ArticleLiterature Review

A Review of the bioactivity and potential health benefits of peppermint tea (Mentha piperita L)

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Abstract

Peppermint (Mentha piperita L.) is one of the most widely consumed single ingredient herbal teas, or tisanes. Peppermint tea, brewed from the plant leaves, and the essential oil of peppermint are used in traditional medicines. Evidence-based research regarding the bioactivity of this herb is reviewed. The phenolic constituents of the leaves include rosmarinic acid and several flavonoids, primarily eriocitrin, luteolin and hesperidin. The main volatile components of the essential oil are menthol and menthone. In vitro, peppermint has significant antimicrobial and antiviral activities, strong antioxidant and antitumor actions, and some antiallergenic potential. Animal model studies demonstrate a relaxation effect on gastrointestinal (GI) tissue, analgesic and anesthetic effects in the central and peripheral nervous system, immunomodulating actions and chemopreventive potential. Human studies on the GI, respiratory tract and analgesic effects of peppermint oil and its constituents have been reported. Several clinical trials examining the effects of peppermint oil on irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) symptoms have been conducted. However, human studies of peppermint leaf are limited and clinical trials of peppermint tea are absent. Adverse reactions to peppermint tea have not been reported, although caution has been urged for peppermint oil therapy in patients with GI reflux, hiatal hernia or kidney stones.

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... Diets including fruits, fluids, and probiotics are good for constipation. Fruits contain water, melatonin, sorbitol, fructose, fiber, and phytochemicals (69,(70)(71)(72)(73)(74)(75)(76)(77)(78)(79)(80)(81)(82)(83).Fruits thought to be useful for treating constipation are pear, oranges, berries, grape, plump, and apple with peel, which are rich in fiber (71)(72)(73)(74)(75)(76)(77)(78)(79)(80)(81)(82)(83). Fruits juices are generally helpful for constipation, particularly in young children, whose intestinal function has not fully matured. ...
... Diets including fruits, fluids, and probiotics are good for constipation. Fruits contain water, melatonin, sorbitol, fructose, fiber, and phytochemicals (69,(70)(71)(72)(73)(74)(75)(76)(77)(78)(79)(80)(81)(82)(83).Fruits thought to be useful for treating constipation are pear, oranges, berries, grape, plump, and apple with peel, which are rich in fiber (71)(72)(73)(74)(75)(76)(77)(78)(79)(80)(81)(82)(83). Fruits juices are generally helpful for constipation, particularly in young children, whose intestinal function has not fully matured. ...
... The mechanism of action of fiber on constipation includes: 1) Fiber increases stool bulk and accelerates colon transit; 2) fermenting fiber produces short-chain fatty acids (butyrate, propionate, acetate, etc.), which increase osmotic load and accelerate colon transit; 3) short-chain fatty acids change the intraluminal microbiome (mass) directly or indirectly by decreasing luminal pH, which accelerates colon transit; and 4) fiber contains water. All these improve stool consistency and amount (70)(71)(72)(73)(74)(75)(76)(77)(78)(79)(80)(81). Milk and Ghee-According to the book, 'The Complete Book of Ayurvedic Home Remedies,' "taking one or two teaspoons of ghee in a cup of hot milk at bedtime is an effective and gentle means of relieving constipation. ...
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This literature review paper highlights the application of herbal medicine in the treatment of constipation health disorder. Constipation is a common gastrointestinal tract disorder which can result in the infrequent stools, difficult stool passage with pain and stiffness. Constipation refers to a situation where bowel movements are hard or become infrequent or difficult stool passage leading to Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). This is essentially a digestive problem and affect people of all the ages. The common cause of constipation might be related to lack of proper diet, lack of adequate fluid, long term use of medications, lack of adequate physical activity, age related, and might due to serious illness. Conventional treatment includes the use of laxatives to remove stools. The regular use of such chemical-based drugs can imbalance body metabolism and affect the digestive system. Natural plant products rich in fiber, melatonin and anthraquinones are important for the prevention and treatment of gastrointestinal disorders. Ayurveda recommends a holistic approach to treat constipation. The Ayurvedic treatment for constipation requires the use of herbal formulations. Medicinal plants possess a significant laxative potential and support their folklore. In addition to natural laxatives, an Ayurvedic diet, exercise, and massage are key elements of maintaining a healthy digestive system. This literature review paper listed some of the medicinal plants with laxative properties in a single platform as a herbal remedy for the constipation problem.
... Chemical analysis of peppermint and palmarosa EOs showed that monocyclic monoterpenes were the main constituents. Babu and Kaul (2005), Machiani et al. (2018), andMcKay andBlumberg (2006) reported that the chemical profile of Mentha piperita EO was similar to that obtained in the present work. In addition, this EO showed antimicrobial, antifungal, insecticidal, and antioxidant properties (Mckay and Blumberg 2006;Yadegarinia et al. 2006;Yeguerman et al. 2020). ...
... Chemical analysis of peppermint and palmarosa EOs showed that monocyclic monoterpenes were the main constituents. Babu and Kaul (2005), Machiani et al. (2018), andMcKay andBlumberg (2006) reported that the chemical profile of Mentha piperita EO was similar to that obtained in the present work. In addition, this EO showed antimicrobial, antifungal, insecticidal, and antioxidant properties (Mckay and Blumberg 2006;Yadegarinia et al. 2006;Yeguerman et al. 2020). ...
... Babu and Kaul (2005), Machiani et al. (2018), andMcKay andBlumberg (2006) reported that the chemical profile of Mentha piperita EO was similar to that obtained in the present work. In addition, this EO showed antimicrobial, antifungal, insecticidal, and antioxidant properties (Mckay and Blumberg 2006;Yadegarinia et al. 2006;Yeguerman et al. 2020). On the other hand, several studies reported that geraniol was the most abundant compound in palmarosa EO (Raina et al., 2003;Rao et al. 2005;Yeguerman et al. 2020). ...
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This paper introduces the lethal, sublethal, and ecotoxic effects of peppermint and palmarosa essential oils (EOs) and their polymeric nanoparticles (PNs). The physicochemical analyses indicated that peppermint PNs were polydisperse (PDI > 0.4) with sizes of 381 nm and loading efficiency (LE) of 70.3%, whereas palmarosa PNs were monodisperse (PDI < 0.25) with sizes of 191 nm and LE of 89.7%. EOs and their PNs were evaluated on the adults of rice weevil (Sitophilus oryzae L.) and cigarette beetle (Lasioderma serricorne F.) and the larvae of Culex pipiens pipiens Say. On S. oryzae and L. serricorne, PNs increased EOs’ lethal activity, extended repellent effects for 84 h, and also modified behavioral variables during 24 h. Moreover, EOs and PNs generated toxic effects against C. pipiens pipiens. On the other hand, peppermint and palmarosa EOs and their PNs were not toxic to terrestrial non-target organisms, larvae of mealworm (Tenebrio molitor L.), and nymphs of orange-spotted cockroach (Blaptica dubia S.). In addition, PNs were slightly toxic to aquatic non-target organisms, such as brine shrimp (Artemia salina L.). Therefore, these results show that PNs are a novel and eco-friendly formulation to control insect pests.
... Coffee (Coffea arabica L) is consumed because coffee reduces stress, drowsiness, and neuralgia (28). Peppermint (Mentha piperita L.) has a relaxation effect on the muscular actions and secretory processes of the gastrointestinal tract, analgesic, and anesthetic effects in the central and peripheral nervous system (29). Some Thymus spp. ...
... Like tea, coffee is consumed because coffee reduces stress (28). Peppermint, one of the most popular single ingredient herbal teas, has a relaxation effect on the muscular actions and secretory processes of the gastrointestinal tract, analgesic, and anesthetic effects in the central and peripheral nervous system, immunomodulating actions and chemo preventive potential (29). The primary constituent of peppermint oil is menthol (38) which has analgesic (39) and anesthetic activities (40). ...
Article
Objective: GABAergic system is a target for various groups of medications including sedatives, anxiolytics, muscle relaxants, antidepressants and antiepileptics. Several foods or food ingredients are able to affect the GABAergic system by the inhibition of the γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) degrading enzymes including the GABA-transaminase and succinate semialdehyde dehydrogenase. The purpose of this study to investigate the inhibitory effects of tea (Camellia sinensis), coffee (Coffea arabica L.), peppermint (Mentha piperita L.), thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.), and cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) on GABA degrading enzymes. Methods: The inhibition of the GABA-T by aqueous extracts of tea (Camellia sinensis), coffee (Coffea arabica L.), peppermint (Mentha piperita L.), cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum), and thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.) was investigated using a fluorometric microplate enzyme assay. Dose-dependent inhibition of the GABA-degrading enzymes was attained by all the food extracts tested. For determination of the IC50 values of the extracts (± 95 % CI), a linear regression was performed using Origin® (Origin® 2015G von Origin Lab Corporation, Northampton, MA 01060 USA). Results: The aqueous extract of black tea presented the strongest inhibitory activity with an IC50-value (half maximal inhibitory concentration) of 13.0 (11.0-15.3) µg/mL. The tested food extracts were successful in inhibiting the GABA-degrading enzymes even at low concentrations. Conclusion: In conclusion, the selected food extracts could serve as natural inhibitors for GABA-degrading enzymes thus, they could increase the GABA concentration in the brain.
... It's additionally celebrated for its therapeutic characteristics. Lemon analgesic concentrate is a concentrated wellspring of intense fundamental oils and plant aggravates that have antiviral activity [17] . Test-tube research has indicated that it has antiviral impacts against avian flu (fledgling influenza), herpes infections, HIV-1, and enterovirus 71, which can cause extreme contaminations in babies and children [10,17] . ...
... Lemon analgesic concentrate is a concentrated wellspring of intense fundamental oils and plant aggravates that have antiviral activity [17] . Test-tube research has indicated that it has antiviral impacts against avian flu (fledgling influenza), herpes infections, HIV-1, and enterovirus 71, which can cause extreme contaminations in babies and children [10,17] . ...
... 16,17 Other herbal teas that are popularly drunk worldwide (as researched as result of their popularity) are chamomile, rooibos, mate, hibiscus, mint, etc. 15 Many herbal teas are normally ingested as part of the food habits but certain users drink these beveragessuch as the teas mentioned aboveas infusions for medicinal purposes as well. 18,19 Whether as a food or as a medicinal plant, herbal teas are interesting sources of bioactive molecules that can participate in many physiological pathways to maintain health or prevent certain diseases, such as cardiometabolic or cardiovascular diseases, as well as other chronic conditions known to result from chronic systemic inflammation. 3 In this sense, polyphenols from teas are particularly known to act as antioxidants modulating other physiological processes; they have been demonstrated to be involved in the prevention of chronic and inflammatory disorders such as systemic inflammation or neurodegenerative and metabolic disorders. ...
Article
South African rooibos (Aspalathus linearis) tea is globally consumed for its health benefits and caffeine free nature, but no information is available on the neuroprotective capacity of (unfermented) green rooibos....
... Meanwhile, the amount of coumaric acid, caffeic acid, and dihydroxybenzoic acid varied according to each sample. Thus, this diversity in the chemical composition can be caused by different factors such as the stade of maturity of the plant, processing conditions, and geographical origin (29). (33). ...
... Mentha piperita, a member of the family Lamiaceae and known as medicinal peppermint, is one of the oldest known multipurpose plant species used since the ancient times (McKay and Blumberg, 2006;Herro and Jacob, 2010;Dhifi et al., 2013). Peppermint provides one of the most popular and widely used essential oils, mostly due to its major compounds menthol and menthone, which are commonly used in oral caring products, medicines, cosmetics, and food industry (Scavroni et al., 2005;Tejesh et al., 2007;Kızıl et al., 2010;Kamatou et al., 2013). ...
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In this study, the effect of storage on the antibacterial and antifungal activities of Mentha piperita L. essential oil was investigated. Essential oils of oven-dried plant samples were obtained by hydro-distillation, analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and stored in a refrigerator at 4 ⁰C and in a freezer at -20 ⁰C for one, three and six months. Antibacterial and antifungal activity of the essential oils against some gram-positive (Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Micrococcus luteus), gram-negative (Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Yersinia enterocolitica) bacterial strains and fungi (Candida albicans, Aspergillus niger) were evaluated by agar well diffusion method. The antibacterial and antifungal effects of essential oils increased during storage. In general, essential oils stored at -20 ⁰C produced more antimicrobial activity than those stored at +4 ⁰C. The most affected microorganisms by essential oils were Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus vulgaris and Aspergillus niger. The results of the present study revealed that antibacterial and antifungal properties of Mentha piperita L. essential oil could be preserved and even improved when stored in proper temperature and period.
