widely used HAT-
based assay and indicate the free-radical scavenging ability
of antioxidant against peroxyl radical. e values obtained
were not signicantly dierent among samples, ranging
from 34.85-38.49 μmol TE/g fresh weight. e present
ORAC results are similar to those obtained by Prior et al.
(1998) (17-37.1 μmol TE/g) and lower than the values re-
ported for rabbiteye blueberries by You et al. (2011) (44-
55 μmol TE/g). For ‘Duke’ variety, it has been obtained
34.85 μmol TE/g comparable with the values reported
by Wang et al. (2009) (40.4 μmol TE/g) and Moyer et
al. (2002) (32.6 μmol TE/g). Regarding the ORAC val-
ues for ‘Bluecrop’ variety it is a great discrepancy in the
literature data. Prior et al. (1998), reported 17 mM TE/
kg, Moyer et al. (2002), 50 mM TE/kg and Howard et al.
(2003), between 21-38 mM TE/kg, the last values being
comparable with the present value. e last mention study
indicates that genotypes inuence more the TPC and
ORAC values than growing season.
ABTS assay is based on the antioxidant ability of the
extracts to react with ABTS·+ radical cation generated in
the system. In contrast, the ferric reducing antioxidant
power assay (FRAP) measures the ability of the extracts
to reduce ferric complex to the ferrous form. e averages
values obtained for ABTS and FRAP assay are given in
Tab. 2. Blueberries Wild 1 extract showed the highest an-
tioxidant activity based on FRAP and ABTS assay (73.71
μM Fe2+/g and 56.65 μmol TE/g). e lowest level in both
assays was obtained for ‘Duke’ variety. e antioxidant ac-
tivity order in both assays, FRAP and ABTS, was: Wild
1>Wild 2>’Bluecrop’>’Elliot’ >’Duke’. In FRAP assay,
there were signicant dierences found between Wild 1,
Wild 2, ‘Bluecrop’ and ‘Duke’ (p<0.05). In ABTS assay,
signicant dierences were found between Wild 1, Wild
2, ‘Elliot’ and ‘Duke’ (p<0.05). ere were no statistical
dierences between ‘Elliot’ and ‘Bluecrop’ varieties.
Identication and quantication of anthocyanins
Using HPLC-DAD, 13 anthocyanins were identied
based on their retention time, UV-VIS spectra compared
with standards and published data. HPLC chromatogram
for anthocyanins separation in ‘Bluecrop’ variety is pre-
sented in Fig. 1.
In Vaccinium myrtillus, petunidin-3-glucoside and del-
phinidin-3-glucoside have the highest contribution to the
anthocyanin content (15.6% and 16.9%; 17.3 and 12.7%
respectively). In Vaccinium corymbosum, peonidin-3-galac-
toside represent the major anthocyanin content in ‘Elliot’
and ‘Duke’ variety (40.3% and 30.3%) but in ‘Bluecrop’
peonidin-3-glucoside is absent, peonidin-3-glucoside be-
ing the major contributors (17.3%).
Fig. 1. Anthocyanin HPLC proles for ‘Bluecrop’ variety. Peak
identication: 1- Delphinidin-3-galactoside; 2- Delphinidin-
3-glucoside; 3-Cyanidin-3-galactoside; 4- Delphinidin-3-ara-
binoside; 5- Cyanidin-3-glucoside; 6-Petunidin-3-galactoside;
7-Petunidin-3-glucoside; 8-Peonidin-3-galactoside; 9-Petuni-
din-3-arabinoside; 10-Peonidin-3-glucoside; 11- Malvidin-3-ga-
lactoside; 12-Malvidin-3-glucoside; 13-Malvidin-3-arabinoside
Tab. 3. Antioxidant activity for blueberry fruits, using four
dierent complementary assays (FRAP, ABTS, ORAC, DPPH)
μM Fe2+/g
TE μmol /g
TE μmol/g
activity (%)
Vaccinium corymbosum
‘Elliot’ 50.74 ± 1.9c36.46 ± 4.26c38.05±1.56a43.48± 1.9d
‘Bluecrop’ 60.39 ± 1.6b37.96 ± 2.98bc 37.04 ± 1.7 a46.64± 1.65c
‘Duke’ 33.03 ± 2.54d24.33 ± 3.76d34.85 ± 1.3b29.96± 1.38e
Vaccinium myrtillus
Wild 1 73.71 ± 3.2a56.65 ± 3.79a38.49± 1.01a59.79± 1.24a
Wild 2 64.87 ± 2.9b43.08 ± 2.3b37.78± 0.89a49.93± 1.6b
Fig. 2. Kinetics of antioxidant activity of blueberry extracts us-
ing DPPH method. e inhibition percentage represents the
antioxidant activity
Bunea A. et al. / Not Bot Horti Agrobo, 2011, 39(2):70-76
standards. e highest Pearson’s coecient between was
obtained when it has been compared ABTS and DPPH
antioxidant methods (0.986). As mentioned before, these
two assays are also based on similar mechanisms.
