ArticleLiterature Review

A Review of the bioactivity and potential health benefits of peppermint tea (Mentha piperita L)

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

Abstract

Peppermint (Mentha piperita L.) is one of the most widely consumed single ingredient herbal teas, or tisanes. Peppermint tea, brewed from the plant leaves, and the essential oil of peppermint are used in traditional medicines. Evidence-based research regarding the bioactivity of this herb is reviewed. The phenolic constituents of the leaves include rosmarinic acid and several flavonoids, primarily eriocitrin, luteolin and hesperidin. The main volatile components of the essential oil are menthol and menthone. In vitro, peppermint has significant antimicrobial and antiviral activities, strong antioxidant and antitumor actions, and some antiallergenic potential. Animal model studies demonstrate a relaxation effect on gastrointestinal (GI) tissue, analgesic and anesthetic effects in the central and peripheral nervous system, immunomodulating actions and chemopreventive potential. Human studies on the GI, respiratory tract and analgesic effects of peppermint oil and its constituents have been reported. Several clinical trials examining the effects of peppermint oil on irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) symptoms have been conducted. However, human studies of peppermint leaf are limited and clinical trials of peppermint tea are absent. Adverse reactions to peppermint tea have not been reported, although caution has been urged for peppermint oil therapy in patients with GI reflux, hiatal hernia or kidney stones.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... The leaves of Mentha x piperita L. (peppermint) have been described for mild inflammatory problems of the upper respiratory tract. Pre-clinical studies show antibacterial (McKay;Blumberg, 2006) and antiviral action against rinderpest virus (McKay;Blumberg, 2006). Clinical trials with this species have shown the effectiveness on digestive problems, highlighting irritable bowel syndrome (Jailwala et al., 2000;Pittler;Ernst, 1998). ...
... The leaves of Mentha x piperita L. (peppermint) have been described for mild inflammatory problems of the upper respiratory tract. Pre-clinical studies show antibacterial (McKay;Blumberg, 2006) and antiviral action against rinderpest virus (McKay;Blumberg, 2006). Clinical trials with this species have shown the effectiveness on digestive problems, highlighting irritable bowel syndrome (Jailwala et al., 2000;Pittler;Ernst, 1998). ...
... The leaves of Mentha x piperita L. (peppermint) have been described for mild inflammatory problems of the upper respiratory tract. Pre-clinical studies show antibacterial (McKay;Blumberg, 2006) and antiviral action against rinderpest virus (McKay;Blumberg, 2006). Clinical trials with this species have shown the effectiveness on digestive problems, highlighting irritable bowel syndrome (Jailwala et al., 2000;Pittler;Ernst, 1998). ...
... These significant results are in line with the current literature. Some studies explained that menthol, an organic compound from peppermint, would decrease the discomfort during breathing and may be caused by its stimulation of the sensory and palatine nerves [28][29][30]. In contrast, even though ammonia is also a stimulant odor, its effect comes from another pathway. ...
... Out of these six studies using peppermint, four showed a better overall performance with faster running time (e.g., 2.94 sec faster for 400m run) [10,11,27], two better participants' feelings evaluated with different scales (e.g., effort, fatigue, frustration) [10,21], and one improved lung function evaluated with a spirometer [27]. Similarly, as described earlier in this review, peppermint and, more precisely, menthol might decrease breathing discomfort, which explain such improvements [28][29][30]. Two other studies produced no significant results [12,23]. ...
... For example, duration of exposition range from 3 sec [26] to the total duration of the exercise [9,11,14,17,23,24]. Knowing that some odors, such as peppermint and lavender, have a specific compound that plays a crucial role in the effects described earlier, their concentration should be standardized to assess the magnitude of their effects [28,36]. Finally, another limitation of this review is the population sample. ...
Preprint
Full-text available
Fewer and fewer people are reaching physical activity recommendations. Therefore, it seems important to make the practice of physical activity more enjoyable to increase the participation rate. Several environmental factors have been studied to see their impact on sports practice, and some studies investigated the effect of odors. This systematic review aims to provide a thorough view of the literature on the effect of different odors on physical activity. The search strategy consisted of using index terms and keywords in MEDLINE, EMBASE, EBM Reviews - Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, CINAHL, SPORTDiscus, and Web of Science search engine. Data from 19 studies that included 421 participants revealed that the odors had different results on strength, cardiovascular, precision, and postural balance tasks depending on the odors' exposition. Among results, an important distinction was made between pleasant and unpleasant odors. Therefore, pleasant odors had better results on physical activity by improving participants' feeling. Even though this review clarified evidence about the effect of odors on physical activity, better methodological consistency is needed across studies such as the odor administration method to produce more meaningful results.
... Diets including fruits, fluids, and probiotics are good for constipation. Fruits contain water, melatonin, sorbitol, fructose, fiber, and phytochemicals (69,(70)(71)(72)(73)(74)(75)(76)(77)(78)(79)(80)(81)(82)(83).Fruits thought to be useful for treating constipation are pear, oranges, berries, grape, plump, and apple with peel, which are rich in fiber (71)(72)(73)(74)(75)(76)(77)(78)(79)(80)(81)(82)(83). Fruits juices are generally helpful for constipation, particularly in young children, whose intestinal function has not fully matured. ...
... Diets including fruits, fluids, and probiotics are good for constipation. Fruits contain water, melatonin, sorbitol, fructose, fiber, and phytochemicals (69,(70)(71)(72)(73)(74)(75)(76)(77)(78)(79)(80)(81)(82)(83).Fruits thought to be useful for treating constipation are pear, oranges, berries, grape, plump, and apple with peel, which are rich in fiber (71)(72)(73)(74)(75)(76)(77)(78)(79)(80)(81)(82)(83). Fruits juices are generally helpful for constipation, particularly in young children, whose intestinal function has not fully matured. ...
... The mechanism of action of fiber on constipation includes: 1) Fiber increases stool bulk and accelerates colon transit; 2) fermenting fiber produces short-chain fatty acids (butyrate, propionate, acetate, etc.), which increase osmotic load and accelerate colon transit; 3) short-chain fatty acids change the intraluminal microbiome (mass) directly or indirectly by decreasing luminal pH, which accelerates colon transit; and 4) fiber contains water. All these improve stool consistency and amount (70)(71)(72)(73)(74)(75)(76)(77)(78)(79)(80)(81). Milk and Ghee-According to the book, 'The Complete Book of Ayurvedic Home Remedies,' "taking one or two teaspoons of ghee in a cup of hot milk at bedtime is an effective and gentle means of relieving constipation. ...
Article
Full-text available
This literature review paper highlights the application of herbal medicine in the treatment of constipation health disorder. Constipation is a common gastrointestinal tract disorder which can result in the infrequent stools, difficult stool passage with pain and stiffness. Constipation refers to a situation where bowel movements are hard or become infrequent or difficult stool passage leading to Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). This is essentially a digestive problem and affect people of all the ages. The common cause of constipation might be related to lack of proper diet, lack of adequate fluid, long term use of medications, lack of adequate physical activity, age related, and might due to serious illness. Conventional treatment includes the use of laxatives to remove stools. The regular use of such chemical-based drugs can imbalance body metabolism and affect the digestive system. Natural plant products rich in fiber, melatonin and anthraquinones are important for the prevention and treatment of gastrointestinal disorders. Ayurveda recommends a holistic approach to treat constipation. The Ayurvedic treatment for constipation requires the use of herbal formulations. Medicinal plants possess a significant laxative potential and support their folklore. In addition to natural laxatives, an Ayurvedic diet, exercise, and massage are key elements of maintaining a healthy digestive system. This literature review paper listed some of the medicinal plants with laxative properties in a single platform as a herbal remedy for the constipation problem.
... Chemical analysis of peppermint and palmarosa EOs showed that monocyclic monoterpenes were the main constituents. Babu and Kaul (2005), Machiani et al. (2018), andMcKay andBlumberg (2006) reported that the chemical profile of Mentha piperita EO was similar to that obtained in the present work. In addition, this EO showed antimicrobial, antifungal, insecticidal, and antioxidant properties (Mckay and Blumberg 2006;Yadegarinia et al. 2006;Yeguerman et al. 2020). ...
... Chemical analysis of peppermint and palmarosa EOs showed that monocyclic monoterpenes were the main constituents. Babu and Kaul (2005), Machiani et al. (2018), andMcKay andBlumberg (2006) reported that the chemical profile of Mentha piperita EO was similar to that obtained in the present work. In addition, this EO showed antimicrobial, antifungal, insecticidal, and antioxidant properties (Mckay and Blumberg 2006;Yadegarinia et al. 2006;Yeguerman et al. 2020). ...
... Babu and Kaul (2005), Machiani et al. (2018), andMcKay andBlumberg (2006) reported that the chemical profile of Mentha piperita EO was similar to that obtained in the present work. In addition, this EO showed antimicrobial, antifungal, insecticidal, and antioxidant properties (Mckay and Blumberg 2006;Yadegarinia et al. 2006;Yeguerman et al. 2020). On the other hand, several studies reported that geraniol was the most abundant compound in palmarosa EO (Raina et al., 2003;Rao et al. 2005;Yeguerman et al. 2020). ...
Article
Full-text available
This paper introduces the lethal, sublethal, and ecotoxic effects of peppermint and palmarosa essential oils (EOs) and their polymeric nanoparticles (PNs). The physicochemical analyses indicated that peppermint PNs were polydisperse (PDI > 0.4) with sizes of 381 nm and loading efficiency (LE) of 70.3%, whereas palmarosa PNs were monodisperse (PDI < 0.25) with sizes of 191 nm and LE of 89.7%. EOs and their PNs were evaluated on the adults of rice weevil (Sitophilus oryzae L.) and cigarette beetle (Lasioderma serricorne F.) and the larvae of Culex pipiens pipiens Say. On S. oryzae and L. serricorne, PNs increased EOs’ lethal activity, extended repellent effects for 84 h, and also modified behavioral variables during 24 h. Moreover, EOs and PNs generated toxic effects against C. pipiens pipiens. On the other hand, peppermint and palmarosa EOs and their PNs were not toxic to terrestrial non-target organisms, larvae of mealworm (Tenebrio molitor L.), and nymphs of orange-spotted cockroach (Blaptica dubia S.). In addition, PNs were slightly toxic to aquatic non-target organisms, such as brine shrimp (Artemia salina L.). Therefore, these results show that PNs are a novel and eco-friendly formulation to control insect pests.
... (Mentha piperita) extracted from peppermint leaves is an excellent gastric stimulant, carminative, which has also been used in cosmetic formulations as a perfume component and a general skin conditioning agent 61,62 . Peppermint (Mentha × Piperita) is a hybrid mint, which is a cross between Water mint (Mentha aquatica) and Spearmint (Mentha spicata) that is thought to be grown naturally 62,63 . ...
... (Mentha piperita) extracted from peppermint leaves is an excellent gastric stimulant, carminative, which has also been used in cosmetic formulations as a perfume component and a general skin conditioning agent 61,62 . Peppermint (Mentha × Piperita) is a hybrid mint, which is a cross between Water mint (Mentha aquatica) and Spearmint (Mentha spicata) that is thought to be grown naturally 62,63 . ...
... Peppermint (Mentha piperita L.) is among the most often drunk single-ingredient herbal teas, or tisanes [14]. MPO is well known for its traditional usage in treating fever, digestive, antifungal, cold, oral mucosa, and throat irritation, and for viral infection. ...