... While, mint oil caused 20.4% inhibition of the mycelial growth. Mckay and Blumberg, 2006 reported that Mentha piperita has significant antimicrobial, antiviral activities and strong antioxidants. Dawood et al., (2003a) mentioned that the aqueous plant extracts of Allium cepa caused (15.9%) inhibition of F. oxysoprum spore germination while, Mentha viridis caused (57%) and Nigella sativa showed the highest inhibition (78.5%). ...
... 1 Mentha x piperita L. is a natural hybrid between Mentha aquatica and Mentha spicata and is detached among the most popular tea ingredients. 2 The essential oils from some Mentha species are potential candidates for antimicrobial, antioxidant, radical scavenging and cytotoxic activities. Commercially, Mentha essential oils and their compounds are widely applied in food, cosmetics, fragrances, tobacco and medicine industries. ...
... Peppermint is one of the oldest medicinal plants (Petrovska, 2012). The medical uses of peppermint appear in the forms of peppermint tea and peppermint oil (McKay, and Blumberg, 2006). ...
... Peppermint essential oil (PEO), indigenous to Europe and the Middle East, is an essential oil (EO) extracted from peppermint (Mentha Piperita L.) herb's leaves. [1] PEO has been utilized in a variety of applications, including medicine, [2] drug delivery, [3] wound healing, [4] food science, [5] and even exercise performance. [6] Menthone and menthol, as the main constituents of PEO, are responsible for the oil's pharmaceutical characteristics. ...
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Polyelectrolyte complexes (PEC) of chitosan (CS) and sodium alginate (SA) containing various contents of peppermint essential oil (PEO), as a volatile bioactive agent, were prepared in order to investigate the effect of the oil on the anti-bacterial activity of the CS-SA hydrogels. The gelation of the PEC was performed in the presence of poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA). Optical microscopic images exhibited uniform dispersion and entrapment of the oil within the PEC matrix. In-vitro evaluation tests of the hydrogels demonstrated the anti-bacterial activity of the PEO, revealing its potential for biomedical applications.
... Almost the entire peppermint plant has pharmacologically beneficial properties such as antioxidant, antiallergic, antiviral and antibacterial actions, thus preventing the development of microorganisms and even suppressing the development of cancer cells [4][5][6]. In the food industry, dried peppermint leaves are used as mint teas or infusions [7,8]. A number of flavonoids among the secondary compounds in mint have been identified as highly effective antioxidants. ...
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In this work, we studied in vitro propagation of three cultivars of Mentha × piperita L. Murashige and Skoog medium (MS) supplemented with 0.5 mg·L−1 BAP was the most optimal medium for micropropagation of the cultivars studied. The ability of peppermint plants field-acclimated after in vitro micropropagation to produce essential oils (EOs) was investigated. EO was obtained by hydrodistillation from dried leaves and flowering shoots from control (field grown) plants and plants acclimated in field conditions after in vitro propagation. The samples were collected at the first and second year of vegetation, and their chemical composition was investigated using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Differences were observed in the yield, as well as in the quantitative and qualitative composition of the EOs extracted from the control plants and field-acclimated plants after in vitro propagation. Menthol was the main component of the EO in control plants, while pulegone and menthone were dominant in the EO pattern in field-acclimated in vitro regenerants in the first year of the growing season. However, in the second year of vegetation, the content of the main EO components in field-acclimated peppermint plants was approximately the same as in control plants. The antioxidant activity of EOs extracted from field-acclimated after in vitro micropropagation plants was found to be the same as in control field-grown M. × piperita plants.
... (5) Apigenin. Apigenin, known as 4′,5,7-trihydroxyflavone, belongs to the flavones and is widely found in common fruits and vegetables, such as parsley, celery, oranges, and grapefruit, particularly abundant in the chamomile plant [199]. Emerging evidence indicates that apigenin exerts a neuroprotective effect, including the inhibition of misfolded proteins [200], antineuroinflammation [201,202], and antioxidant effects [203]. ...
Article
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Neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer’s disease (AD), Parkinson’s disease (PD), and Huntington’s disease (HD), are characterized by the progressive degeneration of neurons. Although the etiology and pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases have been studied intensively, the mechanism is still in its infancy. In general, most neurodegenerative diseases share common molecular mechanisms, and multiple risks interact and promote the pathologic process of neurogenerative diseases. At present, most of the approved drugs only alleviate the clinical symptoms but fail to cure neurodegenerative diseases. Numerous studies indicate that dietary plant polyphenols are safe and exhibit potent neuroprotective effects in various neurodegenerative diseases. However, low bioavailability is the biggest obstacle for polyphenol that largely limits its adoption from evidence into clinical practice. In this review, we summarized the widely recognized mechanisms associated with neurodegenerative diseases, such as misfolded proteins, mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative damage, and neuroinflammatory responses. In addition, we summarized the research advances about the neuroprotective effect of the most widely reported dietary plant polyphenols. Moreover, we discussed the current clinical study and application of polyphenols and the factors that result in low bioavailability, such as poor stability and low permeability across the blood-brain barrier (BBB). In the future, the improvement of absorption and stability, modification of structure and formulation, and the combination therapy will provide more opportunities from the laboratory into the clinic for polyphenols. Lastly, we hope that the present review will encourage further researches on natural dietary polyphenols in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases.
... Mentha piperita L. is a medicinal plant that belongs to the Lamiaceae family, and is known for its uses in traditional medicine and for its distinctive aroma [123] and having different biological properties, including anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antimicrobial, antiviral, and antitumor effects [124]. Regarding the phytochemical composition, peppermint contains flavonoids, phenolic acids, volatile compounds, lignans, and stilbenes, the most abundant compounds being luteolin, hesperidin, eriocitrin, and rosmarinic acid ( Figure 9) [125]. In folk medicine, M. piperita oil has been used to reduce gingival inflammation and to stop toothache [120]. ...
Article
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Dental pathology remains a global health problem affecting both children and adults. The most important dental diseases are dental caries and periodontal pathologies. The main cause of oral health problems is overpopulation with pathogenic bacteria and for this reason, conventional therapy can often be ineffective due to bacterial resistance or may have unpleasant side effects. For that reason, studies in the field have focused on finding new therapeutic alternatives. Special attention is paid to the plant kingdom, which offers a wide range of plants and active compounds in various pathologies. This review focused on the most used plants in the dental field, especially on active phytocompounds, both in terms of chemical structure and in terms of mechanism of action. It also approached the in vitro study of active compounds and the main types of cell lines used to elucidate the effect and mechanism of action. Thus, medicinal plants and their compounds represent a promising and interesting alternative to conventional therapy.
... Medicinal importance of some plants is due to the special odoriferous and volatile terpene-rich oils called essential oils (EOs). The active constituents in the EOs are monoterpenes, diterpenes or sesquiterpenes (menthol, khusimol, citral, menthone, vetivone, carvone, fenchone, anethole, menthyl-acetate) which exhibit certain specific properties like anticonvulsion, antiseptic, anesthetic and digestive and are effective against colitis, flatulence, gastritis, therefore find extensive application in cosmetic, perfumery and food industries, aromatherapy and pharmacology (Bhushan, Kumar, Tanuja, Lalit, & Hema, 2013;McKay & Blumberg, 2006). Considerable enrichment in the production of such economically valuable terpenes has been reported due to the application of the three types of RPPs (carrageenan, chitosan and sodium alginate oligomers) on the EO containing plants viz.; Cymbopogon flexuosus Steud. ...
Chapter
Polysaccharides, as the name implies, are comprises of monosaccharide residues connected by glycosidic bonds. The average number of monosaccharide units in polysaccharides varies from about 10 to perhaps 10 million. Depending upon the nature of the monosaccharide unit, polysaccharides are classified as linear or branched chain polysaccharides which determine the diversity and complexity of the polysaccharides. Branches may be short saccharide units on a linear backbone or the molecule may have a branch-on-branch structure. All polysaccharides are polydisperse, i.e., are present in a range of molecular weights rather than having a single molecular weight. They are the most abundant natural biopolymer derived from multiple natural resources such as plants, animals, bacteria, fungi, algae, arthropods etc. Polysaccharides possess unique chemical, physical and biological properties. They are not only an important component of energy and structural components but also serve a variety of biological functions. Polysaccharides possess a number of reactive functional groups in their chemical structure, including hydroxyl, amino, and carboxylic acid groups, indicating the possibility for chemical modification. The aim of this chapter is to summarize the natural occurrence, distribution and the multifaceted structures of polysaccharides.
... Medicinal importance of some plants is due to the special odoriferous and volatile terpene-rich oils called essential oils (EOs). The active constituents in the EOs are monoterpenes, diterpenes or sesquiterpenes (menthol, khusimol, citral, menthone, vetivone, carvone, fenchone, anethole, menthyl-acetate) which exhibit certain specific properties like anticonvulsion, antiseptic, anesthetic and digestive and are effective against colitis, flatulence, gastritis, therefore find extensive application in cosmetic, perfumery and food industries, aromatherapy and pharmacology (Bhushan, Kumar, Tanuja, Lalit, & Hema, 2013;McKay & Blumberg, 2006). Considerable enrichment in the production of such economically valuable terpenes has been reported due to the application of the three types of RPPs (carrageenan, chitosan and sodium alginate oligomers) on the EO containing plants viz.; Cymbopogon flexuosus Steud. ...
Chapter
Plant growth-promoting activity of radiation-processed chitosan has been widely investigated by several researchers. Taking a step further, different fractions of irradiated chitosan (ICH), separated by column chromatography, were assessed for their effect on growth, physiology, and yield attributes of Java citronella (Cymbopogon winterianus Jowitt), conducting a pot experiment in the net-house conditions. Structural characterization of ICH was carried out using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy, and Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. Among various fractions, Fraction 2 of irradiated chitosan (ICH-F2) proved the best for almost all the parameters studied including the growth biomarkers, photosynthesis-allied parameters, enzymatic activities, and yield attributes. Interestingly, the ICH-F2 fraction contained a higher amount of carbonyl group as compared to other fractions. Perhaps, this specialty made the ICH-F2 unique and a potent growth promoter. As compared to the control, ICH-F2 enhanced the chlorophyll content (38.6%), and the activities of carbonic anhydrase (27.7%), nitrate reductase (21.5%), and DXR, i.e., deoxy-d-xylulose-5-phosphate reductoisomerase (45.7%). Application of ICH-F2 also enhanced the essential oil (EO) content (35.4%) and EO yield (120.1%) of Java citronella significantly. GC-MS analysis of EO revealed a significant increase in the contents of major aroma-compounds, viz. citronellal (18.4%) and geraniol (20.5%) simultaneous with a concurrent decrease in citronellol (24.6%) and geranyl acetate (19.3%) in comparison to the control.
... (Rahimi et al., 2020;Mohammadi et al., 2019) . (McKay and Blumberg., 2006;Prasad et al., 2011;Santoro et al., 2011) . ...
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This experiment was performed in the form of a randomized complete block design with three replications in the spring of 2018 in a research greenhouse located in the city of Urmia. First, the soil sample was analyzed and its physical and chemical properties were measured. Seedlings were transferred to pots after inoculation with azetobarvar-2 and phosphatebarvar-2 biofertilizers. There were 4 plants in each pot. The flowering branches of the plants were harvested at full flowering stage and after drying in the shade essential oil extracted by distillation with water using a Clevenger-type apparatus. Essential oil components were analyzed and identified using GC and GC-MS devices. The constituents of the essential oils were identified by mass spectrum, their retention index (RI) and compared with the retention indices reported in reliable sources. The essential oi yield related to control samples and treatments of azetobarvar-2 and phosphatebarvar-2 was 2, 2.5 and 5 percent, respectively. In total, 29 compounds from the essential oil of this plant were identified, which included the range of 97.22 and 94.98%, and the main constituents of the essential oil, including thymol (65.29, 72.65 and 48.99%), caryophyllene (4.27, 4.29 and 11.92%), eucalyptol (4.95, 3.16 and 8.51%) and borneol (3.66, 3.83 and 4.64%) respectively were for the control sample, Azetobarvar-2 and Phosphatebarvar-2. According to the results of this study, the fertilizer phosphatebarvar-2 treatment may be effective in increasing the percentage of essential oil and its main compounds in Thymus daenensis Celak., while the quantitative and qualitative increase of essential oil under Azotobaror-2 fertilizer treatment was not significant compared to the control.