ere were analyzed, for the rst time, the antioxidant
activity in relation to the polyphenol content in wild and
some cultivated blueberry fruits from Romania. Total
polyphenol, total anthocyanin, total avonoid content
and antioxidant activity measured with six dierent as-
says were higher in wild blueberry varieties, as compared
with cultivated ones. e FRAP, ABTS and DPPH assays
showed higher correlation, statistically signicant, with
total polyphenol content compared with total anthocya-
nin content. To measure adequately the antioxidant po-
tential ABTS and DPPH methods are considered to be
most appropriate, in good agreement with the concentra-
tions of phenolic derivatives (polyphenols, anthocyanins,
is research was supported by CNCSIS-UEFISCSU,
project number PNII-TE_168, code 109/2010. e sec-
ond author’s work was supported by European Postdoc-
toral Program POSDRU/89/1.5/S/60746. e authors
thank Natural Invest for providing the blueberry culti-
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Tab. 4. Pearson’s correlation coecients of antioxidant activity
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(TPC), total avonoid (TF) and total anthocyanin (TA) in
TPC 0.923* 0.914*0.975** 0.966** 0.765ns 0.973**
TA - 0.894* 0.919* 0.961** 0.805ns 0.939*
TF - 0.95* 0.853ns 0.739ns 0.896*
FRAP - 0.951* 0.858ns 0.985**
ABTS - 0.853ns 0.986**
ORAC - 0.891*
*,** signicant at p<0.05 and 0.01, respectively
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... Table 2 showed that the total phenolic content was 435 mg GAE/ 100g sample. The obtained results are in agreement with those reported by Bunea et al. (2011) as they reported that the total phenolic content ranged between 424.84 and 819.12 mg GAE/100 g in blueberries. Whereas lower total phenolic content was found by Vasco et al. (2008), as they reported that the total phenolic content in blueberry was 305.38 mg GAE/100 g. ...
... Whereas lower total phenolic content was found by Vasco et al. (2008), as they reported that the total phenolic content in blueberry was 305.38 mg GAE/100 g. The difference in the total phenolics content may be attributed to environmental factors, such as temperature, light, genetic variation and agronomic practices of the berries according to Bunea et al. (2011). ...
... The flavonoids content of the fruits is 20.63 ± 1.80 mgQE/100Gdw. The value is remarkably lower compared to 84.33 ± 8mgQE/100Gdw for Straw berry and 29.07 ± 1.12mgQE/100Gdw for Black berry (Andre et al., 2011) [3] also lower than that of Adansonia digitata ( 42.73mgQE/100Gdw) reported by Lmien -Meda et al. ...
... The result obtained indicates that Lannea macrocarpa fruits are importance sources of flavonoids which are responsible for the attractive colors of flowers, fruits, leaves and also possess biological activities such as anti -inflammatory, anti-carcinogenic and anti-ant atherosclerotic activities (Olajire and Azeez, 2011) [16] . [3] . DPPH is one of the compounds that possessed a proton free radical with a characteristic absorption which decreases significantly on exposure to proton radical scavengers (Yamaguchi et al., 1998). ...
