Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome Among Adults 20 Years of Age and Over, by Sex, Age, Race and Ethnicity, and Body Mass Index: United States, 2003–2006

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Division of Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, Hyattsville, MD 20782, USA.
National health statistics reports 06/2009; 5(13):1-7.
Source: PubMed


The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of individual risk factors for metabolic syndrome as well as the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003-2006.
The analytic sample consisted of 3,423 adults, 20 years of age and over, from NHANES 2003-2006. The National Cholesterol Education Program's Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP/ATP III) guidelines were used to identify adults who met their criteria for metabolic syndrome. Prevalence estimates were calculated for each risk factor for metabolic syndrome in addition to the prevalence of metabolic syndrome. Prevalence estimates and odds ratios were analyzed by sex and by age group, race and ethnicity, and body mass index (BMI) stratified by sex.
Approximately 34% of adults met the criteria for metabolic syndrome. Males and females 40-59 years of age were about three times as likely as those 20-39 years of age to meet the criteria for metabolic syndrome. Males 60 years of age and over were more than four times as likely and females 60 years of age and over were more than six times as likely as the youngest age group to meet the criteria. Non-Hispanic black males were about one-half as likely as non-Hispanic white males to meet the criteria for metabolic syndrome, while non-Hispanic black and Mexican-American females were about 1.5 times as likely as non-Hispanic white females to meet the criteria. Overweight males were about six times as likely and obese males were about 32 times as likely as normal weight males to meet the criteria. Overweight females were more than five times as likely and obese females were more than 17 times as likely as normal weight females to meet the criteria.
These results demonstrate that metabolic syndrome is prevalent and that it increases with age and with BMI. The prevalence varied by race and ethnicity but the pattern was different for males and females.

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    • "The prevalence of metabolic syndrome is high in both developing and developed countries including the USA (34%), India (25.6%), Kuwait (24.8%) and Australia (22.1%)678910. Cardamom is a well-known spice with green (Elettaria cardamomum Maton) and black (Amomum subulatum Roxburgh) varieties, both in the family Zingiberaceae, used in culinary and traditional medicine practices. "
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    ABSTRACT: Both black (B) and green (G) cardamom are used as flavours during food preparation. This study investigated the responses to B and G in a diet-induced rat model of human metabolic syndrome. Male Wistar rats were fed either a corn starch-rich diet (C) or a high-carbohydrate, high-fat diet with increased simple sugars along with saturated and trans fats (H) for 16 weeks. H rats showed signs of metabolic syndrome leading to visceral obesity with hypertension, glucose intolerance, cardiovascular remodelling and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Food was supplemented with 3% dried B or G for the final eight weeks only. The major volatile components were the closely related terpenes, 1,8-cineole in B and α-terpinyl acetate in G. HB (high-carbohydrate, high-fat + black cardamom) rats showed marked reversal of diet-induced changes, with decreased visceral adiposity, total body fat mass, systolic blood pressure and plasma triglycerides, and structure and function of the heart and liver. In contrast, HG (high-carbohydrate, high-fat + green cardamom) rats increased visceral adiposity and total body fat mass, and increased heart and liver damage, without consistent improvement in the signs of metabolic syndrome. These results suggest that black cardamom is more effective in reversing the signs of metabolic syndrome than green cardamom.
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    • "The prevalence of metabolic syndrome has been increasing throughout the world. According to the National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (NHANES) [4], the prevalence of metabolic syndrome among adults in the United States was approximately 23% from 1988 to 1994, but increased to almost 34% from 2003 to 2006 even though the criterion for fasting blood glucose was updated to 100 mg/dl [5]. "
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