... MPO is well known for its traditional usage in treating fever, digestive, antifungal, cold, oral mucosa, and throat irritation, and for viral infection. Aroma effects are likely caused by a broad range of bioactive phytochemicals, involving flavonoids [15], phenolics, stilbenes, lignans, and essential oils [14]. With the World Health Organization's permission, the medicinal plants' treatment of epilepsy is gaining popularity due to the plants' fewer side effects and diverse beneficial ingredients [16]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: Epilepsy is a progressive, chronic neurological disorder characterized by recurrent seizures. Peppermint (Mentha piperita L.) (MP) is one of the most commonly ingested herbal teas or tisanes with a single component. Aim: We aimed to assess the potential antiepileptic and neuroprotective features of MP essential oil (MPO) in pilocarpine (P) and pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) models of epilepsy. Methods: The study used eight groups of mice to assess the anticonvulsant activity of MPO in both the P and PTZ acute models in mice. P (350 mg/kg, i.p.) was given 30 minutes after MPO (1.6, 3.2, and 6.4 ml/kg, i.p.). As a positive control group, diazepam (1 mg/kg, i.p) was used. PTZ (95 mg/kg, i.p.) was given 30 minutes after MPO (6.4 ml/kg, i.p.). The first convulsion's latency time, the number of convulsions, the latency time to death, and the percentage of deaths were calculated in all groups. Results: MPO significantly (P < 0.05) increases the first convulsion's latency time and the death's latency time. Moreover, the essential oil significantly decreases the number of convulsions and reduces the mortality rate compared to the negative control group. Conclusion: MPO at 3.2 and 6.4 ml/kg doses can reduce the percentage and the number of convulsions and increase the latency time of both the first convulsion and death so that it can be used as a supplement in the treatment of epilepsy.
... In addition, its oil has been reported to have antibacterial, antiviral, antiparasitic and antifungal activities (Pushpangadan and Tewari, 2006). The antibiotic activity of peppermint oil was reported by many in vitro studies (McKay and Blumberg, 2006). In in vivo studies, the addition of essential oils to fish diet revealed high growth performance, enhanced hematological parameters and immune response (Adel et al., 2015). ...
Article
Full-text available
The study focused on investigating the effectiveness of essential oils of peppermint (Mentha piperita) against Streptococcus agalactiae (bacteria causing hemorrhagic disease) in red tilapia with an infective concentration of 10 6 CFU/mL. The experiment was arranged with 2 control treatments: control 1-commercial feed + no infection; control 2-commercial feed + infection of S. agalactiae; and 3 experimental treatments with essential oils concentrations of 0.125%; 0.25% and 0.5%. The study examined the blood cell morphology and physiological blood indices of red tilapia (including hemoglobin; hematocrit; red blood cells count; the total number of white blood cells and thrombocytes, erythrocyte size) at three stages: after 15 days of adding essential oils without infection; five days after infection; and ten days after infection. In this study, fish supplemented with peppermint essential oils stimulated the body to create immunity. However, concentrations of 0.125% and 0.25% showed higher results about this ability in the presence of bacteria while the concentration of 0.5% exhibited a higher antibacterial effect of essential oils.
... A hortelã é composta por terpenoides e flavonoides [97] . No SUS, é indicada no tratamento da síndrome do cólon irritável, cólica intestinal, flatulência e espasmos e é padronizada na forma de cápsulas, contendo de 60 -440 mg de mentol e de 28 -256 mg de mentona [25] . ...
Article
As plantas medicinais e os fitoterápicos são alternativas para o tratamento de diversas doenças. O Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS) possui 12 fitoterápicos padronizados na Relação Nacional de Medicamentos Essenciais (RENAME): alcachofra, aroeira, babosa, cáscara-sagrada, espinheira-santa, garra-do-diabo, guaco, hortelã, isoflavona-de-soja, plantago, salgueiro e unha-de-gato. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os eventos adversos destes fitoterápicos e as possíveis interações medicamentosas resultantes do seu uso concomitante com medicamentos convencionais. O trabalho foi realizado por meio de uma revisão narrativa da literatura no período entre 1995 e 2020. As plantas medicinais e/ou os medicamentos fitoterápicos são constituídos de compostos químicos, que em sua maioria são responsáveis pelas suas variadas ações farmacológicas. A composição química complexa aumenta a possibilidade de interações quando medicamentos convencionais são utilizados concomitantemente. As interações podem ser benéficas ou desfavoráveis, podendo potencializar o efeito de fármacos, reduzir a eficácia, resultar em reações adversas ou não alterar o efeito esperado do fármaco. Ressaltou-se a importância de considerar os fitoterápicos/plantas medicinais com a mesma importância que os medicamentos sintéticos, baseando a conduta clínica em evidências científicas confiáveis, reconhecendo sua eficácia, mas também seus efeitos adversos e a possibilidade de interações medicamentosas tornando, assim, seu uso mais seguro e eficaz.
... It is used in the treatment of cold, headache, dysmenorrhea, gastrointestinal system disorders, and inflammation of the mouth, throat, sinuses, liver, bile duct, and intestines [5]. In addition, fresh and dried leaves of peppermint are widely used directly in meals, salads, drinks, or as aromatizing in various sauces. ...
... [5] Besides its culinary use, peppermint is enriched in essential oils, including methanol, menthane, cineol, and polyphenols. [6][7][8][9][10][11][12] The use of Mentha species can be traced back to the herbal pharmacopoeia of ancient Greece. [6] Numerous studies have emphasized the beneficial biological functions associated with peppermint volatiles, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and antiviral. ...
Article
Full-text available
Peppermint (Mentha piperita L.) is one of the most cultivated and consumed herbs. The pharmaceutical properties and nutrition values of peppermint oil make it an important commercial product. This study aimed to explore the volatile compounds in the essential oil extracted from different peppermint genotypes commercially grown in China. Oil extraction using a steam distillation followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry resulted in the quantification of 53 volatile compounds from five major classes, including esters, alcohols, ketones, terpenes, and volatile compounds. The highest essential oil yields were observed in Golden mint, Silver mint, Scottish mint, and Banana mint. Moreover, three genotypes, viz., Milk fruit mint, Winter Mint, and Pineapple, were screened with the highest diversity of volatile compounds. Major volatiles identified were linalyl acetate, 1-octene-3-acetate, geranyl acetate, neryl acetate, menthol, linalool, menthone, and carvone. The phenotypic characterization coupled with the volatile profiling in this study provides the basis for selecting and improving the investigated peppermint genotypes for specific commercial uses.
... Whilst reviews exist that range from the metabolic engineering of terpenoids in plants to the pharmacological, toxicological and insecticidal effects of Mentha spp., this review focuses on metabolic, environmental and plant growth regulator (PGR) modification attempts to manipulate the terpenoid content/yield done solely in Mentha spp. (McKay and Blumberg, 2006;Kumar et al., 2011;Malekmohammad et al., 2019). ...
Article
Full-text available
In recent years, the study of aromatic plants has seen an increase, with great interest from industrial, academic, and pharmaceutical industries. Among plants attracting increased attention are the Mentha spp. (mint), members of the Lamiaceae family. Mint essential oils comprise a diverse class of molecules known as terpenoids/isoprenoids, organic chemicals that are among the most diverse class of naturally plant derived compounds. The terpenoid profile of several Mentha spp. is dominated by menthol, a cyclic monoterpene with some remarkable biological properties that make it useful in the pharmaceutical, medical, cosmetic, and cleaning product industries. As the global market for Mentha essential oils increases, the desire to improve oil composition and yield follows. The monoterpenoid biosynthesis pathway is well characterised so metabolic engineering attempts have been made to facilitate this improvement. This review focuses on the Mentha spp. and attempts at altering the carbon flux through the biosynthetic pathways to increase the yield and enhance the composition of the essential oil. This includes manipulation of endogenous and heterologous biosynthetic enzymes through overexpression and RNAi suppression. Genes involved in the MEP pathway, the menthol and carvone biosynthetic pathways and transcription factors known to affect secondary metabolism will be discussed along with non-metabolic engineering approaches including environmental factors and the use of plant growth regulators.
... The major chemical components of PO are menthol (33-60%) and menthone (15-32%). These chemical components have antibacterial and antioxidant properties [8][9][10]. Menthol and some monoterpenes can penetrate into cell membranes and, as a result, the function of lipid biolayers is intensively negatively altered [11]. ...
Article
Full-text available
The short-term shelf life of straw mushrooms (Volvariella volvacea) is a major challenge, hampering their wide distribution. Thus, the aim of this work was to develop a novel active packaging composed of essential oils (EOs), particularly clove oil (CO) and peppermint oil (PO), to reduce autolysis of straw mushrooms. The morphological characterizations, mechanical properties, barrier properties, and antioxidant activities of the films were characterized. The suppressive effects of the EOs on straw mushroom autolysis were estimated during storage at 16 ± 1 °C for 96 h. The results indicated that the addition of EOs weakened the mechanical and barrier properties of the films. The radical-scavenging activities of polylactic acid/poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate)/thermoplastic starch-peppermint oil (PLA/PBAT/TPS-PO) and polylactic acid/poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate)/thermoplastic starch-clove oil (PLA/PBAT/TPS-CO) films for 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl were 56.0% and 91.3%, respectively. However, the PLA/PBAT/TPS-PO film was more effective in reducing polyphenol oxidase activity and maintaining the total phenol content of straw mushrooms, demonstrating better antioxidative activity. Mushrooms packaged with the PLA/PBAT/TPS-PO film exhibited the lowest autolysis rate (42.29%, p < 0.05) after 96 h of storage. Thus, PO is a good preservative agent for straw mushroom.
... The presence of their functional groups (OH-,C-O,C-H) was confirmed by ATR-FTIR analysis ( Figure 3). Thereby, the Mentha piperita extract demonstrates its potent antimicrobial activity against a variety of microorganisms because the leaf contains compounds such as phenolic acids (-OH) [87], flavonoids (-CO) or volatile oil as menthol, menthone, menthyl acetate and limonene, which have antibacterial, antifungal and anti-inflammatory properties and interact with the cell membrane of the strains [88,89]. The antibacterial effect of PVA film loaded with Mentha piperita extract against E. coli and S. aureus bacteria was confirmed also by other authors [80], where the degree of antimicrobial activity varies between the cultivars. ...
Article
Full-text available
The majority of recent studies have focused on obtaining MRI materials for internal use. However, this study focuses on a straightforward method for preparing gelatin-based materials with iron oxide nanoparticles (G–Fe2O3 and G–Fe3O4) for external use. The newly obtained materials must be precisely tuned to match the requirements and usage situation because they will be in close touch with human/animal skin. The biocompatible structures formed by gelatin, tannic acid, and iron oxide nanoparticles were investigated by using FTIR spectroscopy, SEM-EDAX analysis, and contact angle methods. The physico-chemical properties were obtained by using mechanical investigations, dynamic vapor sorption analysis, and bulk magnetic determination. The size and shape of iron oxide nanoparticles dictates the magnetic behavior of the gelatin-based samples. The magnetization curves revealed a typical S-shaped superparamagnetic behavior which is evidence of improved MRI image accuracy. In addition, the MTT assay was used to demonstrate the non-toxicity of the samples, and the antibacterial test confirmed satisfactory findings for all G-based materials.
... Mint tea (Mentha piperita L.) as raw material is one of the most widely consumed single-ingredient herbal teas (infusion) around the world [1]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Mint tea (Mentha piperita L.) is one of the most widely consumed single infusion herbal teas (infusion) around the world; however, impurities and pollutants can pose a potential health risk to human health during tea drinking. The idea of this study was the comprehensive toxicological risk assessment (TRA) of three heavy metals (As, Pb, and Cd) in mint tea infusions (Mentha piperita L.; n = 17) available in Polish markets. We applied an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS)-based methodology for the determination of the chosen heavy metals and designed a specific TRA approach. The first step in our TRA was the determination of the elements investigated (heavy metal impurity profile, µg/L of infusion). The second step was the estimation of the weekly intake (µg/L of infusion/week) based on the weekly consumption of tea. The third step was the estimation of the weekly intake per body weight (µg/L of infusion/week/bw) based on the weekly consumption of tea per adult person compared to the Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake (PTWI) established by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA). The level of investigated heavy metals occurs in all of the investigated mint tea infusions but at a relatively low level. The heavy metal profile indicated presence of As (0.36–1.254 µg/L), Pb (0.47–1.24 µg/L), and Cd (0.17–0.40 µg/L) in all the samples investigated. The basic analysis of the general content shows that As levels (mean = 0.70 µg/L) were very similar to the Pb levels (mean = 0.72 µg/L). The Cd content (mean = 0.21 µg/L) was approximately 3.5 times lower than the As and Pb levels. TRA provides satisfactory results for regulatory purposes. TRA for the elements investigated in the analyzed products indicated that there was no health hazard to consumers for weekly exposure. The results indicated that the levels of investigated elements in daily doses should not represent any health hazard to the consumer after drinking mini tea infusions from products available in Polish markets. This well-designed TRA methodology was useful and important for regulatory toxicology purposes.
