Effects of dietary carbohydrate restriction versus low-fat diet on flow-mediated dilation

Department of Kinesiology and the Department of Nutritional Sciences, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06269-1110, USA.
Metabolism: clinical and experimental (Impact Factor: 3.89). 08/2009; 58(12):1769-77. DOI: 10.1016/j.metabol.2009.06.005
Source: PubMed


We previously reported that a carbohydrate-restricted diet (CRD) ameliorated many of the traditional markers associated with metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular risk compared with a low-fat diet (LFD). There remains concern how CRD affects vascular function because acute meals high in fat have been shown to impair endothelial function. Here, we extend our work and address these concerns by measuring fasting and postprandial vascular function in 40 overweight men and women with moderate hypertriacylglycerolemia who were randomly assigned to consume hypocaloric diets (approximately 1500 kcal) restricted in carbohydrate (percentage of carbohydrate-fat-protein = 12:59:28) or LFD (56:24:20). Flow-mediated dilation of the brachial artery was assessed before and after ingestion of a high-fat meal (908 kcal, 84% fat) at baseline and after 12 weeks. Compared with the LFD, the CRD resulted in a greater decrease in postprandial triacylglycerol (-47% vs -15%, P = .007), insulin (-51% vs -6%, P = .009), and lymphocyte (-12% vs -1%, P = .050) responses. Postprandial fatty acids were significantly increased by the CRD compared with the LFD (P = .033). Serum interleukin-6 increased significantly over the postprandial period; and the response was augmented in the CRD (46%) compared with the LFD (-13%) group (P = .038). After 12 weeks, peak flow-mediated dilation at 3 hours increased from 5.1% to 6.5% in the CRD group and decreased from 7.9% to 5.2% in the LFD group (P = .004). These findings show that a 12-week low-carbohydrate diet improves postprandial vascular function more than a LFD in individuals with atherogenic dyslipidemia.

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Available from: Maria Luz Fernandez
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    • "Several studies have evaluated differences in FMD attenuation after meals with different carbohydrate contents [13-17]. Although these studies have found that the attenuation of postprandial FMD is affected by postprandial lipid metabolism [14-17], how it is affected by glucose metabolism after meals with different carbohydrate contents remains unclear. "
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    ABSTRACT: Previous studies have demonstrated that postprandial hyperglycemia attenuates brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) in prediabetic patients, in diabetic patients, and even in normal subjects. We have previously reported that postprandial hyperinsulinemia also attenuates FMD. In the present study we evaluated the relationship between different degrees of postprandial attenuation of FMD induced by postprandial hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia and differences in ingested carbohydrate content in non-diabetic individuals. Thirty-seven healthy subjects with no family history of diabetes were divided into 3 groups: a 75-g oral glucose loading group (OG group) (n = 14), a test meal group (TM group) (n = 12; 400 kcal, carbohydrate content 40.7 g), and a control group (n = 11). The FMD was measured at preload (FMD0) and at 60 minutes (FMD60) and 120 (FMD120) minutes after loading. Plasma glucose (PG) and immunoreactive insulin (IRI) levels were determined at preload (PG0, IRI0) and at 30 (PG30, IRI30), 60 (PG60, IRI60), and 120 (PG120, IRI120) minutes after loading. Percentage decreases from FMD0 to FMD60 were significantly greater in the TM group (-21.19% ± 17.90%; P < 0.001) and the OG group (-17.59% ± 26.64%) than in the control group (6.46% ± 9.17%; P < 0.01), whereas no significant difference was observed between the TM and OG groups. In contrast, the percentage decrease from FMD0 to FMD120 was significantly greater in the OG group (-18.91% ± 16.58%) than in the control group (6.78% ± 11.43%; P < 0.001) or the TM group (5.22% ± 37.22%; P < 0.05), but no significant difference was observed between the control and TM groups. The FMD60 was significantly correlated with HOMA-IR (r = -0.389; P < 0.05). In contrast, FMD120 was significantly correlated with IRI60 (r = -0.462; P < 0.05) and the AUC of IRI (r = -0.468; P < 0.05). Furthermore, the percentage change from FMD0 to FMD120 was significantly correlated with the CV of PG (r = 0.404; P < 0.05), IRI60 (r = 0.401; p < 0.05) and the AUC of IRI (r = 0.427; P < 0.05). No significant correlation was observed between any other FMDs and glucose metabolic variables. Differences in the attenuation of postprandial FMD induced by different postprandial insulin levels may occur a long time postprandially but not shortly after a meal.
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    • "The beneficial effects of low-carbohydrate diets have been confirmed in randomized long-term studies [66, 67]. Noteworthy, beneficial effects of carbohydrate restriction on postmeal endothelial dysfunction were demonstrated in individuals with abdominal obesity and in those with atherogenic dyslipidemia [68, 69]. "
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    • "In our study, as well as in the study by Phillips et al. [17], all meals were provided to the subjects so that macronutrient distribution would be carefully controlled. In the trials by Keogh et al. [6,7] and Volek et al. [5], subjects were instructed how to consume the HF or LF diets by a dietician, and dietary adherence was assessed by means of food records. Since macronutrient distribution was not carefully controlled in the studies by Keogh et al. [6,7] and Volek et al. [5], it is possible that the subjects were consuming something closer to a standard diet (i.e. "
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    ABSTRACT: Low-fat (LF) and high-fat (HF) weight loss diets improve brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) in obese individuals, although results are conflicting. Moreover, the role that adipose tissue plays in mediating these diet-related effects are unknown. This study examined how modulations in FMD by HF and LF diets relate to changes in adipocyte parameters. Obese subjects (n = 17) were randomized to a HF diet (60% kcal as fat) or a LF diet (25% kcal as fat) for 6 weeks. Both groups were restricted by 25% of energy needs. Body weight decreased (P <0.05) in both groups (HF: -6.6 ± 0.5 kg, LF: -4.7 ± 0.6 kg). Fat mass and waist circumference were reduced (P <0.05) in the LF group only (-4.4 ± 0.3 kg; -3.6 ± 0.8 cm, respectively). FMD improved (P <0.05) in the LF group (7.4 ± 0.8% to 9.8 ± 0.8; 32% increase) and was impaired in the HF group (8.5 ± 0.6% to 6.9 ± 0.7; 19% reduction). Increases in plasma adiponectin (P <0.05, 16 ± 5%), and decreases in resistin (P <0.05, -26 ± 11%), were shown by the LF diet only. Greater decreases in leptin were observed with LF (-48 ± 9%) versus HF (-28 ± 12%) (P <0.05, diet × time). Increased FMD by the LF diet was associated with increased adiponectin, and decreased fat mass, waist circumference, leptin, and resistin. Beneficial modulations in vascular health by LF diets may be mediated by improvements in adipocyte parameters.
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