The aim of the research work is to evaluate the polyphenols and antioxidant activity of African grape fruits. The methanolic extract was evaluated for its phenolic contents using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent, antioxidant activity using 1, 1- diphenvi1-2 picrvlhidrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, and flavonoid using sodium nitrite solution. The total phenolic content was 380+2,11mg/100g gallic acid equivalent (GAE), antioxidant activity of 562.25 ± 2.91%, and flavonoids contents of 20.63 ± 1.80mg/100g quercetin equivalent (QE), The results indicated the importance of Lannea macrocarpa fruits as potential source of polyphenols which if property utilized could supplement the existing sources of antioxidants for the formulation of drugs and other therapeutic uses.
... The results regarding the TPh content, determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu method, and the antioxidant capacity determined by the FRAP and DPPH methods, from five hazelnut varieties, are presented in Table 1. [11,[30][31][32]. In recent years, various studies have demonstrated that the high level of natural antioxidants identified in hazelnuts have multiple benefits for human health, thus considerably increasing the interest in the cultivation and development of as many varieties as possible [11,20,28,31]. ...
... The supernatant (extract) was separated and the residue was re-extracted for five times (the total solvent volume was 30 ml). Finally, the supernatants were combined for each sample and the solvent was removed by vacuum rotary evaporator at 40 °C, according to Bunea et al. (2011). The dry residue was dissolved in 10 ml acidified water with TFA, centrifuged at 5000 rpm, for 20 minutes, and the supernatant represents the extract of blueberries that has been analyzed ( ...
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Commercial berry production is an attractive industry worldwide, including in Romania because berries are a rich source of bioactive compounds with antioxidant capacity, thus becoming the most important functional and nutraceutical foods in our diet. The aim of our work was to characterize two different species, Saskatoon berry (Amelanchier alnifolia Nutt., Rosaceae) and blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L., Ericaceae), from the point of view of total phenols and anthocyanin as well as of antioxidant capacity depending on their harvesting time. The analyzed cultivars ‘Ruben’ and ‘Duke’ were cultivated in the North-West of Romania, the first cultivar has been officially introduced in Romania in 2018. The results show that ‘Ruben’ cultivar is richer in bioactive compounds compared with ‘Duke’ cultivars. The level of total phenols of ‘Ruben’ cultivar was 297.937 ± 4.30 and 347.412 ± 14.13 mg GAE/100 g fw (fresh weight) at early and full ripening time, respectively. The highest anthocyanins content was found in ‘Ruben’ cultivar (410.659 ± 52.88 mg/100 g fw) at full ripening time. Also, the high values of antioxidant capacity determined by four different methods (DPPH, FRAP, ABTS, CUPRAC) was recorded in the case of cultivar ‘Ruben’. Both blueberry cultivars ‘Duke’ and ‘Ruben’ are rich sources in bioactive compounds such as phenolics, especially anthocyanins. The blueberries harvested at full ripening period provided the highest level of total phenols and anthocyanins compounds. These compounds act as powerful antioxidants and thus they could improve the health status of the human body, or can be used by food and nutraceutical manufacturers.
... Para el caso del contenido de flavonoides totales, se sabe que estos pueden ser afectados por diferentes factores agronómicos y por lo tanto la variabilidad también puede ser muy alta. Bunea et al. (32) reportó valores de flavonoides totales en arándano de diferentes variedades en el orden de 1.03 mg EQ/ g, 0.92 mg EQ/g y 0.84 mg EQ/g para cultivares 'Bluecrop', 'Elliot' y 'Duke' respectivamente. Las variaciones en el contenido de compuestos flavonoides también pueden ser atribuidas al proceso de extracción química utilizado para su cuantificación (33). ...