... Questi effetti potrebbero essere dovuti alle interazioni farmacologiche causate dall'OE. Infatti, è noto che l'OE di Mentha piperita L. interferisce con il citocromo P450, che svolge un ruolo importante nel metabolismo dei farmaci (McKay, 2006). Uno studio in vitro sui fibroblasti ha permesso di dimostrare un effetto tossico dell'OE di Syzygium aromaticum (chiodi di garofano) a una concentrazione dello 0,03% (1,8 μM). ...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Natural substances and integrated therapies: food for thought from the seminars of the study group of Integrated Therapies and Natural Substances. Edited by Andrea Geraci, Anna Maria Marella, Francesca Mondello, Annarita Stringaro 2022, iv, 120 p. Rapporti ISTISAN 22/2 (in Italian), Istituto Superiore di Sanità. Natural products have a long history of use as drugs, drug precursors and/or adjuvants for the treatment of various pathological conditions and there are many examples of molecules derived from natural substances that have changed the history of medicine, along with the related Nobel Prize assigned. Interest in natural substances is growing progressively for cultural, scientific and economic reasons. Often some products of natural origin, in the commercial form of food supplements, are neither standardized nor studied for all their possible actions, both beneficial and adverse, and the enormous demand by the consumer of these products for “health-promoting use” is noted. This volume is intended to represent a popularizing tool of recent research presented in some seminars organized by the Study Group of Integrated Therapies and Natural Substances of the Istituto Superiore di Sanità (the National Institute of Health in Italy) to animate reflection on lights and shadows in the field of integrated therapies that involve the use of natural substances. Key words: Vegetable products; Phytotherapy; Integrative medicine
... The essential oil content of this species ranges from 0.1-to 0.5% and includes menthol 28-42.2%, menthon 18-28% menthone 18-24 menthofuran 19.8%, and methyl acetate 3-10% (McKay and Blumberg, 2006;Schmidt et al., 2009). Menthol and menthone are the main components of essential oils, exhibiting antimicrobial properties. ...
Article
Damage to the plant's photosynthetic system is known as the main symptoms of sensitivity to environmental stresses. Little is known about beneficial role of new chitosan compounds such as Kitoplus®, and chitosan-coated nanomaterials on alleviation of adveres effects of drought stress in plants. In the present study, a factorial experiment was conducted in a split-plot manner based on a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications to evaluate the effects of Kitoplus® growth stimulant and Chitosan-Coated Iron Oxide Nanoparticles (Fe-CTs NPS) on peppermint growth, chlorophyll fluorescence and essential oil biosynthesis under drought stress conditions. Treatments included three levels of drought stress (irrigation at soil moisture levels of 30%, 60%, and 90%), three concentrations of Kitoplus®(control without Kitoplus®, 0.5% and 1%), and three concentrations of Fe-CTs NPs (control without Fe-CTs NPs, 5 and 10 µM). Drought stress, growth stimulation treatment with Kitoplus®, and Fe-CTs NPs had significant dual and triple effects on the studied physiological traits. According to the results, chlorophyll index and stomatal conductance were significantly lower in control plants than in those undergoing drought stress. Under 60% field capacity moisture conditions, the chlorophyll index was increased with 1% Kitoplus® treatment. The maximum fluorescence (Fm) and variable fluorescence (Fv) raised as the drought stress intensity increased. The highest Fm and Fv were observed in plants treated with 1% Kitoplus® and 10 µM Fe-CTs NPS under 30% soil moisture stress. Results also showed that the highest value of menthone (33.31%) was obtained in plants treated with Kitoplus® at 1% and Fe-CTs NPs at 10 μM under drought stress of 60% field capacity. In addition, the highest amount of menthol (26.5%) was observed in plants treated with 0.5% Kitoplus® under drought stress of 30% field capacity. The overall importance of the study lies in devising the simultaneous application of biostimulants and nanomaterials in enhancing essential oils production in the mint plant under drought stress challenges.
... PEO has also been used as an aromatic product to keep people awake. The results of animal experiments also indicate anxiety and vigilance effects in animals, which are caused by the analgesic and anaesthetic effects of PEO on the central nervous system [6]. When used as a clinical treatment, PEO greatly reduces fatigue and relieves pain in patients [7,8]; thus, PEO is widely used in both daily life and assisted medicine treatment. ...
Article
Full-text available
Essential oils have long been used to fight infections and treat various diseases. Peppermint (Mentha × piperita L.) is an herbal medicine that has been widely used in daily life since ancient times, and it has a wide range of applications in food, cosmetics, and medicine. Mint oil is refreshing because of its cool and comfortable smell; therefore, it is often used in ethnopharmacological studies. The present study investigated the effects of peppermint essential oil in electroencephalographic activity response to various visual stimuli. The electroencephalographic changes of participants during peppermint essential oil inhalation under white, red, and blue colour stimulations were recorded. A rapid Fourier transform analysis was used to examine the electroencephalograph power spectra of the various microstates induced by inhaling the oils. Peppermint essential oil had various effects on the brain when subjected to different visual stimuli. Alpha waves increased in the prefrontal area in the white-sniffing group, which facilitated learning and thinking. In the blue-sniffing group, the changes were less pronounced than those in the red group, and the increased alpha wave activity in the occipital area was more controlled, indicating that the participants' visual function increased in this state. Based on EEG investigations, this is the first study to indicate that vision influences the effects of peppermint essential oils. Hence, the results of this study support the use of essential oils in a broader context to serve as a resource for future studies on the effects of different types of essential oils.
... Non pharmacological strategy includes life style modification, dietary alteration and exercise, [10] whereas Pharmacological treatment includes use of Anticholinergics, Antidiarrheal, Prokinetic agents and newer drugs like Rifaximine, Alosetron, and Lubiprostone. [11][12][13][14] But, Pharmacotherapy of IBS is still far from satisfaction [7] . Peppermint Oil (PO) and its active ingredient L-menthol was approved in Europe and America as frontline IBS pharmacotherapy. ...
Article
Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) is a functional bowel disorder characterized by abdominal pain or discomfort and altered bowel habits in absence of detectable structural abnormalities with worldwide incidence of 10-20%. According to Rome IV criteria subtypes of IBS can be IBS-D, IBS-C and IBS-M. Both non pharmacological and pharmacological therapy are available for IBS. Earlier Peppermint Oil (PO) was used in different types of abdominal pain. An oral formulation of PO is used in patients of IBS to improve symptoms. Hence the study was conducted to assess the efficacy of Peppermint Oil in IBS patients.METHOD: A prospective randomized, placebo-controlled study of 6month was done in Dept. of Pharmacology and Gastroenterology, SCBMCH, Cuttack. A total of 60 IBS patients(18-60yr) were included in the study. They were divided randomly into two groups by lottery system. Gr-1 received PO 180mg TDS 60 min before breakfast, lunch, dinner and Gr-2 received placebo. The baseline and follow-up parameters of Total IBS symptom Score (TISS) were recorded at 0hr, 24hr and 4wks of treatment in both groups and Pain was assessed using Numeric Rating Scale. Statistical analysis were done using Mann-Whitney Test and Wilcoxon signed ranked Test. RESULTS: There was significant reduction in TISS and PAIN score at 24hr and 4weeks with Peppermint Oil from the baseline with Placebo.CONCLUSION : Peppermint oil was found to be effective in IBS patients. Keywords: Irritable Bowel Syndrome, Peppermint Oil, Total IBS symptom score, Numeric Pain rating scale
... These plants are broadly applied in many national cuisines (including Polish gastronomy), being popular spices and herbal teas, as well as are accounted as medicinal herbs (enlisted in the Community herbal monographs of the Committee on Herbal Medicinal Products in the European Medicines Agency). They have been applied in the treatment of a variety of ailments, focusing on gastrointestinal and respiratory tract disorders in European countries including Poland (European Medicines Agency 2013; European Medicines Agency 2016; European Medicines Agency 2020; Bruneton et al., 1999;McKay et al., 2006;Mahendran et al., 2020;Jarić et al., 2015. Apart from the abundance of essential oils being responsible for multiple beneficial activities of these herbs, they contain polyphenolic compounds including caffeic acid (CA), rosmarinic (RA), luteolin-7-O-glucuronide (Lgr), luteolin-7-O-rutinoside (Lr), and eriodictyol-7-O-rutinoside (Er) (present in all four investigated species), and arbutin (Ab) (detected in sweet marjoram and common thyme), and lithospermic acid (LA) (in wild thyme and peppermint) Turek 2007 andTurek (2008). ...
Article
Full-text available
Lamiaceae species are rich sources of biologically active compounds which have been applied in medicine since ancient times. Especially their antineoplastic properties have been thoroughly studied with respect to their putative application in chemoprevention and adjuvant therapy of cancer. However, the most known biological effects of Lamiaceae have been ascribed to their essential oil fractions, whereas their (poly)phenolic metabolites being also abundant in these plants, are much less recognized, nevertheless contributing to their beneficial properties, such as anti-cancer actions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of dried aqueous extracts from common thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.) (ExTv), wild thyme (Thymus serpyllum L.) (ExTs), sweet marjoram (Origanum majorana L.) (ExOm), and peppermint (Mentha × piperita L.) (ExMp), as well as (poly)phenolic compounds: caffeic acid (CA), rosmarinic acid (RA), lithospermic acid (LA), luteolin-7-O-β-glucuronide (Lgr), luteolin-7-O-rutinoside (Lr), eriodictyol-7-O-rutinoside (Er), and arbutin (Ab), on unstimulated Jurkat cells, in comparison with their effect on staurosporine-stimulated Jurkat cells. Jurkat T cells were incubated with different concentrations of ExTv, ExTs, ExOm, ExMp, Lgr, LA, Er, Lr, RA, CA, or Ab. Subsequently, staurosporine was added to half of the samples and flow cytometry combined with fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis was conducted, which allowed for the selection of early and late apoptotic cells. Both ExTs and ExOm stimulated apoptosis of Jurkat cells and enhanced the proapoptotic effect of staurosporine. Conversely, ExTv and ExMp demonstrated no clear effect on apoptosis. CA and RA raised the staurosporine-induced apoptotic effect. The impact of Er and Lgr on Jurkat cells showed fluctuations depending on the compound concentration. Neither Er nor Ab altered staurosporine-induced apoptosis in Jurkat cells, whereas Lgr seemed to weaken the proapoptotic action of staurosporine. The most evident observation in this study was the pro-apoptotic action of ExTs and ExOm observed both in staurosporine-unstimulated and stimulated Jurkat cells. Additionally, an enhancement of staurosporine-induced apoptosis by caffeic and rosmarinic acids was reported. Therefore, it might be concluded that these are the mixtures of biologically active polyphenols which often exert more pronounced beneficial effects than purified molecules.
... The substance, giving the mints their medicinal characteristic, aromas, and flavors, is menthol (Loolaie et al. 2017). The positive effects of peppermint on improving liver health and reducing oxidative stress have been shown in previous animal model studies (McKay and Blumberg 2006). The use of peppermint essential oil in the diet of laying hens has been indicated to improve mineral digestibility (Abdel-Wareth and Lohakare 2020). ...
