Facet-Selective Platinum Electrodeposition at Free-standing Polycrystalline Boron-Doped Diamond Films
In the present investigation, electrochemical deposition of platinum particles was carried out on boron doped diamond (BDD) films by using cyclic voltammetry at different potential sweep rates while maintaining the Pt concentration and number of potential cycles during the deposition as constant for all samples. The BDD film surfaces were studied using Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and scanning electrochemical microscopy. The deposited particles were characterized by scanning electron microscopy/X-ray energy dispersive analysis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and cyclic voltammetry before and after methanol oxidation. The platinum nanoparticles are found to be selectively electrodeposited on the (111) facets of the BDD. In addition, the location of the Pt particles on the diamond facets was affected by the potential sweep rate. For higher sweep rates, the particle size was dependent on the facet on which the particles are electrodeposited with smooth (110) facets exhibiting a smaller number of particles but with a larger particle diameter. After methanol oxidation studies using cyclic voltammetry and controlled potential electrolysis for several hours, the platinum particles remained attached to the (111) facets of the BDD, while the particles on the (110) facets of the BDD became agglomerated along grain boundaries. Functional groups present on the (111) facet of the diamond surface play an important role on the stability of the particles attached to the diamond surface. After methanol oxidation, the particles deposited on other facets appeared to lose their adhesion leading to agglomeration on the grain boundaries. BDD appears to be a promising electrocatalyst support material that can help to resist platinum nanoparticle agglomeration in direct methanol and other low temperature fuel cell applications.
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