... The phenolic constituents of the leaves include rosmarinic acid and several flavonoids. The main volatile components of the essential oil are menthol and menthone [5]. Peppermint has a relaxation effect on gastrointestinal tissue, analgesic and anaesthetic effects in the central and peripheral nervous systems, immunomodulating actions and chemopreventive potential. ...
Article
Pathogenic fungi decrease the quality of commercially available medicinal plants and packaged seeds. Some of fungal pathogens can produce mycotoxins harmful to human health. To evaluate the health status of commercially available medicinal plants and check if packaged seeds of these plants are free from pathogenic fungi. An experiment was conducted on potted plants of lemon balm, peppermint and sweet basil, commercially available and intended for direct use by consumers. For microbiological analyses, 100 stems and leaves of each species were randomly taken. Furthermore, the health of 100 seeds of each species was examined using agar plate method. Ten species and genera of pathogenic fungi were isolated from shoots, leaves and seeds of investigated plants. Some of them are toxin-forming species. Lemon balm was the most infected species. Bearing in mind the health of consumers, more attention should be paid to the microbiological purity of commercially available medicinal plants and packaged seeds.
... Mint tea (Mentha piperita L.) as raw material is one of the most widely consumed single-ingredient herbal teas (infusion) around the world [1]. ...
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Mint tea (Mentha piperita L.) is one of the most widely consumed single infusion herbal teas (infusion) around the world; however, impurities and pollutants can pose a potential health risk to human health during tea drinking. The idea of this study was the comprehensive toxicological risk assessment (TRA) of three heavy metals (As, Pb, and Cd) in mint tea infusions (Mentha piperita L.; n = 17) available in Polish markets. We applied an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS)-based methodology for the determination of the chosen heavy metals and designed a specific TRA approach. The first step in our TRA was the determination of the elements investigated (heavy metal impurity profile, µg/L of infusion). The second step was the estimation of the weekly intake (µg/L of infusion/week) based on the weekly consumption of tea. The third step was the estimation of the weekly intake per body weight (µg/L of infusion/week/bw) based on the weekly consumption of tea per adult person compared to the Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake (PTWI) established by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA). The level of investigated heavy metals occurs in all of the investigated mint tea infusions but at a relatively low level. The heavy metal profile indicated presence of As (0.36–1.254 µg/L), Pb (0.47–1.24 µg/L), and Cd (0.17–0.40 µg/L) in all the samples investigated. The basic analysis of the general content shows that As levels (mean = 0.70 µg/L) were very similar to the Pb levels (mean = 0.72 µg/L). The Cd content (mean = 0.21 µg/L) was approximately 3.5 times lower than the As and Pb levels. TRA provides satisfactory results for regulatory purposes. TRA for the elements investigated in the analyzed products indicated that there was no health hazard to consumers for weekly exposure. The results indicated that the levels of investigated elements in daily doses should not represent any health hazard to the consumer after drinking mini tea infusions from products available in Polish markets. This well-designed TRA methodology was useful and important for regulatory toxicology purposes.
... The presence of their functional groups (OH-,C-O,C-H) was confirmed by ATR-FTIR analysis ( Figure 3). Thereby, the Mentha piperita extract demonstrates its potent antimicrobial activity against a variety of microorganisms because the leaf contains compounds such as phenolic acids (-OH) [87], flavonoids (-CO) or volatile oil as menthol, menthone, menthyl acetate and limonene, which have antibacterial, antifungal and anti-inflammatory properties and interact with the cell membrane of the strains [88,89]. The antibacterial effect of PVA film loaded with Mentha piperita extract against E. coli and S. aureus bacteria was confirmed also by other authors [80], where the degree of antimicrobial activity varies between the cultivars. ...
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The majority of recent studies have focused on obtaining MRI materials for internal use. However, this study focuses on a straightforward method for preparing gelatin-based materials with iron oxide nanoparticles (G–Fe2O3 and G–Fe3O4) for external use. The newly obtained materials must be precisely tuned to match the requirements and usage situation because they will be in close touch with human/animal skin. The biocompatible structures formed by gelatin, tannic acid, and iron oxide nanoparticles were investigated by using FTIR spectroscopy, SEM-EDAX analysis, and contact angle methods. The physico-chemical properties were obtained by using mechanical investigations, dynamic vapor sorption analysis, and bulk magnetic determination. The size and shape of iron oxide nanoparticles dictates the magnetic behavior of the gelatin-based samples. The magnetization curves revealed a typical S-shaped superparamagnetic behavior which is evidence of improved MRI image accuracy. In addition, the MTT assay was used to demonstrate the non-toxicity of the samples, and the antibacterial test confirmed satisfactory findings for all G-based materials.
... The presence of their functional groups (OH-,C-O,C-H) was confirmed by ATR-FTIR analysis ( Figure 3). Thereby, the Mentha piperita extract demonstrates its potent antimicrobial activity against a variety of microorganisms because the leaf contains compounds such as phenolic acids (-OH) [87], flavonoids (-CO) or volatile oil as menthol, menthone, menthyl acetate and limonene, which have antibacterial, antifungal and anti-inflammatory properties and interact with the cell membrane of the strains [88,89]. The antibacterial effect of PVA film loaded with Mentha piperita extract against E. coli and S. aureus bacteria was confirmed also by other authors [80], where the degree of antimicrobial activity varies between the cultivars. ...
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In this study, we aim to obtain biomaterials with antibacterial properties by combining poly(vinyl alcohol) with the extracts obtained from various selected plants from Romania. Natural herbal extracts of freshly picked flowers of the lavender plant (Lavandula angustifolia) and leaves of the peppermint plant (Mentha piperita), hemp plant (Cannabis sativa L.), verbena plant (Verbena officinalis) and sage plant (Salvia officinalis folium) were selected after an intensive analyzing of diverse medicinal plants often used as antibacterial and healing agents from the country flora. The plant extracts were characterized by different methods such as totals of phenols and flavonoids content and UV-is spectroscopy. The highest amounts of the total phenolic and flavonoid contents, respectively, were recorded for Salvia officinalis. Moreover, the obtained films of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) loaded with plant extracts were studied concerning the surface properties and their antibacterial or cytotoxicity activity. The Attenuated Total Reflection Fourier Transform Infrared analysis described the successfully incorporation of each plant extract in the poly(vinyl alcohol) matrix, while the profilometry demonstrated the enhanced surface properties. The results showed that the plant extracts conferred significant antibacterial effects to films toward Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli and are not toxic against fibroblastic cells from the rabbit.
... Another plant used in aromatherapy in cardiovascular patients is the Mentha piperita, which also called peppermint. Reviews showed that this plant has various pharmacological properties, for example, anxiolytic, analgesic, sedative, and sleep quality enhancer [76]. Recent clinical trials reported the potent effects of peppermint in aromatherapy for treating some illness and conditions such as anxiety, fatigue, stress, depression, and pain through affecting the olfactory pathways of the brain, decrease anxiety, relieve pain, relaxation increase, regulating pulse rate, and improving sleep quality [77]. ...
Article
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Background: The purpose of this study was a comprehensive review of studies on the effect of aromatherapy with plant essential oils on the improvement of some conditions, for example, anxiety, stress, sleep quality, fatigue, and pain in people with cardiovascular disease. Materials and methods: We carried out this systematic review based on the instructions of Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA). Ethical agreement was not necessary as main data have not been collected. During March 2022, we searched the main English databases, for example, Google Scholar, Web of Sciences, EMBASE, EBSCO, ScienceDirect, Scopus, and PubMed/MEDLINE, with limitation to human clinical trials. For this study, no time limit was applied for the publication of articles. Results: Out of 1380 papers, 52 papers up to March 2022 were eligible for review in this systematic review. Based on the obtained results, the most widely used medicinal plants for aromatherapy in patients with cardiovascular diseases were Lavandula angustifolia (lavender, 55.7%), Rosa damascena (Damask rose, 11.5%), and Mentha piperita (peppermint, 5.8%), respectively. Most studies have been performed on the effect of aromatherapy on coronary angiography (21 papers, 40.4%), followed by artery bypass graft surgery (14 studies, 26.9%), and cardiac patients (5 studies, 9.6%). Most studies on the effect of aromatherapy in cardiovascular diseases were performed on anxiety (31 papers, 59.6%), sleep quality (8 studies, 15.4%), and hemodynamic parameters (6 studies, 11.5%), respectively. Conclusion: This study systematically reviewed the effects of aromatherapy in patients with cardiovascular diseases. The review of studies showed that lavender, Damask rose, and peppermint are the most frequents plants used for aromatherapy, whereas they significantly improved some illnesses and conditions, especially anxiety and sleep quality. Therefore, it can be concluded that cardiologist can used aromatherapy as a natural complementary and alternative therapy particularly with lavender, Damask rose, and peppermint to improve quality of life and some conditions such as anxiety and sleep quality.
... Questi effetti potrebbero essere dovuti alle interazioni farmacologiche causate dall'OE. Infatti, è noto che l'OE di Mentha piperita L. interferisce con il citocromo P450, che svolge un ruolo importante nel metabolismo dei farmaci (McKay, 2006). Uno studio in vitro sui fibroblasti ha permesso di dimostrare un effetto tossico dell'OE di Syzygium aromaticum (chiodi di garofano) a una concentrazione dello 0,03% (1,8 μM). ...
Technical Report
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Natural substances and integrated therapies: food for thought from the seminars of the study group of Integrated Therapies and Natural Substances. Edited by Andrea Geraci, Anna Maria Marella, Francesca Mondello, Annarita Stringaro 2022, iv, 120 p. Rapporti ISTISAN 22/2 (in Italian), Istituto Superiore di Sanità. Natural products have a long history of use as drugs, drug precursors and/or adjuvants for the treatment of various pathological conditions and there are many examples of molecules derived from natural substances that have changed the history of medicine, along with the related Nobel Prize assigned. Interest in natural substances is growing progressively for cultural, scientific and economic reasons. Often some products of natural origin, in the commercial form of food supplements, are neither standardized nor studied for all their possible actions, both beneficial and adverse, and the enormous demand by the consumer of these products for “health-promoting use” is noted. This volume is intended to represent a popularizing tool of recent research presented in some seminars organized by the Study Group of Integrated Therapies and Natural Substances of the Istituto Superiore di Sanità (the National Institute of Health in Italy) to animate reflection on lights and shadows in the field of integrated therapies that involve the use of natural substances. Key words: Vegetable products; Phytotherapy; Integrative medicine
... Rosato et al. [24] demonstrated EO,Mentha piperita L. is employed for significant antiviral, antifungal, and antibacterial properties. Furthermore, M. piperita L. (Lamiaceae) is used as raw material in several different applications in foods and cosmetics; leaves and flowers are used for medicinal preparations according to McKay and Blumberg [25]. Thus, the purpose of this study was to conduct an assessment of selected eco-friendly plant extracts; V. alternifolia and M. piperita oil extracts on tegument surface of C. phalacrocoracis MC from Tilapia zillii and histopathological alternations in infected tissues before and after were performed. ...
Article
Background Clinostomiasis (yellow grub disease) is a disease of freshwater fish caused by the encysted metacercariae (EMC) of Clinostomum spp. showing retarded growth, unusual host behavior, and even death in fishes. Thus, the purpose of this study was to conduct an assessment of two selected plant extract: V. alternifolia and M. piperita oil extracts on tegument surface of C. phalacrocoracis metacercariae (MC) from T.zillii as utilisation of biodegradable, eco-friendly plant extracts in environmental remediation to avoid utilization of chemotherapy to control of parasitic diseases leading to potential long-term health risks on the environment and humans. Results The results of evaluation efficacy of plant oil extracts, namely V. alternifolia and M. piperita on C. phalacrocoracis MC infecting T. zillii , were dependent on dose and exposure time. The lethal concentrations caused by V . alternifolia extract were determined LC50 at (400 ppm/24 h), and contrarily, the worms from gp2 exposed to M. piperita extract at LC50 (1000 ppm/48 h) and did not cause complete mortality among the exposed worms. Statistically, mortality of C. phalacrocoracis caused by V . alternifolia was found to be a stronger effect significantly higher than that caused by M. piperita. The fine integument structures observed suffered stronger effect that appeared as severe damage and desquamation of worm’s teguments after exposure of V. alternifolia. In contrast, the M. piperita treatment exhibited edematous, swollen teguments, and blebs. Therefore, C. phalacrocoracis was an adequate model for evaluation of in vitro anthelmintic effects, contributing to the endeavors to identify suitable plant extracts, V. alternifolia and M. piperita. Conclusions This study highlights on assessment of selected two plant extracts; V. alternifolia and M. piperita revealed a stronger effect of V. alternifolia than M. piperita on tegumental surface of C. phalacrocoracis worms and, also, recommended the successful utilization of V. alternifolia on investigated worms as anthelmintic efficacy.