Article
Full-text available
The present study was conducted to evaluate aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) detoxification effects of some medicinal plants under both in vitro and in vivo. The in vitro experiment was performed with 25 treatments in 5 replications. The samples of medicinal plants were incubated with AFB1 for 72 hours, and the toxin residual in the supernatant was determined. The highest aflatoxin elimination was found to be related to peppermint (81%). Thereafter, in vivo experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of peppermint dried leaves, essential oil, and menthol on liver, bone, and meat, as well as the performance of growing Japanese quail fed diet contaminated with AFB1. A total of 640 seven-day-old Japanese quails were assigned using a completely randomized design as 2 × 4 factorial arrangement with two levels of AFB1 (including 0 and 2.5 mg/kg diet) and four treatments (including no additive; peppermint powder, 20 g/kg; peppermint essential oil, 800 mg/kg; and menthol powder, 400 mg/kg). Those birds fed AFB1 contaminated diet with no additives showed the worst liver health status by considering super oxide dismutase (P = 0.0399), glutathione peroxidase (P = 0.0139), alanine aminotransferase (P < 0.0001), and aspartate aminotransferase levels (P = 0.0512). However, the supplementation of AFB1 contaminated diet with additives improved their liver health status. Menthol receiving birds showed the highest tibia strength, while the birds fed with AFB1 contaminated diet with no additives had the weakest bone strength (P < 0.0001). A significant increase was also observed in Malondialdehyde level of meat by dietary inclusion of AFB1, which was well-repressed by the dietary supplementation of peppermint essential oil and menthol (P = 0.0075). Body weight gain dramatically decreased by adding AFB1 to the diet, which was recovered with the dietary supplementation of additives (P = 0.0585). According to the results of the current study, peppermint and its derivatives can be used to suppress aflatoxin effects on liver, bone, and meat quality and to improve the performance of Japanese quails. Keywords: Aflatoxin, Aspartate aminotransferase, Malondialdehyde, Peppermint, Super oxide dismutase
... The antispasmodic effects of chamomile reduce menstrual cramps and the risk of preterm labor in women. Chamomile is used to treat skin complications and eczema due to its stimulating effect on leukocytes (macrophages and B lymphocytes) (McKay & Blumberg, 2006;Farideh et al., 2010). ...
Article
Objective: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is an endocrine disorder that affects one in every 15 women worldwide. This disorder is mainly characterized by increased levels of male hormones (androgens), acne, and hirsutism, and can lead to long-term insulin resistance, miscarriage, or even infertility in women. PCOS is a disorder that can be treated with natural and allopathic remedies that work against the PCOS mechanism. The present study reviews previous studies on the treatment of PCOS using natural drugs. Methods: The data in this study were collected from articles published in reputable databases including ScienceDirect, PubMed, Google Scholar, and SID in the field of medicinal plants from 1990 to 2021. Results: A review of the literature showed that plants such as aloe vera and chamomile improve fertility by increasing the number of ovarian follicles. Besides, Vitex agnus-castus and octane reduce hirsutism by reducing testosterone and androgen levels. It was also shown that liquorice, ginseng, cinnamon, and de chiro Inositol improve the adverse effects of diabetes caused by PCOS by lowering lipid and blood glucose levels. Moreover, Stachys lavandulifolia and fennel are effective in changing endometrial tissue parameters in PCOS by reducing estrogen and hyperplasia. Conclusions: Various studies have shown that herbal medicines can improve PCOS symptoms in women with minimal side effects but a longer treatment cycle.
... Rosato et al. [24] demonstrated EO,Mentha piperita L. is employed for significant antiviral, antifungal, and antibacterial properties. Furthermore, M. piperita L. (Lamiaceae) is used as raw material in several different applications in foods and cosmetics; leaves and flowers are used for medicinal preparations according to McKay and Blumberg [25]. Thus, the purpose of this study was to conduct an assessment of selected eco-friendly plant extracts; V. alternifolia and M. piperita oil extracts on tegument surface of C. phalacrocoracis MC from Tilapia zillii and histopathological alternations in infected tissues before and after were performed. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background Clinostomiasis (yellow grub disease) is a disease of freshwater fish caused by the encysted metacercariae (EMC) of Clinostomum spp. showing retarded growth, unusual host behavior, and even death in fishes. Thus, the purpose of this study was to conduct an assessment of two selected plant extract: V. alternifolia and M. piperita oil extracts on tegument surface of C. phalacrocoracis metacercariae (MC) from T.zillii as utilisation of biodegradable, eco-friendly plant extracts in environmental remediation to avoid utilization of chemotherapy to control of parasitic diseases leading to potential long-term health risks on the environment and humans. Results The results of evaluation efficacy of plant oil extracts, namely V. alternifolia and M. piperita on C. phalacrocoracis MC infecting T. zillii , were dependent on dose and exposure time. The lethal concentrations caused by V . alternifolia extract were determined LC50 at (400 ppm/24 h), and contrarily, the worms from gp2 exposed to M. piperita extract at LC50 (1000 ppm/48 h) and did not cause complete mortality among the exposed worms. Statistically, mortality of C. phalacrocoracis caused by V . alternifolia was found to be a stronger effect significantly higher than that caused by M. piperita. The fine integument structures observed suffered stronger effect that appeared as severe damage and desquamation of worm’s teguments after exposure of V. alternifolia. In contrast, the M. piperita treatment exhibited edematous, swollen teguments, and blebs. Therefore, C. phalacrocoracis was an adequate model for evaluation of in vitro anthelmintic effects, contributing to the endeavors to identify suitable plant extracts, V. alternifolia and M. piperita. Conclusions This study highlights on assessment of selected two plant extracts; V. alternifolia and M. piperita revealed a stronger effect of V. alternifolia than M. piperita on tegumental surface of C. phalacrocoracis worms and, also, recommended the successful utilization of V. alternifolia on investigated worms as anthelmintic efficacy.
... Mentha piperita L. is widely consumed as a food ingredient, essential oil, and tea infusion. M. piperita extracts and oil have been used in traditional medicine [110]. Studies on cellular and animal models demonstrated a wide range of biological and pharmacological functions. ...
Article
Full-text available
Numerous plants, plant extracts, and plant-derived compounds are being explored for their beneficial effects against overweight and liver diseases. Obesity is associated with the increased prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), becoming the most common liver disease in Western countries. Obesity and NAFLD are closely associated with many other metabolic alternations such as insulin resistance, diabetes mellitus, and cardiovascular diseases. Many herbs of the Lamiaceae family are widely employed as food and spices in the Mediterranean area, but also in folk medicine, and their use for the management of metabolic disorders is well documented. Hereby, we summarized the scientific results of the medicinal and nutraceutical potential of plants from the Lamiaceae family for prevention and mitigation of overweight and fatty liver. The evidence indicates that Lamiaceae plants may be a cost-effective source of nutraceuticals and/or phy-tochemicals to be used in the management of metabolic-related conditions such as obesity and NAFLD. PubMed, Google Scholar, Scopus, and SciFinder were accessed to collect data on traditional medicinal plants, compounds derived from plants, their reported anti-obesity mechanisms, and therapeutic targets.
... The presence of their functional groups (OH-,C-O,C-H) was confirmed by ATR-FTIR analysis ( Figure 3). Thereby, the Mentha piperita extract demonstrates its potent antimicrobial activity against a variety of microorganisms because the leaf contains compounds such as phenolic acids (-OH) [87], flavonoids (-CO) or volatile oil as menthol, menthone, menthyl acetate and limonene, which have antibacterial, antifungal and anti-inflammatory properties and interact with the cell membrane of the strains [88,89]. The antibacterial effect of PVA film loaded with Mentha piperita extract against E. coli and S. aureus bacteria was confirmed also by other authors [80], where the degree of antimicrobial activity varies between the cultivars. ...
Article
Full-text available
In this study, we aim to obtain biomaterials with antibacterial properties by combining poly(vinyl alcohol) with the extracts obtained from various selected plants from Romania. Natural herbal extracts of freshly picked flowers of the lavender plant (Lavandula angustifolia) and leaves of the peppermint plant (Mentha piperita), hemp plant (Cannabis sativa L.), verbena plant (Verbena officinalis) and sage plant (Salvia officinalis folium) were selected after an intensive analyzing of diverse medicinal plants often used as antibacterial and healing agents from the country flora. The plant extracts were characterized by different methods such as totals of phenols and flavonoids content and UV-is spectroscopy. The highest amounts of the total phenolic and flavonoid contents, respectively, were recorded for Salvia officinalis. Moreover, the obtained films of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) loaded with plant extracts were studied concerning the surface properties and their antibacterial or cytotoxicity activity. The Attenuated Total Reflection Fourier Transform Infrared analysis described the successfully incorporation of each plant extract in the poly(vinyl alcohol) matrix, while the profilometry demonstrated the enhanced surface properties. The results showed that the plant extracts conferred significant antibacterial effects to films toward Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli and are not toxic against fibroblastic cells from the rabbit.
... Peppermint essential oil is a secondary metabolite extracted from Mentha × piperita L. It is a colourless or yellowish oily liquid. Its main volatile components are menthol, menthone, 1-8 cineole, etc. [11]. Mint essential oil has a strong refreshing effect, and traditional Chinese medicine believes that it has the effect of "pungent to diverge, cool to clear heat; clear the leader" [12]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: To explore the effect and mechanism of peppermint essential oil on learning and memory ability of APP/PS1 transgenic mice. Methods: Morris water maze test and shuttle box test were used to explore the changes in learning and memory ability of APP/PS1 transgenic mice after sniffing essential oil. The cellular status of neurons in the hippocampal CA1 region of the right hemisphere, Aβ deposition, oxidative stress level, and serum metabonomics were detected to explore its mechanism. Results: Sniffing peppermint essential oil can improve the learning and memory ability of APP/PS1 transgenic mice. Compared with the model group, the state of neurons in the hippocampal CA1 region of the peppermint essential oil group returned to normal, and the deposition of Aβ decreased. The MDA of brain tissue decreased significantly, and the activity of SOD and GSH-PX increased significantly to the normal level. According to the results of metabonomics, it is speculated that peppermint essential oil may improve cognitive function in AD by regulating arginine and proline metabolism, inositol phosphate metabolism, and cysteine and methionine metabolism.
... This species is exceptionally rich in polyphenolic phytochemicals, which may account for up to 19-23% of its dry weight [4], and they are represented mainly by hydroxycinnamates, flavanone, and flavone glycosides [5]. There is a significant body of information evidencing the high biological potential of M. piperita, including cytotoxicity activities, anticarcinogenic and antioxidant activities, antimicrobial activities, and antiinflammatory properties; several of these attributes have been ascribed to polyphenolic substances [6,7]. However, to date, the development of sustainable extraction processes to produce polyphenol-containing extracts from M. piperita is very limited. ...
Article
Full-text available
This study explored the use of β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) as an additive to improve the aqueous extraction of antioxidant polyphenols from peppermint (Mentha χ piperita). For this purpose, an initial single-factor screening was performed to test the effect of β-CD concentration on the yield of polyphenol extraction. In the following step, the extraction process was optimized through response surface methodology, considering β-CD and temperature as the process variables. The experimental design included the yield in total polyphenols and total flavonoids, the ferric-reducing power and the antiradical activity as the responses. The optimization showed that each response was maximized at different levels of β-CD concentration, but in all cases, 80 οC was the optimum extraction temperature. The composition of the extracts produced was profiled by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). A comparison of the β-CD extract with the aqueous and hydroethanolic extracts revealed that the addition of β-CD at a specified concentration might boost aqueous polyphenol extraction. On the other hand, the hydroethanolic extract exhibited the richest polyphenolic profile. It was also shown that the β-CD extracts might possess improved antiradical activity. It was concluded that β-CD-aided polyphenol extraction from M. piperita may provide extracts with enriched polyphenolic composition and improved antioxidant characteristics, and this technique may be considered an alternative to solvent extraction.