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Blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) has a high content of phenolic compounds which have been studied mainly for their antioxidant, antiobesogenic, anti-inflammatory activity, among others. Objetive. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of in vitro gastrointestinal digestion on the bioaccessibility of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of a nutraceutical formulation of blueberry (capsule), compared to fresh and powder blueberry. Materials and methods. Methanolic extracts of fresh and lyophilized blueberry were obtained and determined its total phenols, flavonoids, anthocyanins content, as well as antioxidant activity. A gastrointestinal digestion simulation test also was carried out to assess the bioaccessibility of the phenolic compounds found in samples. Results. The results showed that gastric digestion of powder and capsule blueberry promoted greater bioaccessibility of phenols (42% and 40%), flavonoids (52% and 33%) and anthocyanins (45% and 40%), compared to fresh blueberry digests. After intestinal digestion, the bioaccessibility of phenols (63%) and flavonoids (67%) was higher in the blueberry capsule compared to its powdered blueberry counterpart. The intestinal digestion conditions negatively affected the bioaccessibility of anthocyanins regardless of the type of sample evaluated. Conclusion. Gastric digestion conditions promote greater stability of phenolic compounds in powdered and capsule blueberries, which could be relevant for the maintenance of an antioxidant environment at this level. The intestinal digestion conditions particularly affected the phenolic compounds of fresh and lyophilized blueberry, but not the capsule, which may suggest that encapsulation protected the phenols present from alkaline conditions. Further studies on in vitro absorption of the remaining components in the intestine and their possible effects on oxidative stress biomarkers in in vivo models are suggested.
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The fruit of blackberry (Rubus fruticosus) bush is considered high in fiber, vitamins, mineral and some components are considered as antioxidants, they stand out by their therapeutic properties. Nevertheless, it is important to determine if these antioxidants are still retained in processed food; and to provide the consumer nutrimental information of this product, which has been in great demand in the central region of the State of Veracruz. The main objective was to determine the total contents of flavonoids and anthocyanins in jelly and handmade blackberry liqueur; as well as the amount of total carbohydrates, lipids and proteins contained in these products, produced in Atecaxil, Veracruz, Mexico. A preliminary phytochemical analysis and High Performance Thin Layer Chromatography (HPTLC) were performed on fruits, liquor and jelly of blackberry handmade. Total flavonoids and anthocyanins were quantified by spectrophotometry, during the three years of production. In the three samples there was a higher presence of alkaloids and flavonoids (+++). Bands purple color to light purple were observed on the chromatography plate (Rf 0.2 a 0.3), they are characteristic of anthocyanins. During the three years of production, the concentration of flavonoids of flavonoids and anthocyanins were similar, comparing between the products, there is a greater concentration of total flavonoids in jelly (43.6 mg) than in liqueur (16.0 mg). Anthocyanins were found in higher concentration in the blackberry jelly (59.3mg) than in the blackberry liqueur (23.6 mg). Both products recovered total flavonoids and anthocyanins, after the processing of the blackberry fruit. The handmade liqueur had an energetic value of 82.48kJ/19.7 kcal per 15 mL, 3.5g of carbohydrates, 0,1 g of lipids and 0.1 g of total protein, 33 serving per container (each portion or serving of 15 mL). In the artisanal blackberry jelly there was an energetic value of 110.11kJ/26.3 kcal per 10 g, 6g of carbohydrates, 0.1 g of lipids and 0.1 g of total protein, 34 portions each container (each portion of 10g). These products could compete in the handmade market, because the total flavonoids and anthocyanins are still preserved during the fabrication of the product; which could provide important information to the consumer.
Đặt vấn đề: Nhàu đã được sử dụng từ lâu ở Việt Nam và nhiều nước khác. Do đó việc nghiên cứu về tác dụng dược lý của các bộ phận từ Nhàu sẽ thúc đẩy khai thác nguồn dược liệu quí, sẵn có ở VN. Mục tiêu: Đề tài được thực hiện để khảo sát tác dụng chống oxy hóa của cao chiết từ quả và rễ Nhàu. Đối tượng nghiên cứu là rễ và quả Nhàu tươi và khô. Phương pháp: Khả năng chống oxy hóa của cao chiết từ quả và rễ Nhàu được đánh giá qua thử nghiệm dập tắt gốc tự do DPPH (1.1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) và thử nghiệm chống peroxy hóa lipid tế bào não chuột. Kết quả cho thấy cao chiết từ rễ Nhàu được chiết bằng cồn 96% thể hiện hoạt tính dập tắt gốc tự do DPPH (1.1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) và ức chế peroxy hóa lipid tế bào tốt hơn các cao chiết nước hay cồn 45%. Hoạt tính ức chế peroxy hóa lipid tế bào của cao chiết rễ Nhàu mạnh hơn chứng dương Trolox. Kết luận: Dạng cao chiết cồn 96% từ rễ Nhàu khô cho thấy triển vọng tốt đối với tác dụng chống oxy hóa và mở ra hướng nghiên cứu trên in vivo tác dụng của cao chiết tiềm năng từ rễ Nhàu trên các mô hình bệnh lý đối với tổn thương do stress oxy hóa.