... In addition, its oil has been reported to have antibacterial, antiviral, antiparasitic and antifungal activities (Pushpangadan and Tewari, 2006). The antibiotic activity of peppermint oil was reported by many in vitro studies (McKay and Blumberg, 2006). In in vivo studies, the addition of essential oils to fish diet revealed high growth performance, enhanced hematological parameters and immune response (Adel et al., 2015). ...
Article
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The study focused on investigating the effectiveness of essential oils of peppermint (Mentha piperita) against Streptococcus agalactiae (bacteria causing hemorrhagic disease) in red tilapia with an infective concentration of 10 6 CFU/mL. The experiment was arranged with 2 control treatments: control 1-commercial feed + no infection; control 2-commercial feed + infection of S. agalactiae; and 3 experimental treatments with essential oils concentrations of 0.125%; 0.25% and 0.5%. The study examined the blood cell morphology and physiological blood indices of red tilapia (including hemoglobin; hematocrit; red blood cells count; the total number of white blood cells and thrombocytes, erythrocyte size) at three stages: after 15 days of adding essential oils without infection; five days after infection; and ten days after infection. In this study, fish supplemented with peppermint essential oils stimulated the body to create immunity. However, concentrations of 0.125% and 0.25% showed higher results about this ability in the presence of bacteria while the concentration of 0.5% exhibited a higher antibacterial effect of essential oils.
... Peppermint essential oil is a secondary metabolite extracted from Mentha × piperita L. It is a colourless or yellowish oily liquid. Its main volatile components are menthol, menthone, 1-8 cineole, etc. [11]. Mint essential oil has a strong refreshing effect, and traditional Chinese medicine believes that it has the effect of "pungent to diverge, cool to clear heat; clear the leader" [12]. ...
Article
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Objective: To explore the effect and mechanism of peppermint essential oil on learning and memory ability of APP/PS1 transgenic mice. Methods: Morris water maze test and shuttle box test were used to explore the changes in learning and memory ability of APP/PS1 transgenic mice after sniffing essential oil. The cellular status of neurons in the hippocampal CA1 region of the right hemisphere, Aβ deposition, oxidative stress level, and serum metabonomics were detected to explore its mechanism. Results: Sniffing peppermint essential oil can improve the learning and memory ability of APP/PS1 transgenic mice. Compared with the model group, the state of neurons in the hippocampal CA1 region of the peppermint essential oil group returned to normal, and the deposition of Aβ decreased. The MDA of brain tissue decreased significantly, and the activity of SOD and GSH-PX increased significantly to the normal level. According to the results of metabonomics, it is speculated that peppermint essential oil may improve cognitive function in AD by regulating arginine and proline metabolism, inositol phosphate metabolism, and cysteine and methionine metabolism.
... These plants are broadly applied in many national cuisines (including Polish gastronomy), being popular spices and herbal teas, as well as are accounted as medicinal herbs (enlisted in the Community herbal monographs of the Committee on Herbal Medicinal Products in the European Medicines Agency). They have been applied in the treatment of a variety of ailments, focusing on gastrointestinal and respiratory tract disorders in European countries including Poland (European Medicines Agency 2013; European Medicines Agency 2016; European Medicines Agency 2020; Bruneton et al., 1999;McKay et al., 2006;Mahendran et al., 2020;Jarić et al., 2015. Apart from the abundance of essential oils being responsible for multiple beneficial activities of these herbs, they contain polyphenolic compounds including caffeic acid (CA), rosmarinic (RA), luteolin-7-O-glucuronide (Lgr), luteolin-7-O-rutinoside (Lr), and eriodictyol-7-O-rutinoside (Er) (present in all four investigated species), and arbutin (Ab) (detected in sweet marjoram and common thyme), and lithospermic acid (LA) (in wild thyme and peppermint) Turek 2007 andTurek (2008). ...
Article
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Lamiaceae species are rich sources of biologically active compounds which have been applied in medicine since ancient times. Especially their antineoplastic properties have been thoroughly studied with respect to their putative application in chemoprevention and adjuvant therapy of cancer. However, the most known biological effects of Lamiaceae have been ascribed to their essential oil fractions, whereas their (poly)phenolic metabolites being also abundant in these plants, are much less recognized, nevertheless contributing to their beneficial properties, such as anti-cancer actions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of dried aqueous extracts from common thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.) (ExTv), wild thyme (Thymus serpyllum L.) (ExTs), sweet marjoram (Origanum majorana L.) (ExOm), and peppermint (Mentha × piperita L.) (ExMp), as well as (poly)phenolic compounds: caffeic acid (CA), rosmarinic acid (RA), lithospermic acid (LA), luteolin-7-O-β-glucuronide (Lgr), luteolin-7-O-rutinoside (Lr), eriodictyol-7-O-rutinoside (Er), and arbutin (Ab), on unstimulated Jurkat cells, in comparison with their effect on staurosporine-stimulated Jurkat cells. Jurkat T cells were incubated with different concentrations of ExTv, ExTs, ExOm, ExMp, Lgr, LA, Er, Lr, RA, CA, or Ab. Subsequently, staurosporine was added to half of the samples and flow cytometry combined with fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis was conducted, which allowed for the selection of early and late apoptotic cells. Both ExTs and ExOm stimulated apoptosis of Jurkat cells and enhanced the proapoptotic effect of staurosporine. Conversely, ExTv and ExMp demonstrated no clear effect on apoptosis. CA and RA raised the staurosporine-induced apoptotic effect. The impact of Er and Lgr on Jurkat cells showed fluctuations depending on the compound concentration. Neither Er nor Ab altered staurosporine-induced apoptosis in Jurkat cells, whereas Lgr seemed to weaken the proapoptotic action of staurosporine. The most evident observation in this study was the pro-apoptotic action of ExTs and ExOm observed both in staurosporine-unstimulated and stimulated Jurkat cells. Additionally, an enhancement of staurosporine-induced apoptosis by caffeic and rosmarinic acids was reported. Therefore, it might be concluded that these are the mixtures of biologically active polyphenols which often exert more pronounced beneficial effects than purified molecules.
... Whilst reviews exist that range from the metabolic engineering of terpenoids in plants to the pharmacological, toxicological and insecticidal effects of Mentha spp., this review focuses on metabolic, environmental and plant growth regulator (PGR) modification attempts to manipulate the terpenoid content/yield done solely in Mentha spp. (McKay and Blumberg, 2006;Kumar et al., 2011;Malekmohammad et al., 2019). ...
Article
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In recent years, the study of aromatic plants has seen an increase, with great interest from industrial, academic, and pharmaceutical industries. Among plants attracting increased attention are the Mentha spp. (mint), members of the Lamiaceae family. Mint essential oils comprise a diverse class of molecules known as terpenoids/isoprenoids, organic chemicals that are among the most diverse class of naturally plant derived compounds. The terpenoid profile of several Mentha spp. is dominated by menthol, a cyclic monoterpene with some remarkable biological properties that make it useful in the pharmaceutical, medical, cosmetic, and cleaning product industries. As the global market for Mentha essential oils increases, the desire to improve oil composition and yield follows. The monoterpenoid biosynthesis pathway is well characterised so metabolic engineering attempts have been made to facilitate this improvement. This review focuses on the Mentha spp. and attempts at altering the carbon flux through the biosynthetic pathways to increase the yield and enhance the composition of the essential oil. This includes manipulation of endogenous and heterologous biosynthetic enzymes through overexpression and RNAi suppression. Genes involved in the MEP pathway, the menthol and carvone biosynthetic pathways and transcription factors known to affect secondary metabolism will be discussed along with non-metabolic engineering approaches including environmental factors and the use of plant growth regulators.
Article
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Beluntas (Pluchea indica L.) leaf is a plant that has high antioxidant compounds, and mint (Mentha piperita L.) leaf contain mentol compounds which can improve the taste of herbal drinks. In the processing, the drying process can affect the functional content of beluntas leaves and mint leaves. This study aims to determine the effect of drying time and the formulation of beluntas leaves and mint leaves on physical (colour), chemical (moisture content, total phenol, and antioxidant activity), and sensory (colour, smell, taste, and overall) properties and to determine the combination of drying time and the formulation of beluntas and mint leaves that provide the best herbal drink. The experimental design carried out in this study used a Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with a combined factor, drying time and formulation of beluntas and mint leaves. The time variation used is 1.5 hours; 2 hours and 2.5 hours. Various formulations of beluntas leaves and mint leaves used were 1:1, 2:1, and 3:1. The results showed that the treatment of variations in drying time and the formulation of beluntas and mint leaves had a significant effect on physical (a* and °Hue values), chemical (moisture content, total phenol, and antioxidant activity), and sensory (colour) characteristics. The best treatment in making herbal drink from beluntas and mint leaves is with 1.5 hours drying time and the formulation is 1:1.
Article
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Beluntas (Pluchea indica L.) leaf is a plant that has high antioxidant compounds, and mint (Mentha piperita L.) leaf contain mentol compounds which can improve the taste of herbal drinks. In the processing, the drying process can affect the functional content of beluntas leaves and mint leaves. This study aims to determine the effect of drying time and the formulation of beluntas leaves and mint leaves on physical (colour), chemical (moisture content, total phenol, and antioxidant activity), and sensory (colour, smell, taste, and overall) properties and to determine the combination of drying time and the formulation of beluntas and mint leaves that provide the best herbal drink. The experimental design carried out in this study used a Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with a combined factor, drying time and formulation of beluntas and mint leaves. The time variation used is 1.5 hours; 2 hours and 2.5 hours. Various formulations of beluntas leaves and mint leaves used were 1:1, 2:1, and 3:1. The results showed that the treatment of variations in drying time and the formulation of beluntas and mint leaves had a significant effect on physical (a* and °Hue values), chemical (moisture content, total phenol, and antioxidant activity), and sensory (colour) characteristics. The best treatment in making herbal drink from beluntas and mint leaves is with 1.5 hours drying time and the formulation is 1:1.
Article
Purpose: This study aims to determine the optimal mixing ratio of mulberry and peppermint leaves and evaluates their biological activities to identify whether the estimated ratio is suitable for use in inner beauty and cosmetic ingredients.Methods: Total polyphenol and flavonoid contents, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2′-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) radical scavenging activities, and tyrosinase and elastase inhibition activities were measured to optimize the mixing ratio of mulberry and peppermint leaves.Results: The mixture of mulberry and peppermint leaves showed a total polyphenol content of up to 46.58 mg TAE/g, a total flavonoid content of up to 45.54 mg QE/g, and DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activities of up to 74.18% and 40.60%, respectively. Tyrosinase and elastase inhibition activities were up to 67.46% and 35.01%, respectively. In the interest section, the maximum antioxidant and tyrosinase inhibitory activities were obtained at a mulberry:pepperint mixing ratio of 1.49:0.75 (g:g). In the experimental section, the maximum antioxidant and tyrosinase inhibitory activities were obtained at a mulberry:pepperint mixing ratio of 1.79:0.80 (g:g). Further, the maximum antioxidant and elastase inhibitory activities were obtained at a mulberry:pepperint mixing ratio of 1.11:0.75 (g:g).Conclusion: This study determined the superiority of the antioxidant activity, tyrosinase and elastase activity inhibition efficacies, and optimal mixing ratios of mulberry and peppermint leaves. Based on our findings, we believe that mulberry and peppermint leaves at an optimal mixing ratio will have considerable use as inner beauty and cosmetic ingredients.