... Previous studies pointed out antimicrobial, antiinflammatory and antioxidant properties of the essential oils obtained from different varieties of Mentha sp. [5,6,9,10,12,14,19]. In general, agricultural crops of medicinal plants are made with improved varieties that have certain superior characteristics (high yield, important content in valuable active ingredients, fine aroma, resistance to drought, frost, diseases and pests, etc.) [10]. ...
... Generally, mints thrive best on a deep, moisture-retentive, well-drained, and humus-rich soil with a pH of 5.5 -7.0 (Du-Preez, 2005). Plant nutrition has been found to be one of the most important programs in the management of crop plant cultivation especially medicinal plants (McKay et al., 2006). Factors such as low soil nutrients and moisture can hinder the growth and quality of mint. ...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of organic and inorganic fertilizers on the growth and quality of peppermint (Mentha piperita). The field experiment was carried out in randomized complete block design with 3 treatments and 4 replicates in the Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta in 2017. Treatments were: 1- control, 2- sunshine organic fertilizer, 3- urea. Peppermint vine cuttings of 10cm were planted into 12 tilled beds (8m2) with Sunshine organic fertilizer applied two weeks before planting on four beds and Urea applied two weeks after planting on four beds and four beds devoid of any fertilizer application. The result showed that the Application of Sunshine organic fertilizer and Urea significantly enhanced vegetative growth parameters. The effect was maximal with the application of Sunshine organic fertilizer with respect to the number of leaves, the number of tendrils, fresh weight, and dry weight as compared with the application of Urea and Control. The result also showed that Control produced better proximate content as compared with the application of Sunshine organic fertilizer and Urea. However, the application of Urea and Control produced better mineral content as compared with the application of Sunshine organic fertilizer. Application of Sunshine organic fertilizer produced better phytochemical content in the peppermint leaves as compared with the application of Urea and Control. The effect was maximal with the application of Sunshine organic fertilizer with respect to Tannin, Flavonoids, and Saponin as compared with the application of Urea and Control.
... Peppermint (Mentha piperita L.) is a plant widely used as an herbal tea. Peppermint oil has been reported to promote hair growth, gastritis, flatulence, biliary disorders, enteritis and indigestion effects (McKay & Blumberg, 2006;Oh et al., 2014). Licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra), the most commonly used herbal medicine, is used to reduce the bitterness of herbal medicines. ...
... On the contrary, menthone has a digestive favoring effect and is non-toxic [120]. Mint also presents a high polyphenolic content (19-23%), primarily characterized by rosmarinic acid, luteolin, hesperidin and apigenin [122]. ...
Article
Full-text available
The growing demand for high-quality food has induced a rapid expansion of the aquaculture sector. On the other hand, this sector has to overcome numerous challenges and problems triggered by the adoption of intensive farming systems, such as stress and high susceptibility to diseases. The improper use of chemicals and antibiotics has led to the development of antibiotic resistance in fish, with consequent health risks for consumers. Natural additives are increasingly used in aquaculture and, among these, medicinal plants are constantly under investigation as safe and environmentally friendly alternatives to chemicals. Great attention has been paid to Lamiaceae plants as feed additives capable of enhancing the growth performance, immune system, and antioxidant status of farmed fish. The aim of this review is to provide an updated picture of the employment of the Lamiaceae species (oregano, rosemary, sage, thyme, and mint) to enhance farmed fish health. The benefits of oregano, rosemary, sage, thyme, and mint feed supplementation on growth performance, immune system, antioxidant status, hemato-biochemical parameters, and resistance to stress, parasites, and bacteria have been described, highlighting weaknesses and drawbacks and proposing possible implementations.
... Another plant used in aromatherapy in cardiovascular patients is the Mentha piperita, which also called peppermint. Reviews showed that this plant has various pharmacological properties, for example, anxiolytic, analgesic, sedative, and sleep quality enhancer [76]. Recent clinical trials reported the potent effects of peppermint in aromatherapy for treating some illness and conditions such as anxiety, fatigue, stress, depression, and pain through affecting the olfactory pathways of the brain, decrease anxiety, relieve pain, relaxation increase, regulating pulse rate, and improving sleep quality [77]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: The purpose of this study was a comprehensive review of studies on the effect of aromatherapy with plant essential oils on the improvement of some conditions, for example, anxiety, stress, sleep quality, fatigue, and pain in people with cardiovascular disease. Materials and methods: We carried out this systematic review based on the instructions of Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA). Ethical agreement was not necessary as main data have not been collected. During March 2022, we searched the main English databases, for example, Google Scholar, Web of Sciences, EMBASE, EBSCO, ScienceDirect, Scopus, and PubMed/MEDLINE, with limitation to human clinical trials. For this study, no time limit was applied for the publication of articles. Results: Out of 1380 papers, 52 papers up to March 2022 were eligible for review in this systematic review. Based on the obtained results, the most widely used medicinal plants for aromatherapy in patients with cardiovascular diseases were Lavandula angustifolia (lavender, 55.7%), Rosa damascena (Damask rose, 11.5%), and Mentha piperita (peppermint, 5.8%), respectively. Most studies have been performed on the effect of aromatherapy on coronary angiography (21 papers, 40.4%), followed by artery bypass graft surgery (14 studies, 26.9%), and cardiac patients (5 studies, 9.6%). Most studies on the effect of aromatherapy in cardiovascular diseases were performed on anxiety (31 papers, 59.6%), sleep quality (8 studies, 15.4%), and hemodynamic parameters (6 studies, 11.5%), respectively. Conclusion: This study systematically reviewed the effects of aromatherapy in patients with cardiovascular diseases. The review of studies showed that lavender, Damask rose, and peppermint are the most frequents plants used for aromatherapy, whereas they significantly improved some illnesses and conditions, especially anxiety and sleep quality. Therefore, it can be concluded that cardiologist can used aromatherapy as a natural complementary and alternative therapy particularly with lavender, Damask rose, and peppermint to improve quality of life and some conditions such as anxiety and sleep quality.
Article
Primary dysmenorrhea is a common condition that affects menstruating women, especially young women. Painful cramping in the lower abdominal area, nausea, vomiting, headache, and fatigue are associated with primary dysmenorrhea, which restrict women from normal living life. The productivity and work performance of women are heavily affected by the symptoms of primary dysmenorrhea. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and low dose oral contraceptive pills (OCPs) are commonly prescribed for the treatment of primary dysmenorrhea. However, variability in individual response to the drugs and its side effects hinder its long-term use among women. Complementary medicine such as herbs is a promising alternative for the treatment of primary dysmenorrhea, but it lacks scientific evidence. The pharmacological and clinical studies of 9 herbs were included in this review. Although excellent analgesic effects of herbs were reported by clinical studies, the detailed mechanism of action of most herbs remains unelucidated. Several studies discovered that herbs exert analgesic effects through direct uterine muscle relaxation effect, inhibition of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), inhibition of intracellular calcium level, and reduction of prostaglandin synthesis. Further investigation of the herbs pharmacological action and the recommended dosages of the herbs for the optimal analgesic effect are needed.
Article
Full-text available
Natural herbicides based on essential oils (EOs) extracted from aromatic plants are gaining relevance in contemporary agriculture. Due to their allelopathic properties, they have an inhibitory effect on the germination and growth of different species, having, in general, the advantage of high specificity. For this reason, the analysis of the effects of these natural compounds on noxious weeds is continuously increasing. In the present study, three commercial EOs extracted from Mentha piperita L., Thymbra capitata (L.) Cav. and Santolina chamaecyparissus L. were tested on two invasive weeds with an increasing presence in southern Europe, Erigeron bonariensis L. and Araujia sericifera Brot. Five concentrations (0.125, 0.25, 0.50, 1 and 2 µL mL–1) were tested in a randomized manner for each essential oil and five replicates with 20 seeds each for E. bonariensis and 10 replicates with 10 seeds each for A. sericifera. Two higher concentrations of 4 and 8 μL mL–1 of the three EOs were applied with irrigation on the plants of the two species at the vegetative growth stage. The number of replicas for each treatment and species was 7. The results obtained confirmed the significant inhibitory effects on seed germination and early seedling development, especially in E. bonariensis; of the three EOs, peppermint had the strongest effect, completely preventing germination in both species. Multivariate analysis, performed on several morphological traits scored after one month of treatment in young plants, showed a different pattern: the highest inhibition was recorded in A. sericifera and the greatest reduction in growth in the treatment with the highest dose of Santolina EO. The results obtained revealed the efficacy of these natural compounds and the specificity of their toxicity according to the species and stage of development.
Article
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease with nearly 1.6 billion patients worldwide and an incidence of 0.5-1%. In recent years, basic and clinical studies have revealed that immune cell responses and corresponding secretion of inflammatory factors are important in the control of RA development. Our study found that a natural plant ingredient, menthone, could be used as a potential antirheumatism compound. In vivo observations demonstrated that menthone alleviates collagen II-induced arthritis (CIA) in mice. Furthermore, we found that menthone regulates the number of Th1 and Th17 cells in CIA mice. Importantly, menthone significantly inhibits the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6, in CIA mice. Our study suggests a potential component for the development of drugs to treat rheumatoid arthritis.
Article
Full-text available
In this work, seven Citrus aurantium essential oils (EOs) derived from flavedo of cultivars ‘Canaliculata’, ‘Consolei’, ‘Crispifolia’, ‘Fasciata’, ‘Foetifera’, ‘Listata’, and ‘Bizzaria’ were investigated. EOs were also combined in 1:1 (v/v) ratio to identify possible synergism or antagonism of actions. GC-MS analysis was done to investigate Eos’ phytochemical profiles. The antioxidant activity was studied by using a multi-target approach based on FRAP, DPPH, ABTS, and β-carotene bleaching tests. A great difference was observed in EOs’ phytochemical profiles. d-limonene (33.35–89.17%) was the main monoterpene hydrocarbon, and α-Pinene, β-myrcene, and β-linalool were identified in almost all samples. Among EOs, only C3 showed high quantitative and qualitative variability in its chemical composition. The chemical diversity of EOs was also demonstrated by PCA and HCA statistical analysis. Samples C2, C4, C5, C6, and C7 were statistically similar to each other, while C1 and C3 were characterized as having a different amount of other compounds and oxygenated monoterpenes, respectively, with respect to the other EOs mentioned. The global antioxidant score (GAS) revealed that among the tested EOs, C. aurantium ‘Fasciata’ EO had the highest antioxidant potential, with a GAS value of −0.47, whereas among combinations, the EO obtained by mixing ‘Canaliculata’ + ‘Bizzaria’ was the most active. Comparison by theoretical and real data on inhibitory concentration (IC50) and FRAP values did not reveal any significant effect of synergism or antagonism of actions to be valid in all biological applied tests. These findings, considered together, represent an important starting point to understand which compounds are responsible for the activities and their future possible industrial application.
Article
Ayurveda, Unani, Siddha, and homeopathy are natural herb-based health sciences that are being developed with a focus on India (AYUSH). In the Ayush Pharmaceutical industry, the saundarya prasad category of herbal cosmetics has a lot of space to expand. Cosmetics help to highlight and improve a person's psychological and aesthetic characteristics. The Saundarya Prasadak formulation is a cosmetic base that corresponds to known active components in Ayurvedic, Siddhanic, and Unani (ASU) medicine (references to which are easily accessible in Schedule 1st Book of the Drug and Cosmetic Act of 1940 and Rule 1945). For saundrya prasadan karma, people in the past used a variety of lepas, including Alepas, Pralepas, Udavartans, and Prakshalans, among others.One such tactic is the use of herbs. A plant or a plant extract that contains plant elements such as leaves, bark, berries, roots, gums, seeds, stems, and flowers and has a significant amount of therapeutic and dietary benefits is called a herb. It is necessary to incorporate active ingredients into cosmetics to stop skin aging and damage. Cosmetics by themselves are unable to care for the skin or other biological parts. Due to their broad usage in daily life and the lack of the usual side effects linked to synthetic goods, herbal cosmetics have become much more popular with the general public.