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Blueberries are an important fruit crop in the Ericaceae represented by multiple Vaccinium species and ecotypes. In addition to their economic value, blueberry fruit is known for an abundance of specialized metabolites with known human health benefits. Phenolic compounds, which include flavonoids and anthocyanins, are an important class of compounds found in blueberry that are known to contribute to fruit flavor and quality and for having health-promoting properties. Previous surveys of phenolic compounds in blueberry have demonstrated considerable variability in concentration of these metabolites, which is associated with differences in environmental factors and cultivars surveyed. This study expands this knowledge by surveying total phenolic, flavonoid, and anthocyanin content in ripe fruits of 71 blueberry cultivars from one growing season in Michigan. Included in this diversity panel are three ecotypes of blueberry (northern highbush, southern highbush, and half highbush). Rubel, Legacy, and Friendship were among the seven cultivars with the highest content of each compound. Total phenolic content showed a 5.03-fold difference among the lowest and highest cultivars, and total flavonoid content and total anthocyanin content demonstrated a 2.66-fold and 6.37-fold difference between the lowest and highest content across cultivars, respectively. There was no significant impact of ecotype on phytochemical composition of ripe fruits. This study also represents the first large-scale analysis of total phenolic content using the Fast Blue BB (FBBB) reagent. Data from this study have the potential to aid in future breeding efforts to enhance the human health benefits of this economically important fruit crop.
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El presente estudio tuvo como objetivo evaluar el efecto de solventes verdes como el etanol/agua (EtOH/H2O), ácido acético/agua (CH3COOH/H2O) y la mezcla etanol/ácido acético/agua (EtOH/CH3COOH/H2O) en la extracción de polifenoles, específicamente antocianinas, provenientes de la especie Vaccinium corymbosum, con el fin de determinar su capacidad antioxidante mediante el comportamiento electroquímico. Para los extractos obtenidos se determinó el contenido de antocianinas totales (CAT) y contenido de polifenoles totales (CPT) por medio de técnicas espectrofotométricas y la capacidad antioxidante (CA) mediante el comportamiento electroquímico determinado a través de voltamperometría cíclica. Los resultados obtenidos indican que, si bien cuando se tiene EtOH/H2O como solvente se alcanza una mayor extracción de polifenoles, (696.46 ± 26.55) mg equivalente de ácido Gálico/100 g de muestra de base húmeda (bh), con la mezcla de solventes EtOH/CH3COOH/H2O se logra una mayor extracción de antocianinas (82.09 ± 2.59) mg equivalentes de cianidina-3-glucósido/100 g bh de muestra, lo cual concuerda con la capacidad antioxidante por voltamperometría cíclica, donde el mayor valor se obtuvo para la mezcla EtOH/CH3COOH/H2O (270.96 ± 10.74) µmol equivalente de ácido gálico/g bh de muestra), es decir que mayor concentración de antocianinas monoméricas dentro del contenido de polifenoles totales fueron oxidadas en el electrodo de trabajo. En este orden de ideas, se puede concluir que existen diferencias significativas entre el efecto que tuvo la evaluación de los solventes en el método de extracción sobre cada uno de los valores promedios alcanzados para los aspectos evaluados (CPT, CAT y CA), con una confianza del 95 %. Además, hay una “fuerte” correlación positiva entre el CAT y la capacidad antioxidante (r = 0.95).