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Prefacio É uma satisfação honrosa de minha parte escrever o prefácio deste livro, do autor Dr. Paulo César Ferreira Linhares, Dr. Patricio Borges Maracajá, Me. João Liberalino Filho, Dr. Janilson Pinheiro de Assis, Dr. Roberto Pequeno de Sousa e a Dra. Aline Carla de Medeiros à comunidade acadêmica, por muitas razões. A primeira delas é por conhecer o Dr. Paulo Linhares e os demais por suas contribuições de relevância ímpar para comunidade científica como um todo. O Dr. Paulo Linhares e os demais autores pelo que conheço são pesquisadores natos, que vem desenvolvendo pesquisas científicas de forma meticulosa, há bom tempo. Ambos têm um olhar diferenciado e cirúrgico para com seu objeto de pesquisa. Esta obra reveste-se de uma relevância singular, pelo pioneirismo na utilização da jitirana como adubo verde em hortaliças no semiárido, além de apresentar evidencias patentes de aplicabilidades dentro da realidade da nossa região semiárida de forma extraordinária. Os autores destacam e nos convida a observarmos a importância da Jitirana (Merremia aegyptia L. Urban): Potencialidade de uso como espécie espontânea do semiárido na adubação verde de hortaliças. Observa-se, que as aplicabilidades da Jitirana para nosso contexto semiárido estão extremamente alinhadas a questão da sustentabilidade ambiental e social, isso aponta nos seus experimentos de campo. A obra divide-se em quatro capítulos: No primeiro capítulo descreve a Biogeografia e descrição da jitirana (Merremia aegyptia L. Urban.). Segundo capítulo evidencia a produção de fitomassa verde e seca, teores e acúmulo de macronutrientes da jitirana (Merremia aegyptia L. Urban) em diferentes estádios fenológicos. No terceiro capítulo procurou estudar a utilização da jitirana (Merremia aegyptia L. Urban) como adubo verde na produção de hortaliças folhosas, medicinal e feijão verde, sendo que, no último e quarto capítulo os autores descreve adubação verde com jitirana (Merremia aegyptia L. Urban.) em hortaliças de raízes e jerimum. Enfim, um trabalho extraordinário do Dr. Paulo Linhares e demais doutores, pesquisadores deste projeto de grande importância para os dias atuais. Não tenho nenhuma dúvida, é um trabalho de grande envergadura que servirá de referência para pesquisadores do gênero e refletirmos sobre os benefícios da sustentabilidade para gerações atuais e futuras sobre o objeto de pesquisa destacado. Prof. Me. Antônio Soares de Oliveira Filho Mossoró, RN, Brasil, Setembro de 2021
Chapter
A miscellany of the medicinal and aromatic plants (MAPs) have been tasted and tested for their valuable use in food and medicine and decades of research has elucidated their imperative role in the maintenance of finest human health. The mounting interest in MAPs is endorsed to their bioactive compounds with diverse chemical scaffolds and miscellaneous medicinal significance and their aptitude of providing economical usage which is a component of the movement in the direction of greener economics and healthy life styles. However, the percentage of such bioactive medicinally imperative compounds, being scanty, has, however, led to the over-exploitation of such MAPs. Different procedures have been implemented to amplify the content of these sparse bioactive plant products, among which, radiation-processed polysaccharides, notably carrageenan, chitosan and sodium alginate, because of eco-friendly nature as well as elicitor effect, constitute one of the most favorable option in boosting the sanguinity of the environmentalists as well as cultivators. The present article is an attempt to encompass the role of radiation-derived oligosaccharides in plant growth promotion and production of economically priceless bioactive compounds. The current article also includes the regulatory effect of such oligosaccharides on carbon and nutrient assimilation in addition to the signal transduction cascades concerned with the elicitation of such odoriferous bioactive compounds capable of remedial of many lethal ailments.
Article
This work investigated the antimicrobial activities of green tea (GT) at 5 and 10.0% wt/vol and peppermint oil (PP) at 0.1, 0.15, and 0.2% wt/vol against major pathogen bacteria (Escherichia coli, Salmonella enteritidis, and Staphylococcus aureus) found on eggs at room temperature (30°C). The quality factors (weight loss, Haugh unit, albumen pH, egg yolk, and albumen index) of treated eggs were also measured while they were stored at room temperature for 14 days. A 9-point hedonic scale was used for sensory evaluation. Scanning electron microscopy was used to examine the morphology of bacteria cells to understand this study's mechanism of action. It was found that combining 10% GT and 0.15% PP had complete antibacterial activity against all pathogenic bacteria investigated, and could extend the shelf life of treated eggs from 7 days (control) to at least 14 days. The treated egg's coliforms (≤3.0 log10 colony-forming unit [CFU] g⁻¹), E. coli (≤1.8 log10 CFU g⁻¹), TVC (≤4.3 log10 CFU g⁻¹), Salmonella spp., (not detected in 25 g), and S. aureus (not detected in 25 g) were better able to meet the microbiological criteria for egg after 14 days of storage, when compared to the control, which exceeded the criteria within 7 days. In addition, consumers rated egg acceptability as favorable by giving a sensory score ranging from like slightly to like moderately (~6.7). Furthermore, when compared to the control (6–7 days), all treated eggs retained their quality during storage for 14 days and met the microbiological criteria for egg in food standard (<4.7–6.0 log10 CFU g⁻¹ for total visible count). Compound leakage from within the bacteria, which was the mode of action when GT and PP were combined, resulted in a wrinkled appearance of bacteria cells and serious defects in bacteria membrane morphology. These findings suggest that a sanitizing spray derived from GT and PP can extend the shelf life of eggs and ensure their safety for human consumption at room temperature without using a refrigerator.
Article
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In this work, seven Citrus aurantium essential oils (EOs) derived from flavedo of cultivars ‘Canaliculata’, ‘Consolei’, ‘Crispifolia’, ‘Fasciata’, ‘Foetifera’, ‘Listata’, and ‘Bizzaria’ were investigated. EOs were also combined in 1:1 (v/v) ratio to identify possible synergism or antagonism of actions. GC-MS analysis was done to investigate Eos’ phytochemical profiles. The antioxidant activity was studied by using a multi-target approach based on FRAP, DPPH, ABTS, and β-carotene bleaching tests. A great difference was observed in EOs’ phytochemical profiles. d-limonene (33.35–89.17%) was the main monoterpene hydrocarbon, and α-Pinene, β-myrcene, and β-linalool were identified in almost all samples. Among EOs, only C3 showed high quantitative and qualitative variability in its chemical composition. The chemical diversity of EOs was also demonstrated by PCA and HCA statistical analysis. Samples C2, C4, C5, C6, and C7 were statistically similar to each other, while C1 and C3 were characterized as having a different amount of other compounds and oxygenated monoterpenes, respectively, with respect to the other EOs mentioned. The global antioxidant score (GAS) revealed that among the tested EOs, C. aurantium ‘Fasciata’ EO had the highest antioxidant potential, with a GAS value of −0.47, whereas among combinations, the EO obtained by mixing ‘Canaliculata’ + ‘Bizzaria’ was the most active. Comparison by theoretical and real data on inhibitory concentration (IC50) and FRAP values did not reveal any significant effect of synergism or antagonism of actions to be valid in all biological applied tests. These findings, considered together, represent an important starting point to understand which compounds are responsible for the activities and their future possible industrial application.
Article
The objective of this study was to determine the chemical composition as well as antioxidant, antibacterial, and cytotoxic properties of the essential oil of Mentha piperita L. (peppermint). Fifteen chemical constituents were identified in the essential oil, for a total of 99.99% of the compounds. The essential oil exhibited antimicrobial activity against two Gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of essential oil of Mentha piperita L. for Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes was 1.84 μg/ml, whereas the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) values were 3.7 and 7.43 μg/ml, respectively. The oil displayed potent antioxidant activity inhibiting up to approximately73% of 2,2ʹ-azinothiobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radicals. In the cytotoxicity assay, the highest essential oil concentration (100 μg/ml) resulted in viability of approximately 90% human epidermal keratinocyte (HaCaT) cells. With respect to antitumor activity in C6 rat glioma cells, there was significant reduction in cell viability: 56–74% in 24 hr, and 71–77% in 48 hr. Data suggest that in presence of the essential oil of Mentha piperita L. antioxidant, antibacterial, antitumor and non-cytotoxic properties were noted.
Book
Plants are a fascinating group of plants that have been dominating the earth for 400 million years. During evolution, they have undergone series of evolutionary changes to suit themselves with the surrounding environment. These evolutionary changes not only included morphological changes to suit varied climatic conditions but also armed with intricate physiological changes to synchronize with the former and fortify better adaptability. These physiological changes of the plant later proved to be of immense help to the humans who evolved much later somewhere between 6 million to 2 million years ago. The physiological and biochemical evolution of the plants with the synchronous origin of various taxa resulted in the formation of numerous biochemical pathways producing a large number of secondary metabolites whose one primary aim is to protect the plants from herbivores and insect which in the due course of evolution became an integral part of the food chain. However, the secondary metabolites also proved to be of immense use to humans since antiquity who unknowingly since prehistoric times used plants for their food and medicine. It is only in the past hundred years or so, people became aware of the chemical constituent of the plants and started exploring their various beneficial properties. The agricultural activities also coevolved with human civilization and with the increase in population, higher yield along with protection of crops from pathogen attack became a necessity. This lead to the formulation of fertilizers which consequently paved the way for biofertilizers with a fewer side effects on humans and animals but with a more green approach towards fertility enhancement. With the advent of industrialization the menace of pollution cropped up and presently this pollution is encroaching soil water and air. This is having a deleterious effect on the ecosystem concerning human and animal health and also agricultural productivity. Thus keeping this in mind the scientific community was determined to remediate the polluted sites with the help of biological agents in which the plants and microbes played an important role. This provided major protection to agriculture from contamination thereby sustaining productivity. Thus, an attempt is made to highlight the progress and advances in the field of agriculture and plant science. Thus A handbook of Agricultural and Plant Sciences is an attempt to compile information related to the field of agriculture and plant science. The main purpose of the book is to provide relevant information to the readers on aspects largely cantered on plants. The book is divided into three sections namely agriculture and sustainable development, plants and microbes as nutraceutical agents, and medicinal potential of plants. Selected chapters in relevance to the sections have been accommodated to provide an overview. The first section deals with various aspects through which crops can be fortified through bio fertilization and also decontamination of polluted lands. The world population is presently stressing upon consumption of foods from natural sources as consumption of fast food with artificial agents is leading to the onset of several diseases. This has led to a group of foods that confers nutrition as well as a medicinal benefit at the same time. They are presently termed and considered nutraceuticals. The second section of the book deals with the nutraceutical potential of plants and microbes which are symbiotically associated with plants. The third section is also related to the second one concerning the medicinal importance. This section encompasses the medicinal importance of plants. Plants as antiviral agents have been accommodated because of the current pandemic situation. The section also contains a chapter on the ant diabetic potential of plants and also the medicinal importance of gymnosperms and bioactive potentials of bryophytes which adds up to the variation in chapters focusing on the medicinal aspect. The book is also accompanied by several tables within each chapter which gives a clear and systematic description of the theme that is discussed upon. The book is an academic venture and would benefit the scientific community and readers who are interested in the field of plant sciences.
Article
Herbal teas can cause diseases, when their naturally high microbial load is not inactivated via proper brewing. Cold plasma as effective and gentle decontamination technique was investigated for dried peppermint, stinging nettle, and lemongrass. Microwave-driven plasma processed air (up to 7.5 min) significantly reduced total viable counts up to 1.6 log10 CFU/g (initial counts were 8.02, 7.43, and 7.44 log10 CFU/g for peppermint, stinging nettle, and lemongrass, respectively). Spore-forming bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae, yeasts, and molds were inactivated up to 2 log10 CFU/g. MALDI-ToF MS analyses showed a 30–100% reduction in microbial diversity as result of the plasma treatment. Color of most samples was visibly reduced in greenness and antioxidants, phenols, flavonoids, and free amino groups mostly decreased by plasma treatment. Overall, use of plasma processed air could be a suitable tool to decontaminate dried herbs at larger scale but has to be improved by testing different sources, gases, or times. Industrial relevance Cold atmospheric plasma can inactivate herb-associated microorganisms. Its possible effect on quality parameters such as flavor, color or phenolic content should be further studied and reduced, as particularly gentle decontamination processes that preserve the natural appearance of the food are accepted by the consumer. It seemed, that the intensity of the treatment can be reduced by pulsed plasma applications. There is great potential for application on an industrial scale. Peppermint seems to be the most suitable in this context, as it showed the highest microbial reduction together with low quality changes and is widely used, including in so-called cold brew teas, which require particular safety.