Chapter
Parkinson’s disease (PD) is primarily characterized by deposition of α-synuclein (α-syn) aggregates. A plethora of plant extracts and their constituents were found to play a pivotal role in combating α-syn monomers, fibrillation, and oligomerization. This chapter highlights multifarious plant extracts and the neuroprotective role of their bioactive compounds against PD.
Article
Objective The study compared the efficacy and tolerability of piroxicam gel and a new topical combination of medicinal plant products (Soulagel®; Belpharma Tunisia) to treat pain caused by soft tissue injuries. Methods Patients (n = 1,525) were assigned to receive piroxicam gel or Soulagel. Efficacy assessments included a change of at least 50% in the pain-on-movement visual numeric scale rating from emergency department discharge (baseline) to day 7 final assessment, as well as the time required to reach pain resolution criteria, the need for rescue analgesia, patients’ satisfaction, and the rate of adverse effects. Results At day 7, 1,216 patients (79.7%) achieved at least 50% reduction in visual numeric scale rating from baseline: 623 patients (82.4%) in the Soulagel group vs 593 patients (77.1%) in the piroxicam group (P = 0.01). Time to decrease pain on movement by 50% was significantly higher with piroxicam gel than with Soulagel (34 ± 1 vs 33 ± 1 days, respectively; P = 0.54). At day 7, 96.4% of patients in the Soulagel group declared being “very satisfied” to “satisfied,” vs 68% in the piroxicam group (P < 0.001). There were no major adverse events in either group. Conclusions Soulagel is not inferior to piroxicam gel for managing pain related to a soft tissue injuries. Further studies will help ascertain whether this new gel offers an alternative treatment option for this common emergency department condition.
Preprint
This study was aimed to evaluate the effects of Mentha piperita methanolic extract (MPE) on Cyprinus carpio intestinal microbiota, including total microorganisms gram-negative bacteria, lactic acid bacteria, and fungi count. Liver and intestinal histopathology, and the activity of liver enzymes, were also used to evaluate the possible side effects of MPE. A total of 96 healthy C. carpio fries (76.76 ± 20.26 g) were allocated to four treatment groups with three replications in a completely randomized design. The fries were fed with diets containing 0, 0.5, 1, and 2% extract for 40 days at the rate of 2% of body weight during the experiment. Results showed a significant decrease in total microorganisms, enteric gram-negative bacteria, and total fungi counts ( p < 0.05). The total lactic acid bacteria count in 0.5% treatment was significantly lower than in the control and 2% treated fish ( p < 0.05). MPE did not affect AST, while it led to a significant increase in ALT level. Simultaneously, ALP represented significantly higher activity in the control group ( p > 0.05). Microscopic findings revealed marked lesions including congestion and cell degeneration in the livers of the three group of fish fed with the extract. The intestinal folds were shortened and blunted in the treatment groups. Furthermore, the intestinal mucosa was necrotic, and the lamina propria was significantly thickened with mononuclear inflammatoryc cells ( p < 0.05). Although MPE significantly affected intestinal microbiota, its consumption at 2% is not recommended for C. carpio due to the lesions made in the liver and intestine.
Article
Objectives Evaluating the effects of rosmarinic (RA) and cryptochlorogenic (CGA) acids isolated from Blechnum binervatum extract on stem cell viability, toxicity and the protective effect on oxidative cell damage. Methods MTT and LDH methods were employed, using stem cells from teeth. RA and CGA were evaluated at 100, 250 and 500 µM. The negative effect of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) (200–2200 µM) and the capacity of RA and CGA (10–100 µM) as protective agents were also evaluated. DAPI followed by fluorescent microscopy was employed to photograph the treated and untreated cells. Key findings At all tested concentrations, RA and CGA demonstrated the ability to maintain cell viability, and with no cytotoxic effects on the treated stem cells. RA also induced an increase of the cell viability and a reduction in cytotoxicity. H2O2 (1400 µM) induced >50% of cytotoxicity, and both compounds were capable of suppressing H2O2 damage, even at the lowest concentration. At 100 µM, in H2O2 presence, total cell viability was observed through microscope imaging. Conclusions These findings contribute to the continued research into natural substances with the potential for protecting cells against oxidative injury, with the consideration that RA and CGA are useful in the regeneration of damaged stem cells.
Article
Full-text available
Colorectal cancer is one of the most frequently diagnosed forms of cancer, and the therapeutic solutions are frequently aggressive requiring improvements. Essential oils (EOs) are secondary metabolites of aromatic plants with important pharmacological properties that proved to be beneficial in multiple pathologies including cancer. Mentha piperita L. (M_EO) and Rosmarinus officinalis L. (R_EO) essential oils are well-known for their biological effects (antimicrobial, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and cytotoxic in different cancer cells), but their potential as complementary treatment in colorectal cancer is underexplored. The aim of the present study was to investigate the M_EO and R_EO in terms of chemical composition, antioxidant, antimicrobial, and cytotoxic effects in a colorectal cancer cell line—HCT 116. The gas-chromatographic analysis revealed menthone and menthol, and eucalyptol, α-pinene and L-camphor as major compounds in M_EO and R_EO respectively. M_EO exhibited potent antimicrobial activity, moderate antioxidant activity and a low cytotoxic effect in HCT 116 cells. R_EO presented a significant cytotoxicity in colorectal cancer cells and a low antimicrobial effect. The cytotoxic effect on non-cancerous cell line HaCaT was not significant for both essential oils. These results may provide an experimental basis for further research concerning the potential use of M_EO and R_EO for anticancer treatment.
Poster
Full-text available
In this study, the porous clay heterostructures material was synthesized via ion exchange by using montmorillonite as host clay. For the first time, the series of PCH samples were prepared at different calcination temperatures (200°C, 400°C, 600°C, and 800°C) under a closed N2 atmosphere. The montmorillonite, PCH samples with and without calcination were characterized by XRD, N2-physisorption, SEM, EDS, and FTIR for investigation of the effect of calcination temperature. Based on the synthesis of PCH and characterization results, we observed that the exact nature of the structural changes of clay material depends on many factors, for example the specific heating rate, holding time and temperature, oxidizing or reducing atmosphere, and cooling rate. Calcination of PCH at the exact temperature is very important because it affects the formation of important active phases, catalytic activity, strength, and durability of clay material. It is of practical importance that these synthesis effects are mapped with respect to applications for adsorption in the framework of pollutant mitigation purposes.
Poster
Full-text available
Nowadays, potential biological effects of natural antioxidant substances are profoundly investigated for understanding the mechanism of interaction with the human tissues. A representative class of polyphenolic compounds are considered to be flavonoids and their derivatives.
Article
Irrational use of pesticides may lead to physiological and metabolic disorders in different crops. However, there are limited investigations on impacts of insecticides on physiology and biochemistry, secondary metabolic pathways, and associated quality of medicinal plants such as peppermint (Mentha × piperita L.). In this study, target metabolites in peppermint were monitored following foliar spraying of five insecticides: imidacloprid, pyriproxyfen, acetamiprid, chlorantraniliprole, and chlorfenapyr. Compared with the control, all insecticide treatments caused a significant loss of soluble protein (decreased by 22.3-38.7%) in peppermint leaves. Insecticides induced an increase in the levels of phytohormones jasmonic acid and abscisic acid in response to these chemical stresses. Among them, imidacloprid increased jasmonic acid by 388.3%, and pyriproxyfen increased abscisic acid by 98.8%. The contents of phenylpropanoid metabolites, including rutin, quercetin, apigenin, caffeic acid, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, ferulic acid, syringic acid, and sinapic acid showed a decreasing trend, with pyriproxyfen decreasing the levels of quercetin and 4-hydroxybenzoic acid by 78.8% and 72.6%, respectively. Combined with correlation analysis, the content of lignin in leaves shows different degrees of negative correlations with several phenolic acids. It could be inferred that insecticides may trigger plant defense mechanisms that accumulate lignin (increased by 24.6-49.1%) in leaves by consuming phenolic acids to barricade absorption of insecticides. Through constructing networks between phytohormones and secondary metabolites, peppermint may regulate the contents of caffeic acid, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, and sinapic acid by the antagonistic effect between salicylic acid and abscisic acid in response to insecticidal stresses. Principal component analysis and systemic cluster analysis revealed that the most pronounced changes in physiological indexes and metabolites were caused by the pyriproxyfen treatment. In conclusion, this study improves our understanding of the mechanism by which insecticides affect plant physiological and metabolic processes, thus potentially altering the quality and therapeutic value of peppermint as an example.
Article
Ethnopharmacological relevance Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH) is a country with a highly diverse ecosystem, containing over 5000 confirmed taxa of vascular plants. The traditional medicinal use of plants has always played a crucial role and gained in importance in the time of war in the 1990s due to a lack of medical facilities. Still nowadays, the health care system is poorly developed, which altogether makes the region interesting for ethnopharmacological researches. Aim of the study Focusing on the area of Zavidovići Municipality in the central part of the country, we aimed to document the diversity of the used medicinal plants and the knowledge of their therapeutic usages. Material and methods Data was collected in individual open and semi-structured interviews. Therapeutic uses were classified into 14 disease categories following the International Classification of Primary Care-2 (ICPC-2), a classification system recognized by the World Health Organization's Family of International Classifications (WHO-FIC). Use reports have been used to evaluate the acquired knowledge. Results The findings revealed a total of 113 species belonging to 46 families. 14 informants well respected for their knowledge in the area listed 77 therapeutic uses for the indicated plants. Based on a comparison with other ethnobotanical surveys of BiH and to other important relating literature, three taxa have not been previously reported in BiH and for 19 species, new medicinal uses were stated. Based on use reports, oral application of remedies is far more common (76,7%) than external application (23,3%), the dominant mode of preparation thereby is an infusion. Usages of most concern were digestive, urological and respiratory diseases, their consensus factor ranging between 0,63 and 0,71. Conclusion These results summarize the usage of traditional plants among people who are highly valued in their community of Zavidovići Municipality for their knowledge and thereby aim to preserve the indigenous knowledge associated with the medicinal plants of the area.
Article
In China, the status and risks of pesticide residues in edible mint is essentially unknown. In this study, we evaluated the residual status and associated risks of 208 pesticides in edible mints. Among the 16 pesticide residues detected, there were eight fungicides, six insecticides, and two herbicides, with difenoconazole exhibiting the highest detection rate of 25.55%. A proportion of 53.28% of the mint samples were detected with at least one pesticide residue. Dietary risk measured as cHQ and aHQ was <100% and the health risks was acceptable in both adults and children; however, the aHQ in children was comparatively higher than that in the general population. Furthermore, lambda-cyhalothrin, cypermethrin, cyfluthrin, and bifenthrin, had a risk score of 18, which should receive considerable attention. In summary, the present study reveals the residue levels and exposure risks of pesticides and helps recognize the significance of establishing scientific guidance for production and consumption of mint tea.
Article
Full-text available
Ayurveda, Unani, Siddha, and homeopathy are natural herb-based health sciences that are being developed with a focus on India (AYUSH). In the Ayush Pharmaceutical industry, the saundarya prasad category of herbal cosmetics has a lot of space to expand. Cosmetics help to highlight and improve a person's psychological and aesthetic characteristics. The Saundarya Prasadak formulation is a cosmetic base that corresponds to known active components in Ayurvedic, Siddhanic, and Unani (ASU) medicine (references to which are easily accessible in Schedule 1st Book of the Drug and Cosmetic Act of 1940 and Rule 1945). For saundrya prasadan karma, people in the past used a variety of lepas, including Alepas, Pralepas, Udavartans, and Prakshalans, among others.One such tactic is the use of herbs. A plant or a plant extract that contains plant elements such as leaves, bark, berries, roots, gums, seeds, stems, and flowers and has a significant amount of therapeutic and dietary benefits is called a herb. It is necessary to incorporate active ingredients into cosmetics to stop skin aging and damage. Cosmetics by themselves are unable to care for the skin or other biological parts. Due to their broad usage in daily life and the lack of the usual side effects linked to synthetic goods, herbal cosmetics have become much more popular with the general public.