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The aim of this study is to evaluate the content of phenolics: total phenols (TPC), flavonoids (TF), anthocyanins (TA), flavan-3-ols (TF3ols), as well as total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and reducing power (RP) in four blueberry cultivars (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) introduced in the Northwest Croatian climate conditions. Phenolic compounds were measured by spectrophotometric methods, TAC was determined using DPPH and ABTS assays and RP by FRAP assay. All cultivars contained high mass fraction of TPC, IF, TA and lower mass fraction of TF3ols. Among the researched fruits, Sierra cultivar contained the highest amounts of all groups of phenolics, followed by Elliott>Bluecrop >= Duke. Significant differences were observed in phenolic mass fraction among different cultivars and growing seasons (p<0.05), and phenolic compounds were significantly higher in growing season 2006. Examined cultivars possess high antioxidant capacity and reducing power, and all phenolics were highly correlated with TAC and RP (R=0.46 to 0.99). The study indicated that growing and climate conditions in Northwest Croatia are convenient for introducing blueberry cultivars. Generally, blueberry fruits are a rich source of phenolics, which show evident antioxidant capacity.
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Seven wild and ten cultivated blackberries (Arapaho, Bartin, Black Satin, Bursa 1, Bursa 2, Cherokee, Chester, Jumbo, Navaho, and Ness), and six lowbush (Vaccinium arctostaphylos) and four highbush (Vaccinium corymbosum) blueberries fruits (Ivanhoe, Jersey, Northland, and Rekord) were analyzed for total anthocyanins, total phenolics, and antioxidant activity as ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) in this study. The respective ranges of total anthocyanin and total phenolic contents of the tested samples were: blackberries, 0.95–1.97 and 1.73–3.79mgg−1 and blueberries, 0.18–2.94 and 0.77–5.42mgg−1. FRAP values varied from 35.05 to 70.41μmolg−1 for blackberries, 7.41 to 57.92μmolg−1 for blueberries. Wild blackberries had the highest FRAP values while wild blueberries had the highest total phenolic and total anthocyanin contents. A linear relationship was observed between FRAP values and total phenolics for blueberries (r=0.981). The anthocyanin pigments in samples were isolated and characterized by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with UV–visible detection. Cyn-3-glu was the predominant anthocyanin in all blackberry fruits.
Berries of Vaccinium meridionale Swartz native to Colombia were analysed for chemical composition, total phenolic content, anthocyanin content, and antioxidant activity. In addition, high-performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detection (HPLC–DAD) and HPLC-electrospray ionisation tandem mass spectrometry (ESI–MS/MS) were used to determine anthocyanin and phenolic composition. Anthocyanin content was 329.0±28.0mg cyanidin 3-glucoside equivalents/100g (fresh weight) FW and total phenolic content was 758.6±62.3mg gallic acid equivalent/100gFW. Cyanidin 3-galactoside was the major anthocyanin while the most abundant non-anthocyanin phenolic was chlorogenic acid.The ABTS radical scavenging activity was 45.5±2.3μmol Trolox equivalents/g FW and the ferric reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP) value was 87.0±17.8μmol TE/gFW or 116.0±23.7μmol ferric iron reduced/g FW.The unique anthocyanin composition of this fruit, as identified by classical techniques and ESI–MS/MS, can be differentiated from other bilberries and perhaps useful in authentification procedures. Overall, results from this study show that the fruit from Colombian wild bilberry has high antioxidant activity and potential applications as a source of phytochemicals in the nutraceutical and functional food market.
The effect of a bilberry extract (BE, 25% anthocyanins) against oxidative damage in primary cultures of rat hepatocytes, induced by tert-butyl hydroperoxide and allyl alcohol, was investigated. BE displayed cytoprotective effects at 100 and 500 lg/ml in the MTT viability test. It protected the cells against lactate dehydrogenase leakage and lipoperoxidation products formation. Maximum protection (58%) was noted using 500 lg/ml of BE and intoxication by allyl alcohol. The observed cytoprotective effect is probably due to the antioxidant properties of its constituents, mainly anthocyanins. BE scavenged DPPH (IC 50 3.99 ± 0.14 lg/ml) and enzymatically generated superox-ide radical with an activity equivalent to 108 ± 7.2 U of superoxide dismutase per mg of extract. Our results support the use of bilberry and bilberry extracts in functional foods and food supplements designed for the prevention of chronic diseases associated with oxidative stress.