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Natural herbicides based on essential oils (EOs) extracted from aromatic plants are gaining relevance in contemporary agriculture. Due to their allelopathic properties, they have an inhibitory effect on the germination and growth of different species, having, in general, the advantage of high specificity. For this reason, the analysis of the effects of these natural compounds on noxious weeds is continuously increasing. In the present study, three commercial EOs extracted from Mentha piperita L., Thymbra capitata (L.) Cav. and Santolina chamaecyparissus L. were tested on two invasive weeds with an increasing presence in southern Europe, Erigeron bonariensis L. and Araujia sericifera Brot. Five concentrations (0.125, 0.25, 0.50, 1 and 2 µL mL–1) were tested in a randomized manner for each essential oil and five replicates with 20 seeds each for E. bonariensis and 10 replicates with 10 seeds each for A. sericifera. Two higher concentrations of 4 and 8 μL mL–1 of the three EOs were applied with irrigation on the plants of the two species at the vegetative growth stage. The number of replicas for each treatment and species was 7. The results obtained confirmed the significant inhibitory effects on seed germination and early seedling development, especially in E. bonariensis; of the three EOs, peppermint had the strongest effect, completely preventing germination in both species. Multivariate analysis, performed on several morphological traits scored after one month of treatment in young plants, showed a different pattern: the highest inhibition was recorded in A. sericifera and the greatest reduction in growth in the treatment with the highest dose of Santolina EO. The results obtained revealed the efficacy of these natural compounds and the specificity of their toxicity according to the species and stage of development.
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Parkinson’s disease (PD) is primarily characterized by deposition of α-synuclein (α-syn) aggregates. A plethora of plant extracts and their constituents were found to play a pivotal role in combating α-syn monomers, fibrillation, and oligomerization. This chapter highlights multifarious plant extracts and the neuroprotective role of their bioactive compounds against PD.
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Plants are incredibly significant in the lives of people around the world. People rely on plants to satisfy basic human needs like food, clothing, shelter, and health care. Because of a rising world population, increasing wages, and urbanization, these needs are growing rapidly. Of course, plants provide food directly and often feed livestock that is then eaten on their own. The value of plants is likely to become fairer among countries as world economies become more accessible and market-oriented through trade agreements such as those from the World Trade Organization. The socio-economic significance of such an understanding of plants is defined in this chapter by providing evidence of the multiple benefits of plant breeding in and beyond agriculture based on reproducible findings and scientific evidence for arable crops.
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Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease with nearly 1.6 billion patients worldwide and an incidence of 0.5-1%. In recent years, basic and clinical studies have revealed that immune cell responses and corresponding secretion of inflammatory factors are important in the control of RA development. Our study found that a natural plant ingredient, menthone, could be used as a potential antirheumatism compound. In vivo observations demonstrated that menthone alleviates collagen II-induced arthritis (CIA) in mice. Furthermore, we found that menthone regulates the number of Th1 and Th17 cells in CIA mice. Importantly, menthone significantly inhibits the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6, in CIA mice. Our study suggests a potential component for the development of drugs to treat rheumatoid arthritis.
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Nutraceuticals and phytotherapy offer an appealing integrative approach to managing common complaints during pregnancy and breastfeeding. Many herbal supplements have long standing traditional uses, but limited clinical evidence exists establishing safety and effectiveness of their use in pregnancy and breastfeeding. Additionally, concerns arise as these supplements may not be regulated or may be subject to less regulation than pharmaceutical products. Labeling may not adequately capture the ingredients included in the supplement, introducing additional safety concerns. In the chapter that follows, herbal supplements regularly used during pregnancy, including German and Roman chamomile, echinacea, garlic, ginger, lavender, lemon balm, mallow, marshmallow, the mints, psyllium, and witch hazel, are reviewed for available evidence.
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Bu çalışma, Mentha piperita türüne ait çeliklerde, farklı köklendirme ortamları (perlit, torf, perlit-torf) ve naftalin asetik asit (NAA) ile indol-3-bütirik asit’in (IBA) 0, 1000, 2000, 3000, 4000 ppm dozlarının köklenmeye etkilerini saptamak amacıyla yapılmıştır. Sera ortamında gelişimini tamamlayan çeliklerde köklenme oranı (%), kök sayısı (adet), en fazla kök uzunluğu (mm), sürgün sayısı (adet), sürgün uzunluğu (mm) ve yaprak sayısı (adet) incelenmiştir. Tüm deneme faktörleri, çeliklerde %100 köklenme sağlamıştır. En fazla kök sayısı IBA hormonunun perlit ortamında 2000 ppm dozu ile ortaya çıkmış, en fazla kök uzunluğu NAA’in perlit ortamında gelişen çeliklerinde tespit edilmiştir. Sürgün sayısında ise IBA’nın torf ortamında 1000 ppm dozu, sürgün uzunluğunda ve yaprak sayısında NAA’in torf ortamında 1000 ppm ile muameleye tabii tutulmuş çelikleri ön plana çıkmıştır. Mentha piperita bitkisinde kaliteli fide eldesi için torf köklendirme ortamı, NAA hormonu ve NAA’in 1000 ppm dozunun olumlu etkide bulunduğu saptanmıştır. Effects of Plant Growth Regulators and Their Doses on Cutting Propagation of Mentha piperita at Different Rooting Media This study was carried out to determine the effects of different naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) and indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) concentration [0, 1000, 2000, 3000, 4000 ppm] at different rooting media [perlite, peat, perlite-peat] on rooting in cuttings of the Mentha piperita species. Rooting rate (%), root number, longest root length (mm), shoot number, shoot length (mm) and leaf number (number) were determinated on stem cuttings that completed their development in the greenhouse environment. Rooting was observed 100% in cuttings for all trial factors. The highest root number emerged with 2000 ppm dose of IBA hormone in perlite medium and the highest root length was detected in the cuttings of NAA growing in perlite environment. Applications of IBA 1000 ppm dose in peat medium and NAA 1000 ppm dose in peat medium stand out in terms of their effects on the number of shoots and shoot length, respectively. The highest number of leaves was determined at 1000 ppm dose of NAA in peat medium. It was determined that peat rooting medium, NAA hormone, and its 1000 ppm dose had a positive effect on obtaining quality seedlings in the Mentha piperita plant.
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The essential oils of aegle, ageratum, citronella, eucalyptus, geranium, lemongrass, orange, palmarosa, patchouli and peppermint, were tested for antibacterial activity against 22 bacteria, including Gram-positive cocci and rods and Gram-negative rods, and twelve fungi (3 yeast-like and 9 filamentous) by the disc diffusion method. Lemongrass, eucalyptus, peppermint and orange oils were effective against all the 22 bacterial strains. Aegle and palmarosa oils inhibited 21 bacteria; patchouli and ageratum oils inhibited 20 bacteria and citronella and geranium oils were inhibitory to 15 and 12 bacterial strains, respectively. All twelve fungi were inhibited by seven oils (aegle, citronella, geranium, lemongrass, orange, palmarosa and patchouli). Eucalyptus and peppermint oils were effective against eleven fungi. Ageratum oil was inhibitory to only four fungi tested. The MIC of eucalyptus, lemongrass, palmarosa and peppermint oils ranged from 0.16 to > 20 microliters ml-1 for eighteen bacteria and from 0.25 to 10 microliters ml-1 for twelve fungi.
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The effect of several volatile plant oils, plant materials and fluvalinate (Apistan®) strips on the control of the mite Varroa destructor on honeybee (Apis mellifera L.) colonies was studied. The volatile oils were: clove, lavender, peppermint, sage, and thyme. The plant materials were: cumin fruits, eucalyptus leaves, and worm wood flowers. For each tested material, three treatment periods were carried out. Each period lasted for 24 days followed by eight days no-treatment. Within each treatment period, an average of three to six treatments were applied. Dead mites were counted one hour before and after each treatment. An increase in dead mites was recorded for the three treatment periods. It indicated that worm wood flowers, peppermint oil and clove oil treatments gave the best results in the control of Varroa mites but not significantly different than the control. The overall increase in the dead mites was 3.92, 3.62 and 3.34 fold, respectively.
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Anti-allergic effects of constituents of chewing gum were investigated in Type I allergic reactions. The results were as follows.Oral administration of 1, 8-cineole and n-BuOH extract of jelutong (J-4), a natural resin of Dyera costulata Hook. f., inhibited homologous passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA) mediated by IgE antibody in guinea pigs. Peppermint oil, l-menthol, 1, 8-cineole, J-4 and n-BuOH extract of chicle (C-4) from Achras zapota L suppressed PCA when intraperitoneally injected. Further investigation on the above constituents showed that l-menthol, menthone, 1, 8-cineole and C-4 suppressed antigen-induced histamine release from rat peritoneal mast cells. In the Schultz-Dale reaction, some of them suppressed smooth muscle contraction induced by either histamine or serotonin.From these results, it is concluded that these constituents of chewing gum have antiallergic effects.
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The essential oil o peppermint (0.38% yieId on fresh weight basis) produced under semiarid tropical climatic conditions of South India was examined. The pare-yellow oil with characteristic strong minty odour had 0.9142 specific gravity (30 oc), I .4590 rellactive index (30 oc), - l3.I5' optical rotation and 42.76% free alcohols (calculated as menthol). The gas chromatogram showed 62 peaks out of which 25 peaks accounting for 93.64% of the oil were identified. The major constituents of the oil were limonene (5.74%), menthone (16.51%), menthofuran (6.93%), menthol (40.08%), pulegone (15.15%) and menthyl acetate (2.39%).
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The present study examines the mechanism that underlies the ability of menthol, a major constituent of peppermint oil, to promote mouse ambulation. We initially confirmed that bupropion, a dopamine uptake inhibitor, promotes ambulation in ICR mice. Since the subcutaneous administration of menthol produced similar effects in mice, we investigated the effects of menthol on ambulation when combined with bupropion. The results showed that the effects of bupropion and menthol were additive. We then examined effects of the dopamine antagonists chlorpromazine, haloperidol, fluphenazine, spiperone, and SCH12679 on the ambulation-promoting effects of bupropion and menthol. All of these dopamine antagonists attenuated the effect of bupropion and of menthol. These results indicated that dopamine is involved in the ambulation-promoting effect of menthol as well as bupropion.
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The use of aromatherapy began in the ancient Egyptian Era and it has been practiced up to the present time. Despite its long history, however, scientific evidence supporting the efficacy of the use of plant-derived essential oils and their constituents against psychiatric disorders have been poorly known. Here, the author reviewed academic papers examining the pharmacological effects of plant-derived essential oils and their constituents on the Central Nervous System functions. This review revealed that the effects and action mechanisms of plant-derived essential oils on mental disorders are still unclear. Thus, further studies on this issue should be made in the future in order to establish this method as an new therapy.
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Steam-distilled volatiles of Mentha piperita L. grown in Jalisco was analyzed by GC/MS. Among the 64 compounds identified, menthone (15.4%), menthofuran (18.2%), menthol (35.4%) and menthyl acetate (12.4%) were the major constituents.
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Longo Vitalr` herbal tablets have been shown to have a protective effect against periodontal bone loss in rats. This may be ascribed either to a previously demonstrated immuno-stimulatory effect of the tablets, to an antimicrobial effect of the herbs or to a combination of both. In the present study the in vitro susceptibility of 12 dental plaque bacteria to six individual herbs included in Longo Vitalr` was determined by a broth dilution method. Paprika, rosemary leaves and peppermint inhibited two thirds of the tested bacteria at 2.8-45 mg/ml, 0.75-12 mg/ml and 3-24 mg/ml corresponding to 0.8-12.5 per cent, 1.6-25 per cent and 12.5-100 per cent of the recommended daily dose, respectively. A combination of paprika and rosemary leaves tested towards five susceptible bacteria revealed a decreased inhibitory effect on two of these bacteria, especially of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans to paprika, but conversely a pronounced increase in susceptibility of Peptostreptococcus anaerobius, Porphyromonas gingivalis and Prevotella intermedia now susceptible to 0.01-0.70 mg/ml of each herb, corresponding to 0.02-0.2 per cent of the recommended daily dose. The active ingredients of the herbs, however, and the concentrations of these obtained in blood and periodontal tissues after ingestion of Longo Vitalr` are not known.
Article
This paper investigates the separation of moderately complex samples by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC×GC). The analysis of peppermint (Mentha piperita) and spearmint (Mentha spicata) essential oil components, including acetates, alcohols, furans, ketones, sesquiterpenes, and terpenes, was achieved by one-dimensional gas chromatography with quadrupole mass spectrometry detection (GC/MSD) and GC×GC with flame ionization detection. Peppermint essential oil was found to contain 89 identifiable peaks by GC×GC compared to 30 peaks in the GC/MSD chromatogram. Likewise, 68 peaks were found in the GC×GC chromatogram of spearmint (compared to 28 in GC/MSD). Plots of the first dimension versus second dimension retention times provided a fingerprint of the two essential oils, which revealed 52 similar compounds between the two essential oils as opposed to 18 matches by 1D GC.