Article
Full-text available
The essential oils of aegle, ageratum, citronella, eucalyptus, geranium, lemongrass, orange, palmarosa, patchouli and peppermint, were tested for antibacterial activity against 22 bacteria, including Gram-positive cocci and rods and Gram-negative rods, and twelve fungi (3 yeast-like and 9 filamentous) by the disc diffusion method. Lemongrass, eucalyptus, peppermint and orange oils were effective against all the 22 bacterial strains. Aegle and palmarosa oils inhibited 21 bacteria; patchouli and ageratum oils inhibited 20 bacteria and citronella and geranium oils were inhibitory to 15 and 12 bacterial strains, respectively. All twelve fungi were inhibited by seven oils (aegle, citronella, geranium, lemongrass, orange, palmarosa and patchouli). Eucalyptus and peppermint oils were effective against eleven fungi. Ageratum oil was inhibitory to only four fungi tested. The MIC of eucalyptus, lemongrass, palmarosa and peppermint oils ranged from 0.16 to > 20 microliters ml-1 for eighteen bacteria and from 0.25 to 10 microliters ml-1 for twelve fungi.
Article
Full-text available
The effect of several volatile plant oils, plant materials and fluvalinate (Apistan®) strips on the control of the mite Varroa destructor on honeybee (Apis mellifera L.) colonies was studied. The volatile oils were: clove, lavender, peppermint, sage, and thyme. The plant materials were: cumin fruits, eucalyptus leaves, and worm wood flowers. For each tested material, three treatment periods were carried out. Each period lasted for 24 days followed by eight days no-treatment. Within each treatment period, an average of three to six treatments were applied. Dead mites were counted one hour before and after each treatment. An increase in dead mites was recorded for the three treatment periods. It indicated that worm wood flowers, peppermint oil and clove oil treatments gave the best results in the control of Varroa mites but not significantly different than the control. The overall increase in the dead mites was 3.92, 3.62 and 3.34 fold, respectively.
Article
Full-text available
Anti-allergic effects of constituents of chewing gum were investigated in Type I allergic reactions. The results were as follows.Oral administration of 1, 8-cineole and n-BuOH extract of jelutong (J-4), a natural resin of Dyera costulata Hook. f., inhibited homologous passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA) mediated by IgE antibody in guinea pigs. Peppermint oil, l-menthol, 1, 8-cineole, J-4 and n-BuOH extract of chicle (C-4) from Achras zapota L suppressed PCA when intraperitoneally injected. Further investigation on the above constituents showed that l-menthol, menthone, 1, 8-cineole and C-4 suppressed antigen-induced histamine release from rat peritoneal mast cells. In the Schultz-Dale reaction, some of them suppressed smooth muscle contraction induced by either histamine or serotonin.From these results, it is concluded that these constituents of chewing gum have antiallergic effects.
Article
Full-text available
The essential oil o peppermint (0.38% yieId on fresh weight basis) produced under semiarid tropical climatic conditions of South India was examined. The pare-yellow oil with characteristic strong minty odour had 0.9142 specific gravity (30 oc), I .4590 rellactive index (30 oc), - l3.I5' optical rotation and 42.76% free alcohols (calculated as menthol). The gas chromatogram showed 62 peaks out of which 25 peaks accounting for 93.64% of the oil were identified. The major constituents of the oil were limonene (5.74%), menthone (16.51%), menthofuran (6.93%), menthol (40.08%), pulegone (15.15%) and menthyl acetate (2.39%).
Article
Full-text available
The present study examines the mechanism that underlies the ability of menthol, a major constituent of peppermint oil, to promote mouse ambulation. We initially confirmed that bupropion, a dopamine uptake inhibitor, promotes ambulation in ICR mice. Since the subcutaneous administration of menthol produced similar effects in mice, we investigated the effects of menthol on ambulation when combined with bupropion. The results showed that the effects of bupropion and menthol were additive. We then examined effects of the dopamine antagonists chlorpromazine, haloperidol, fluphenazine, spiperone, and SCH12679 on the ambulation-promoting effects of bupropion and menthol. All of these dopamine antagonists attenuated the effect of bupropion and of menthol. These results indicated that dopamine is involved in the ambulation-promoting effect of menthol as well as bupropion.
Article
Full-text available
The use of aromatherapy began in the ancient Egyptian Era and it has been practiced up to the present time. Despite its long history, however, scientific evidence supporting the efficacy of the use of plant-derived essential oils and their constituents against psychiatric disorders have been poorly known. Here, the author reviewed academic papers examining the pharmacological effects of plant-derived essential oils and their constituents on the Central Nervous System functions. This review revealed that the effects and action mechanisms of plant-derived essential oils on mental disorders are still unclear. Thus, further studies on this issue should be made in the future in order to establish this method as an new therapy.
Article
Full-text available
Steam-distilled volatiles of Mentha piperita L. grown in Jalisco was analyzed by GC/MS. Among the 64 compounds identified, menthone (15.4%), menthofuran (18.2%), menthol (35.4%) and menthyl acetate (12.4%) were the major constituents.
Article
Full-text available
Longo Vitalr` herbal tablets have been shown to have a protective effect against periodontal bone loss in rats. This may be ascribed either to a previously demonstrated immuno-stimulatory effect of the tablets, to an antimicrobial effect of the herbs or to a combination of both. In the present study the in vitro susceptibility of 12 dental plaque bacteria to six individual herbs included in Longo Vitalr` was determined by a broth dilution method. Paprika, rosemary leaves and peppermint inhibited two thirds of the tested bacteria at 2.8-45 mg/ml, 0.75-12 mg/ml and 3-24 mg/ml corresponding to 0.8-12.5 per cent, 1.6-25 per cent and 12.5-100 per cent of the recommended daily dose, respectively. A combination of paprika and rosemary leaves tested towards five susceptible bacteria revealed a decreased inhibitory effect on two of these bacteria, especially of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans to paprika, but conversely a pronounced increase in susceptibility of Peptostreptococcus anaerobius, Porphyromonas gingivalis and Prevotella intermedia now susceptible to 0.01-0.70 mg/ml of each herb, corresponding to 0.02-0.2 per cent of the recommended daily dose. The active ingredients of the herbs, however, and the concentrations of these obtained in blood and periodontal tissues after ingestion of Longo Vitalr` are not known.
Article
This paper investigates the separation of moderately complex samples by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC×GC). The analysis of peppermint (Mentha piperita) and spearmint (Mentha spicata) essential oil components, including acetates, alcohols, furans, ketones, sesquiterpenes, and terpenes, was achieved by one-dimensional gas chromatography with quadrupole mass spectrometry detection (GC/MSD) and GC×GC with flame ionization detection. Peppermint essential oil was found to contain 89 identifiable peaks by GC×GC compared to 30 peaks in the GC/MSD chromatogram. Likewise, 68 peaks were found in the GC×GC chromatogram of spearmint (compared to 28 in GC/MSD). Plots of the first dimension versus second dimension retention times provided a fingerprint of the two essential oils, which revealed 52 similar compounds between the two essential oils as opposed to 18 matches by 1D GC.
Article
The four essential oils (aromatic plant products) from palmarosa (Pm), lemongrass (Lg), peppermint (Pt) and eucalyptus (Eu) plants were found to be bactericidal to Escherichia coli strain SP-11, at a concentration of 1.66 (Pm, Lg and Eu) or 2.5 (Pt) microl ml-1. This effect was observed both at 37 degrees C and 4 degrees C and was not prevented by immediate tenfold dilution or by the presence of 0.5 M sucrose. Pm and Pt but not Lg or Eu induced the formation of elongated filamentous forms, some measuring 60-70 micrometers long.
Article
An investigation of the mechanism of peppermint oil action was performed using isolated pharmacological preparations from guinea pig large intestine and patch clamp electrophysiology techniques on rabbit jejunum. Peppermint oil relaxed carbachol-contracted guinea pig taenia coli (IC50, 22.1 μg/mL) and inhibited spontaneous activity in the guinea pig colon (IC50, 25.9 μg/mL) and rabbit jejunum (IC50, 15.2 μg/mL). Peppermint oil markedly attenuated contractile responses in the guinea pig taenia coli to acetylcholine, histamine, 5-hydroxytryptamine, and substance P. Peppermint oil reduced contractions evoked by potassium depolarization and calcium contractions evoked in depolarizing Krebs solutions in taenia coli. Potential-dependent calcium currents recorded using the whole cell clamp configuration in rabbit jejunum smooth muscle cells were inhibited by peppermint oil in a concentration-dependent manner. Peppermint oil both reduced peak current amplitude and increased the rate of current decay. The effect of peppermint oil resembled that of the dihydropyridine calcium antagonists. It is concluded that peppermint oil relaxes gastrointestinal smooth muscle by reducing calcium influx.
Article
The modulatory influence of mentha oil (Mentha piperita Linn.) against a lethal dose (8.0 Gy) of gamma irradiation on the activities of serum phosphatases in Swiss albino mice was studied at various post-irradiation intervals between 6 h and 30 days. Mentha oil (40 mL/animal/day) given orally for 3 consecutive days prior to whole-body irradiation (8.0 Gy) showed a modulation of activity of serum phosphatases. The values of acid phosphatase activities were significantly higher in the irradiated groups throughout the experiment compared with the mentha treated unirradiated animals. However, the acid phosphatase activity of mentha treated irradiated animals showed a significant decline over untreated irradiated animals at all autopsy intervals, which attained the normal value on day 5. On the contrary, a marked decrease in serum alkaline phosphatase activity was noted in both irradiated groups but in the mentha treated irradiated group the values of alkaline phosphatase activity were found to be significantly higher than the respective control during the period of study being normal at day 5 post-irradiation and onwards.
Article
The anti-HIV-1 activity of aromatic herbs in Labiatae was evaluated in vitro. Forty five extract from among 51 samples obtained from 46 herb species showed significant inhibitory effects against HIV-1 induced cytopathogenicity in MT-4 cells. In particular, the aqueous extracts of Melissa officinalis, a family of Mentha x piperita "grapefruit mint," Mentha x piperita var. crispa, Ocinum basilicum cv "cinnamon," Perilla frutescens var. crispa. f. viridis, Prunella vulgaris subsp. asiatica and Satureja montana showed potent anti-HIV-1 activity (with an ED of 16 mu g/ml). The active components in the extract samples were found to be water-soluble polar substances, not nonpolar compounds such as essential oils. In addition, these aqueous extracts inhibited giant cell formation in co-culture of Molt-4 cells with and without HIV-1 infection and showed inhibitory activity against HIV-1 reverse transcriptase.
Article
223 patients with non-ulcer dyspepsia (dysmotility type dyspepsia or essential/idiopathic dyspepsia, also in combination with irritable bowel syndrome) were included in a prospective, randomised, reference- and double-blind controlled multicentre trial to compare two different preparations of a fixed combination of peppermint oil and caraway oil. The aim of the trial was to evaluate the equivalence of the efficacy and tolerability of these two preparations. The test formulation consisted of the drug combination in an enteric coated capsule containing 90 mg peppermint oil and 50 mg caraway oil(3), while an enteric soluble formulation containing 36 mg peppermint oil and 20 mg caraway oil(4) was used as the reference. The main target item defined was the "difference in pain intensity between the beginning and the end of therapy", measured by the patient on a visual analogue scale (0 = no pain, 10 = extremely strong pain). In 213 patients (n = 108 on the test preparation, n = 105 on the reference preparation) with mean pain intensity baseline measurements of 6.1 points in the test preparation group and 5.9 points in the reference group a statistically significant decline in pain intensity was observed in the two groups (-3.6 resp. -3.3 points; p < 0.001; two-sided one-sample t-test), Equivalent efficacy of both preparations was demonstrated (p < 0.001; one-sided t-test for equivalence). With respect to concomitant variables, the results in both groups were also similar. Regarding "pain frequency", the efficacy of the test preparation was significantly better (p = 0.04; two-sided t-test for difference). Both preparations were well tolerated. Despite the higher dose, the adverse event "eructation with peppermint taste" was less frequent in the group treated with the test formulation, due to the enteric coated capsule preparation.