Publisher Summary This chapter discusses the analysis of total phenols and other oxidation substrates and antioxidants by means of Folin-Ciocalteu reagent. Analyses of the Folin-Ciocalteu (FC) type are convenient, simple, and require only common equipment and have produced a large body of comparable data. Under proper conditions, the assay is inclusive of monophenols and gives predictable reactions with the types of phenols found in nature. Because different phenols react to different degrees, expression of the results as a single number—such as milligrams per liter gallic acid equivalence—is necessarily arbitrary. Because the reaction is independent, quantitative, and predictable, analysis of a mixture of phenols can be recalculated in terms of any other standard. The assay measures all compounds readily oxidizable under the reaction conditions and its very inclusiveness allows certain substances to also react that are either not phenols or seldom thought of as phenols (e.g., proteins). Judicious use of the assay—with consideration of potential interferences in particular samples and prior study if necessary—can lead to very informative results. Aggregate analysis of this type is an important supplement to and often more informative than reems of data difficult to summarize from various techniques, such as high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) that separate a large number of individual compounds .The predictable reaction of components in a mixture makes it possible to determine a single reactant by other means and to calculate its contribution to the total FC phenol content. Relative insensitivity of the FC analysis to many adsorbents and precipitants makes differential assay—before and after several different treatments—informative.
Blueberry fruits from five commercial cultivars and 13 breeding selections grown at the same locations over two growing seasons were analysed for total phenolics (TPH), total anthocyanins (ACY), total hydroxycinnamic acids (HCA), total flavonols (FLA), fruit weight and oxygen radical-absorbing capacity (ORAC). Variation in ORAC, TPH, ACY, HCA, FLA and fruit weight among genotypes was much greater than that observed between growing seasons, indicating that genetics plays a more important role than growing season in influencing ORAC and phenolic content in blueberries. Significant main effects for growing season and genotype × growing season observed for ORAC, ACY, HCA and fruit weight demonstrate that environmental growing conditions can impact levels of phenolics and ORAC in blueberries and that certain genotypes vary in their capacity to synthesise phenolics under different growing conditions. In general, genotypes with smaller berries had higher ORAC values and levels of TPH, ACY, HCA and FLA than large-berried genotypes. Over both growing seasons, ORAC correlated highly with TPH, ACY, HCA and FLA, while fruit weight correlated inversely with all phenolics measured. Our results indicate that blueberry genotypes should be screened over multiple growing seasons in order to identify antioxidant- and phenolic-rich germplasm. Copyright © 2003 Society of Chemical Industry
The present work evaluated the quality and antioxidant characteristics of ‘Osogrande’ and ‘Camino Real’ strawberries at different ripeness stages. Strawberries (Fragaria x ananassa Duch.) were harvested, selected, graded according to ripeness (green, pink or 3/4 ripe and ripe) and evaluated for pH, total soluble solids, total titratable acidity, sugar/acid ratio, vitamin C, total phenolic compounds, total ellagic acid, total and individual anthocyanins and antioxidant activity by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP). The highest total soluble solid content was found for pink (7.5° Brix) and ripe (7.9° Brix) ‘Osogrande’ strawberries. At pink stage, this cultivar showed higher amounts of total phenolics (2909.48 mg kg−1 FW) and total ellagic acid (454.16 mg kg−1 FW). Pink ‘Camino Real’ strawberries presented the highest content of vitamin C (528.55 mg kg−1 FW). Antioxidant activity was higher for ‘Osogrande’ cultivar, at green stage, according to DPPH (11.91 μmol BHT g−1 FW) and FRAP (36.75 μmol ferrous sulphate g−1 FW) assays and at ripe stage, only for DPPH assay (12.83 μmol BHT g−1 FW). Anthocyanins increased along ripening, with more elevated concentrations in ripe ‘Camino Real’ strawberries (292.9 mg kg−1 FW). Cyanindin-3-glucoside showed a higher concentration for the same treatment (17.23 mg kg−1 FW), which might contribute to a more redish color. Although ripe berries have a better flavor and are more appreciated, higher antioxidant contents and activities were observed at pink stage in which higher amounts of total phenolics, total ellagic acid and vitamin C were noticed for both cultivars.