Article
The four essential oils (aromatic plant products) from palmarosa (Pm), lemongrass (Lg), peppermint (Pt) and eucalyptus (Eu) plants were found to be bactericidal to Escherichia coli strain SP-11, at a concentration of 1.66 (Pm, Lg and Eu) or 2.5 (Pt) microl ml-1. This effect was observed both at 37 degrees C and 4 degrees C and was not prevented by immediate tenfold dilution or by the presence of 0.5 M sucrose. Pm and Pt but not Lg or Eu induced the formation of elongated filamentous forms, some measuring 60-70 micrometers long.
Article
An investigation of the mechanism of peppermint oil action was performed using isolated pharmacological preparations from guinea pig large intestine and patch clamp electrophysiology techniques on rabbit jejunum. Peppermint oil relaxed carbachol-contracted guinea pig taenia coli (IC50, 22.1 μg/mL) and inhibited spontaneous activity in the guinea pig colon (IC50, 25.9 μg/mL) and rabbit jejunum (IC50, 15.2 μg/mL). Peppermint oil markedly attenuated contractile responses in the guinea pig taenia coli to acetylcholine, histamine, 5-hydroxytryptamine, and substance P. Peppermint oil reduced contractions evoked by potassium depolarization and calcium contractions evoked in depolarizing Krebs solutions in taenia coli. Potential-dependent calcium currents recorded using the whole cell clamp configuration in rabbit jejunum smooth muscle cells were inhibited by peppermint oil in a concentration-dependent manner. Peppermint oil both reduced peak current amplitude and increased the rate of current decay. The effect of peppermint oil resembled that of the dihydropyridine calcium antagonists. It is concluded that peppermint oil relaxes gastrointestinal smooth muscle by reducing calcium influx.
Article
The modulatory influence of mentha oil (Mentha piperita Linn.) against a lethal dose (8.0 Gy) of gamma irradiation on the activities of serum phosphatases in Swiss albino mice was studied at various post-irradiation intervals between 6 h and 30 days. Mentha oil (40 mL/animal/day) given orally for 3 consecutive days prior to whole-body irradiation (8.0 Gy) showed a modulation of activity of serum phosphatases. The values of acid phosphatase activities were significantly higher in the irradiated groups throughout the experiment compared with the mentha treated unirradiated animals. However, the acid phosphatase activity of mentha treated irradiated animals showed a significant decline over untreated irradiated animals at all autopsy intervals, which attained the normal value on day 5. On the contrary, a marked decrease in serum alkaline phosphatase activity was noted in both irradiated groups but in the mentha treated irradiated group the values of alkaline phosphatase activity were found to be significantly higher than the respective control during the period of study being normal at day 5 post-irradiation and onwards.
Article
The anti-HIV-1 activity of aromatic herbs in Labiatae was evaluated in vitro. Forty five extract from among 51 samples obtained from 46 herb species showed significant inhibitory effects against HIV-1 induced cytopathogenicity in MT-4 cells. In particular, the aqueous extracts of Melissa officinalis, a family of Mentha x piperita "grapefruit mint," Mentha x piperita var. crispa, Ocinum basilicum cv "cinnamon," Perilla frutescens var. crispa. f. viridis, Prunella vulgaris subsp. asiatica and Satureja montana showed potent anti-HIV-1 activity (with an ED of 16 mu g/ml). The active components in the extract samples were found to be water-soluble polar substances, not nonpolar compounds such as essential oils. In addition, these aqueous extracts inhibited giant cell formation in co-culture of Molt-4 cells with and without HIV-1 infection and showed inhibitory activity against HIV-1 reverse transcriptase.
Article
223 patients with non-ulcer dyspepsia (dysmotility type dyspepsia or essential/idiopathic dyspepsia, also in combination with irritable bowel syndrome) were included in a prospective, randomised, reference- and double-blind controlled multicentre trial to compare two different preparations of a fixed combination of peppermint oil and caraway oil. The aim of the trial was to evaluate the equivalence of the efficacy and tolerability of these two preparations. The test formulation consisted of the drug combination in an enteric coated capsule containing 90 mg peppermint oil and 50 mg caraway oil(3), while an enteric soluble formulation containing 36 mg peppermint oil and 20 mg caraway oil(4) was used as the reference. The main target item defined was the "difference in pain intensity between the beginning and the end of therapy", measured by the patient on a visual analogue scale (0 = no pain, 10 = extremely strong pain). In 213 patients (n = 108 on the test preparation, n = 105 on the reference preparation) with mean pain intensity baseline measurements of 6.1 points in the test preparation group and 5.9 points in the reference group a statistically significant decline in pain intensity was observed in the two groups (-3.6 resp. -3.3 points; p < 0.001; two-sided one-sample t-test), Equivalent efficacy of both preparations was demonstrated (p < 0.001; one-sided t-test for equivalence). With respect to concomitant variables, the results in both groups were also similar. Regarding "pain frequency", the efficacy of the test preparation was significantly better (p = 0.04; two-sided t-test for difference). Both preparations were well tolerated. Despite the higher dose, the adverse event "eructation with peppermint taste" was less frequent in the group treated with the test formulation, due to the enteric coated capsule preparation.
Article
The antiinfluenza virus effect of the combined plant preparation 'Broncho Pam' approved in Bulgaria for the treatment of bronchitis, was studied. 'Broncho Pam' tested as an hydroalcoholic extract, inhibited considerably the reproduction of influenza viruses A/Gabrovo (H1N1) and A/Hong Kong (H3N2) in tissue cultures and of A/PR/8 (H1N1) in hen embryonated eggs. The infectious titres of treated viruses were reduced by 3.5, 3.0 and 2.0 log10 ID50/ml respectively.
Article
The effects of different polyphenol-containing beverages on Fe absorption from a bread meal were estimated in adult human subjects from the erythrocyte incorporation of radio-Fe. The test beverages contained different polyphenol structures and were rich in either phenolic acids (chlorogenic acid in coffee), monomeric flavonoids (herb teas, camomile (Matricaria recutita L.), vervain (Verbena officinalis L.), lime flower (Tilia cordata Mill.), pennyroyal (Mentha pulegium L.) and peppermint (Mentha piperita L.), or complex polyphenol polymerization products (black tea and cocoa). All beverages were potent inhibitors of Fe absorption and reduced absorption in a dose-dependent fashion depending on the content of total polyphenols. Compared with a water control meal, beverages containing 20-50 mg total polyphenols/serving reduced Fe absorption from the bread meal by 50-70%, whereas beverages containing 100-400 mg total polyphenols/serving reduced Fe absorption by 60-90%. Inhibition by black tea was 79-94%, peppermint tea 84%, pennyroyal 73%, cocoa 71%, vervain 59%, lime flower 52% and camomile 47%. At an identical concentration of total polyphenols, black tea was more inhibitory than cocoa, and more inhibitory than herb teas camomile, vervain, lime flower and pennyroyal, but was of equal inhibition to peppermint tea. Adding milk to coffee and tea had little or no influence on their inhibitory nature. Our findings demonstrate that herb teas, as well as black tea, coffee and cocoa can be potent inhibitors of Fe absorption. This property should be considered when giving dietary advice in relation to Fe nutrition.
Article
Studies were conducted to show the effect of different temperatures in the drying process on the amount and quality of essential oils of peppermint (Mentha piperita L.) The leaves were harvested in the Demeter Farmer, Botucatu, SP, Brazil in december, 1997. The leaves were dried at 40°C, 60°C and 80°C, until establishment of the weights. The essential oil was extracted by destilation in Clevenger apparatus and analysed by GC-MS. Higher drying temperature sharply decreased the essential oil content (% v/w) from 1.0% (40°C) to 0.14% (60°C) and 0.12% (80°C). Higher drying temperatures also affected the composition, decreasing the contents of 1,8 cineol and citronelal until 80°C, and increasing the contents of menthol and neomenthol until 60°C.
Article
A study has been made of the liposoluble pigments of food plants - peppermint, dill, common balm, green peas, parsley, and bush red pepper - which contain considerable concentrations of compounds of pigmentary complexes - from 1.81·10-3 to 12.90·10-3% of carotenoids and from 43.1·10-3 to 114.1·10-3% of chlorophylls. Physicochemical methods of analysis were used for the quantitative determination of their carotenoids (6-9 individual representatives were identified) and their chlorophylls and structural analogs (4-10 individual compounds were identified). The compositions of the pigments of the chlorophyll-carotenoid extracts are given: they are polyfunctional additives from the above-mentioned plant species.
Article
Components of essential oil from Mentha pierita L. produced in Xinjiang of China and India respectively were analyzed by GC/MS and their relative contents were determined. Quality of essential oil were also studied. Thirty-seven compounds of the essential oil were identified respectively, including all 15 components that were listed in the routine quality index of the oil. Result shows that the quality of essential oil from M. piperita L. produced in Xinjiang of China was better than the oil produced in India. It meets the export standard of Japan.
Article
Forty-one plant extracts, known in therapy for other properties, have been tested against nine fungal species. Apart from the antifungal activity, already indicated for Piper methysticum, we observed that the extracts of Ruscus aculeatus, Illicium verum, Hibiscus sabdariffa, Rhamnus frangula and Tamarindus indica inhibit spore germination in many fungal species. Other extracts, especially Eschscholtzia californica, Zingiber officinale and Tilia cordata (alburnum) have a more restricted range of activity. The extract of Viola tricolor is only effective against Trichophyton mentagrophytes.
Article
This experiment was done to examine theffects of herb feeding on antioxidative activity in milk. Four Holstein cows in late lactation were fed for 14 days 1) basal diet consising of 43% hay, 14% beet pulp, and 43% concentrates mixture, 2) basal diet + lemongrass, 3) basal diet + peppermint, and 4) basal diet + basil in 94 × 4 Latin square design. Feeding amount of basal diet and each herb was 21 kg and 1 kg per day, respectively. Milk samples were collected one day before the last day and on the last day of each period. 6-Hydroxy-2,5,7,8-tetramethylchroman-2-carboxylic acid (HTCA) equivalent concentrations were used as a parameter of antioxidative activity. HTCA equivalent concentrations in milk of the cows in control, lemongrass, peppermint, and basil treatment were 1.40 (mol/L), 2.05, 2.39, and 2.21, respectively. The HTCA equivalent concentration in milk was significantly higher in the peppermint treatment group than in the control as judged from Turkey's student test.
Article
The antifungal action of eight (Lavandula hybrid, Salvia officinalis L., Rosmarinus officinalis L., Thymus vulgaris L., Origanum vulgare L., Mentha piperita L., Coriandrum sativum L. and Laurus nobilis L.) essential oils was tested in vitro against Phytophtora cinnamomi Rads., Pyrenochaeta lycopersici Kleb. and Verticillium dahliae Kleb., using different concentrations (up to 1600 ppm). The fungistatic + fungicidal activity of the oils was determined, and the most effective essential oils were found to be those of oregano, thyme, peppermint and coriander. Moreover, the oils were tested to determine the antifungal activity against two fungi (Candida albicans, Trichophyton mentagrophytes) that are pathogens for humans.
Article
The anti-tumor promoting activities of 120 kinds of edible plants against the non TPA-type promoter, okadaic acid (OA), were investigated by measuring suppression of the inhibitory, effect of OA on protein phosphatase-2A (PP2A), since OA promotes tumor formation by inhibiting this enzyme. One quarter of the tested samples showed activity over 20%. In particular, 8 kinds of plants (basil (100%), peppermint (100%), carrot leaf (100%), broccoli (100%), nabana (98%), edible burdock (86%), watermelon (99%) and winter fungus (100%) showed very strong activity. Physicochemical properties of the active components contained in the samples that showed high activity were found that the active component in the major sample was inactivated by cold storage or boiling, and that only edible burdock showed strong activity following both types of processing. Soluble fractions from these samples were obtained by extraction in hexane, benzene, ethyl acetate, methanol and water. Very strong anti-OA activity was observed in water soluble extracts of edible burdock and eggplant, whereas cabbage and broccoli showed activity, in the extraction fractions in organic solvents such as hexane. Although the active components in these samples, were not identified, these findings suggest that the component with anti-okadaic acid activity must be present in edible plants.