Article
The antiinfluenza virus effect of the combined plant preparation 'Broncho Pam' approved in Bulgaria for the treatment of bronchitis, was studied. 'Broncho Pam' tested as an hydroalcoholic extract, inhibited considerably the reproduction of influenza viruses A/Gabrovo (H1N1) and A/Hong Kong (H3N2) in tissue cultures and of A/PR/8 (H1N1) in hen embryonated eggs. The infectious titres of treated viruses were reduced by 3.5, 3.0 and 2.0 log10 ID50/ml respectively.
Article
The effects of different polyphenol-containing beverages on Fe absorption from a bread meal were estimated in adult human subjects from the erythrocyte incorporation of radio-Fe. The test beverages contained different polyphenol structures and were rich in either phenolic acids (chlorogenic acid in coffee), monomeric flavonoids (herb teas, camomile (Matricaria recutita L.), vervain (Verbena officinalis L.), lime flower (Tilia cordata Mill.), pennyroyal (Mentha pulegium L.) and peppermint (Mentha piperita L.), or complex polyphenol polymerization products (black tea and cocoa). All beverages were potent inhibitors of Fe absorption and reduced absorption in a dose-dependent fashion depending on the content of total polyphenols. Compared with a water control meal, beverages containing 20-50 mg total polyphenols/serving reduced Fe absorption from the bread meal by 50-70%, whereas beverages containing 100-400 mg total polyphenols/serving reduced Fe absorption by 60-90%. Inhibition by black tea was 79-94%, peppermint tea 84%, pennyroyal 73%, cocoa 71%, vervain 59%, lime flower 52% and camomile 47%. At an identical concentration of total polyphenols, black tea was more inhibitory than cocoa, and more inhibitory than herb teas camomile, vervain, lime flower and pennyroyal, but was of equal inhibition to peppermint tea. Adding milk to coffee and tea had little or no influence on their inhibitory nature. Our findings demonstrate that herb teas, as well as black tea, coffee and cocoa can be potent inhibitors of Fe absorption. This property should be considered when giving dietary advice in relation to Fe nutrition.
Article
Studies were conducted to show the effect of different temperatures in the drying process on the amount and quality of essential oils of peppermint (Mentha piperita L.) The leaves were harvested in the Demeter Farmer, Botucatu, SP, Brazil in december, 1997. The leaves were dried at 40°C, 60°C and 80°C, until establishment of the weights. The essential oil was extracted by destilation in Clevenger apparatus and analysed by GC-MS. Higher drying temperature sharply decreased the essential oil content (% v/w) from 1.0% (40°C) to 0.14% (60°C) and 0.12% (80°C). Higher drying temperatures also affected the composition, decreasing the contents of 1,8 cineol and citronelal until 80°C, and increasing the contents of menthol and neomenthol until 60°C.
Article
A study has been made of the liposoluble pigments of food plants - peppermint, dill, common balm, green peas, parsley, and bush red pepper - which contain considerable concentrations of compounds of pigmentary complexes - from 1.81·10-3 to 12.90·10-3% of carotenoids and from 43.1·10-3 to 114.1·10-3% of chlorophylls. Physicochemical methods of analysis were used for the quantitative determination of their carotenoids (6-9 individual representatives were identified) and their chlorophylls and structural analogs (4-10 individual compounds were identified). The compositions of the pigments of the chlorophyll-carotenoid extracts are given: they are polyfunctional additives from the above-mentioned plant species.
Article
Components of essential oil from Mentha pierita L. produced in Xinjiang of China and India respectively were analyzed by GC/MS and their relative contents were determined. Quality of essential oil were also studied. Thirty-seven compounds of the essential oil were identified respectively, including all 15 components that were listed in the routine quality index of the oil. Result shows that the quality of essential oil from M. piperita L. produced in Xinjiang of China was better than the oil produced in India. It meets the export standard of Japan.
Article
Forty-one plant extracts, known in therapy for other properties, have been tested against nine fungal species. Apart from the antifungal activity, already indicated for Piper methysticum, we observed that the extracts of Ruscus aculeatus, Illicium verum, Hibiscus sabdariffa, Rhamnus frangula and Tamarindus indica inhibit spore germination in many fungal species. Other extracts, especially Eschscholtzia californica, Zingiber officinale and Tilia cordata (alburnum) have a more restricted range of activity. The extract of Viola tricolor is only effective against Trichophyton mentagrophytes.
Article
This experiment was done to examine theffects of herb feeding on antioxidative activity in milk. Four Holstein cows in late lactation were fed for 14 days 1) basal diet consising of 43% hay, 14% beet pulp, and 43% concentrates mixture, 2) basal diet + lemongrass, 3) basal diet + peppermint, and 4) basal diet + basil in 94 × 4 Latin square design. Feeding amount of basal diet and each herb was 21 kg and 1 kg per day, respectively. Milk samples were collected one day before the last day and on the last day of each period. 6-Hydroxy-2,5,7,8-tetramethylchroman-2-carboxylic acid (HTCA) equivalent concentrations were used as a parameter of antioxidative activity. HTCA equivalent concentrations in milk of the cows in control, lemongrass, peppermint, and basil treatment were 1.40 (mol/L), 2.05, 2.39, and 2.21, respectively. The HTCA equivalent concentration in milk was significantly higher in the peppermint treatment group than in the control as judged from Turkey's student test.
Article
The antifungal action of eight (Lavandula hybrid, Salvia officinalis L., Rosmarinus officinalis L., Thymus vulgaris L., Origanum vulgare L., Mentha piperita L., Coriandrum sativum L. and Laurus nobilis L.) essential oils was tested in vitro against Phytophtora cinnamomi Rads., Pyrenochaeta lycopersici Kleb. and Verticillium dahliae Kleb., using different concentrations (up to 1600 ppm). The fungistatic + fungicidal activity of the oils was determined, and the most effective essential oils were found to be those of oregano, thyme, peppermint and coriander. Moreover, the oils were tested to determine the antifungal activity against two fungi (Candida albicans, Trichophyton mentagrophytes) that are pathogens for humans.
Article
The anti-tumor promoting activities of 120 kinds of edible plants against the non TPA-type promoter, okadaic acid (OA), were investigated by measuring suppression of the inhibitory, effect of OA on protein phosphatase-2A (PP2A), since OA promotes tumor formation by inhibiting this enzyme. One quarter of the tested samples showed activity over 20%. In particular, 8 kinds of plants (basil (100%), peppermint (100%), carrot leaf (100%), broccoli (100%), nabana (98%), edible burdock (86%), watermelon (99%) and winter fungus (100%) showed very strong activity. Physicochemical properties of the active components contained in the samples that showed high activity were found that the active component in the major sample was inactivated by cold storage or boiling, and that only edible burdock showed strong activity following both types of processing. Soluble fractions from these samples were obtained by extraction in hexane, benzene, ethyl acetate, methanol and water. Very strong anti-OA activity was observed in water soluble extracts of edible burdock and eggplant, whereas cabbage and broccoli showed activity, in the extraction fractions in organic solvents such as hexane. Although the active components in these samples, were not identified, these findings suggest that the component with anti-okadaic acid activity must be present in edible plants.
Article
Monoterpene compounds of leaf pairs and flowers of Mentha x piperita have been studied by direct headspace sampling using solid-phase microextraction coupled with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (SPME-GC/MS). The content of peppermint-characteristic compounds such as menthol, menthyl acetate, and neomenthol increased in a basipetal direction (older plant parts), whereas menthone and isomenthone showed higher levels in the acropetal direction (younger plant parts). Higher levels of menthofuran were found in peppermint flowers in contrast to the leaves. SPME sampling resulted in relatively higher amounts of high-volatile monoterpenes and lower detection of less volatile compounds such as menthol and menthone, compared to solvent-based samples from essential oil distillation.
Article
Toxicity of various essential oils and their volatile components against the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) was determined. The most potent fumigant toxicity was found in essential oil from rosemary (LD50 = 7.8 μl/l air) followed by the oils of lemon (LD50 = 16.2 μl/l air), basil (LD50 = 17.8 μl/l air), lime (LD50 = 17.9 μl/l air), and peppermint (LD50 = 25.8 μl/l air). 1,8-Cineole was the most toxic fumigant compound found in rosemary essential oil (LD50 = 7.4 μl/l air) followed by menthone (LD50 = 8.5 μl/l air) and p-cymene (LD50 = 11.4 μl/l air). 1,8-Cineole exhibited similar fumigant toxicity against a PH3-resistant T. castaneum relative to the susceptible insects. Therefore, 1,8-cineole and rosemary essential oil could be a safer fumigant to control stored-product insect pests than those currently used.
Article
Feeding herbs to dairy cattle may effect rumen fermentation and digestibility due to the herbs’ physiological or pharmacological functions. Thus, in the present study, peppermint was tested for its effects upon digestibility and rumen fermentation. Digestion trials and an investigation of rumen fluid were conducted by four rumen-cannulated Holstein steers having or not having been fed peppermint. When peppermint was fed to the steers, the digestibility of nutrients tended to be higher than that of the control. Ammonia-nitrogen concentrations were higher in the control steers than in the peppermint-fed steers (P
Article
The kinetics of peroxide accumulation during oxidation of triacylglycerols of sunflower oil at 100 °C in presence of different concentrations of hexane, ethylacetate and ethanol extracts of Melissa officinalis L., Mentha piperita L., Mentha spicata L., Ocimum basilicum L., Origanum vulgare L. and Saturejae hortensis L., was followed. Ethanol extracts are the most active in retarding the autoxidation process. The most effective are the extracts of Saturejae hortensis L. (stabilization factor F for 0.5% direct hexane and 0.5% direct ethanol extracts being 14.8 and 24.0, respectively), followed by the extracts of Mentha piperita L. (F = 7.4 and 19.6, respectively) and Melissa officinalis L. (F = 7.4 and 18.6, respectively). Some of the spices are recommended as sources of natural antioxidants for stabilization of polyunsaturated lipid systems.Antioxidationsaktivität selektierter, in Bulgarien gezüchteter Lamiaceae-ArtenDie Kinetik der Peroxidanhäufung während Oxydation von Triacylglycerolen des Sonnenblumenöls ist bei 100 °C in Gegenwart verschiedener Konzentrationen der Hexan-, Ethylacetat- and Ethanol-Extrakte von Melissa officinalis L., Mentha piperita L., Mentha spicata L., Ocimum basilicum L., Origanum vulgare L. and Saturejae hortensis L. untersucht worden. Ethanolextrakte weisen die höchste Aktivität in Bezug auf die Verlangsamung der Autoxydation auf. Die Extrakte von Saturejae hortensis L. (Stabilisationsfaktoren F für 0,5% direkten Hexanextrakt und 0,5% direkten Ethanolextrakt von 14,8 bzw. 24,0) sind am wirksamsten. Ihnen folgen die Extrakte von Mentha piperita L. (F = 7,4 bzw. 19,6) und Mellissa officinalis L. (F = 7,4 bzw. 18,6). Manche der Gewürze werden als Quellen natürlicher Antioxidantien für mehrfach ungesättigte Lipidsysteme empfohlen.