Article
Monoterpene compounds of leaf pairs and flowers of Mentha x piperita have been studied by direct headspace sampling using solid-phase microextraction coupled with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (SPME-GC/MS). The content of peppermint-characteristic compounds such as menthol, menthyl acetate, and neomenthol increased in a basipetal direction (older plant parts), whereas menthone and isomenthone showed higher levels in the acropetal direction (younger plant parts). Higher levels of menthofuran were found in peppermint flowers in contrast to the leaves. SPME sampling resulted in relatively higher amounts of high-volatile monoterpenes and lower detection of less volatile compounds such as menthol and menthone, compared to solvent-based samples from essential oil distillation.
Article
Toxicity of various essential oils and their volatile components against the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) was determined. The most potent fumigant toxicity was found in essential oil from rosemary (LD50 = 7.8 μl/l air) followed by the oils of lemon (LD50 = 16.2 μl/l air), basil (LD50 = 17.8 μl/l air), lime (LD50 = 17.9 μl/l air), and peppermint (LD50 = 25.8 μl/l air). 1,8-Cineole was the most toxic fumigant compound found in rosemary essential oil (LD50 = 7.4 μl/l air) followed by menthone (LD50 = 8.5 μl/l air) and p-cymene (LD50 = 11.4 μl/l air). 1,8-Cineole exhibited similar fumigant toxicity against a PH3-resistant T. castaneum relative to the susceptible insects. Therefore, 1,8-cineole and rosemary essential oil could be a safer fumigant to control stored-product insect pests than those currently used.
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Feeding herbs to dairy cattle may effect rumen fermentation and digestibility due to the herbs’ physiological or pharmacological functions. Thus, in the present study, peppermint was tested for its effects upon digestibility and rumen fermentation. Digestion trials and an investigation of rumen fluid were conducted by four rumen-cannulated Holstein steers having or not having been fed peppermint. When peppermint was fed to the steers, the digestibility of nutrients tended to be higher than that of the control. Ammonia-nitrogen concentrations were higher in the control steers than in the peppermint-fed steers (P
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The kinetics of peroxide accumulation during oxidation of triacylglycerols of sunflower oil at 100 °C in presence of different concentrations of hexane, ethylacetate and ethanol extracts of Melissa officinalis L., Mentha piperita L., Mentha spicata L., Ocimum basilicum L., Origanum vulgare L. and Saturejae hortensis L., was followed. Ethanol extracts are the most active in retarding the autoxidation process. The most effective are the extracts of Saturejae hortensis L. (stabilization factor F for 0.5% direct hexane and 0.5% direct ethanol extracts being 14.8 and 24.0, respectively), followed by the extracts of Mentha piperita L. (F = 7.4 and 19.6, respectively) and Melissa officinalis L. (F = 7.4 and 18.6, respectively). Some of the spices are recommended as sources of natural antioxidants for stabilization of polyunsaturated lipid systems.Antioxidationsaktivität selektierter, in Bulgarien gezüchteter Lamiaceae-ArtenDie Kinetik der Peroxidanhäufung während Oxydation von Triacylglycerolen des Sonnenblumenöls ist bei 100 °C in Gegenwart verschiedener Konzentrationen der Hexan-, Ethylacetat- and Ethanol-Extrakte von Melissa officinalis L., Mentha piperita L., Mentha spicata L., Ocimum basilicum L., Origanum vulgare L. and Saturejae hortensis L. untersucht worden. Ethanolextrakte weisen die höchste Aktivität in Bezug auf die Verlangsamung der Autoxydation auf. Die Extrakte von Saturejae hortensis L. (Stabilisationsfaktoren F für 0,5% direkten Hexanextrakt und 0,5% direkten Ethanolextrakt von 14,8 bzw. 24,0) sind am wirksamsten. Ihnen folgen die Extrakte von Mentha piperita L. (F = 7,4 bzw. 19,6) und Mellissa officinalis L. (F = 7,4 bzw. 18,6). Manche der Gewürze werden als Quellen natürlicher Antioxidantien für mehrfach ungesättigte Lipidsysteme empfohlen.
Article
It is well known that various cytokines such as interleukin-8 (IL-8) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α are expressed and secreted from intestinal epithelial cells and that these cytokines affect the immune cells beneath the intestinal epithelial monolayers. As the secretion of these cytokines is likely to be regulated by food-derived substances, we focused on those food substances which regulate the secretion of IL-8 in human intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells. 72 food samples extracted with 40% ethanol were tested, and the extracts of peppermint and dokudami significantly increased the IL-8 secretion. Among the compounds known to be contained in peppermint and dokudami, α-humulene substantially increased the IL-8 secretion.α-Humulene had no significant effect on the secretion of such other soluble factors as TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, or NGF, suggesting that the effect of α-humulene was specific for IL-8 secretion. The expression level of IL-8 mRNA was significantly increased by treating with α-humulene. These results suggest that the secretion of IL-8 by α-humulene is regulated at the transcriptional level.
Article
Aims: To assess the efficacy and safety of the commercially available herbal preparation (lberogast(R), STW-5*) containing extracts from bitter candy tuft, chamomile flower, peppermint leaves, caraway fruit, licorice root, lemon balm leaves, angelica root, celandine herbs, milk thistle fruit and its research preparation STW-5-S (without bitter candy tuft) in patients with functional dyspepsia. Patients and methods: After a standardized diagnostic work-up and at least 7 days free of medication, 60 patients, diagnosed with functional dyspepsia, were recruited in a multicenter trial and randomly assigned to one of 3 treatment groups (STW-5, STW-5-S or placebo). Each patient received the treatment for 4 weeks. The main outcome variables were the improvement of a gastrointestinal symptom score (GIS), a sumscore consisted of 10 dyspeptic symptoms rated on a Likert scale. Dyspeptic symptoms were assessed at baseline, 2 and 4 weeks after treatment. Results: 60 patients completed the trial (mean age 46.8 years, range 25-70, female 38 patients). Compared with placebo-group both herbal preparations STW-5 and STW-5-S showed a clinically significant improvement of GIS after 2 and 4 weeks of treatment (p < 0.001). No statistically significant difference could be observed between the efficacy of STW-5 and STW-5 S (p > 0.05), but a solid improvement of gastrointestinal symptoms could be achieved earlier with STW-5 than with its research preparation STW-5-S without bitter candy tuft (p = 0,023). Conclusions: In patients with functional dyspepsia, the commercially available herbal preparation STW-5 and its modified dispense STW-5-S tested improved dyspeptic symptoms significantly better than placebo. The extract bitter candy tuft appeared to have an additive effect on dyspeptic symptoms.
Article
Ziel: In der vorliegenden plazebokontrollierten, multizentrischen, doppelblinden, randomisierten Phase-II-Studie wurden bei 60 Patienten (Mittelwert 46,8 Jahre, Altersrange 25-70, Anzahl Frauen 38) mit funktioneller Dyspepsie (FD) Wirksamkeit und Verträglichkeit eines im Handel befindlichen Phytotherapeutikums (Iberogast®, STW-5*) und eines Forschungspräparates (STW-5-S) gegen Plazebo untersucht. Patienten und Methoden: Nach einer 7-tägigen Wash-out-Periode erhielten 60 Patienten in randomisierter Reihenfolge über 28 Tage entweder einen Mischextrakt aus 8 Drogen und dem Frischpflanzenauszug Iberis amara (STW-5) (n = 20), das Forschungspräparat STW-5-S (ohne den Frischpflanzenauszug Iberis amara) (n = 20) oder Plazebo (n = 20) (jeweils 3 × 20 Tropfen täglich). Untersuchungszeitpunkte waren Tag minus 7, Tag 0, Tag 14 und Tag 28. Als Hauptzielparameter wurde die Veränderung des gastrointestinalen Symptomenprofils (GIS) bewertet, einem Summenscore aus 10 Einzelsymptomen. Der Schweregrad der Einzelsymptome wurde anhand der validierten Likert-Skala bewertet. Ergebnisse: Der plazebokontrollierte Vergleich beider Phytotherapeutika zeigte nach 14- und 28-tägiger Therapie eine statistisch signifikante Beschwerdebesserung, gemessen anhand der Veränderung des GIS (p < 0,001). Im Vergleich der beiden Vera untereinander zeigten sich keine statistisch signifikanten Unterschiede in der Beeinflussung des GIS (p > 0,05). Für STW-5 wurde jedoch eine frühere stabile Beschwerdebesserung erzielt als mit dem Forschungspräparat STW-5-S (p = 0,023). Diskussion: Die vorliegende plazebokontrollierte Studie belegt die Wirksamkeit des Phytotherapeutikums STW-5 und seiner Modifikation STW-5-S bei der funktionellen Dyspepsie. Beide Rezepturen waren statistisch in ihrer Wirksamkeit auf das GIS nicht unterschiedlich. Der Vergleich beider Vera untereinander deutet jedoch auf eine additive Wirkung des Frischpflanzenauszuges Iberis amara zur Linderung der dyspeptischen Beschwerden hin. Commercially available herbal preparation and its modified dispense in patients with functional dyspepsia. Results of a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized multicenter trial Aims: To assess the efficacy and safety of the commercially available herbal preparation (Iberogast®, STW-5*) containing extracts from bitter candy tuft, chamomile flower, peppermint leaves, caraway fruit, licorice root, lemon balm leaves, angelica root, celandine herbs, milk thistle fruit and its research preparation STW-5-S (without bitter candy tuft) in patients with functional dyspepsia. Patients and methods: After a standardized diagnostic work-up and at least 7 days free of medication, 60 patients, diagnosed with functional dyspepsia, were recruited in a multicenter trial and randomly assigned to one of 3 treatment groups (STW-5, STW-5-S or placebo). Each patient received the treatment for 4 weeks. The main outcome variables were the improvement of a gastrointestinal symptom score (GIS), a sumscore consisted of 10 dyspeptic symptoms rated on a Likert scale. Dyspeptic symptoms were assessed at baseline, 2 and 4 weeks after treatment. Results: 60 patients completed the trial (mean age 46.8 years, range 25-70, female 38 patients). Compared with placebo-group both herbal preparations STW-5 and STW-5-S showed a clinically significant improvement of GIS after 2 and 4 weeks of treatment (p < 0.001). No statistically significant difference could be observed between the efficacy of STW-5 and STW-5 S (p > 0.05), but a solid improvement of gastrointestinal symptoms could be achieved earlier with STW-5 than with its research preparation STW-5-S without bitter candy tuft (p = 0,023). Conclusions: In patients with functional dyspepsia, the commercially available herbal preparation STW-5 and its modified dispense STW-5-S tested improved dyspeptic symptoms significantly better than placebo. The extract bitter candy tuft appeared to have an additive effect on dyspeptic symptoms.
Article
Zusammenfassung In einer randomisierten, placebokontrollierten Doppelblindstudie im Cross-over-Design wurde erstmalig die analgetische Wirksamkeit und Verträglichkeit einer lokal applizierten Pfefferminzölpräparation bei klinischem Kopfschmerz vom Spannungstyp bestimmt. Die Prüfung erfolgte sowohl gegen die Vergleichssubstanz Paracetamol als auch gegen Placebo. Die Applikation des Öls erfolgte großflächig auf Stirn und Schläfen und war 2mal (nach 15 und 30 min) zu wiederholen. Als Ergebnis fand sich, daß im Vergleich zu der Gabe von Placebo 10 %iges Pfefferminzöl in ethanolischer Lösung bereits nach 15 min in der Lage war, eine signifikante Reduktion der klinischen Kopfschmerzintensität im Vergleich zur Placebotherapie zu erzielen. Die signifikante klinische Reduktion der Schmerzintensität setzte sich im Verlauf der Beobachtungszeit von 1 h weiter fort. Auch Paracetamol erwies sich als signifikant gegenüber Placebo wirksam. Zwischen der Wirksamkeit von 1 g Paracetamol und 10 %igem Pfefferminzöl in ethanolischer Lösung bestand kein signifikanter Unterschied. Bei gleichzeitiger Gabe von 1 g Paracetamol plus 10 %igem Pfefferminzöl in ethanolischer Lösung ließ sich ein additiver Effekt feststellen, der jedoch die Signifikanzgrenze nicht überschritt. Unerwünschte Arzneimittelwirkungen wurden von den Patienten nicht berichtet. Pfefferminzöl stellt eine verträgliche und kostengünstige Alternative zu den bisherigen therapeutischen Möglichkeiten dar und ist hinsichtlich der Wirksamkeit und Verträglichkeit der Standardmedikation Paracetamol ebenbürtig.