Article

Human mesenchymal stem cell differentiation on self-assembled monolayers presenting different surface chemistries

Coulter Department of Biomedical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology and Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30332, USA.
Acta biomaterialia (Impact Factor: 6.03). 08/2009; 6(1):12-20. DOI: 10.1016/j.actbio.2009.07.023
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) have tremendous potential as a cell source for regenerative medicine due to their capacity for differentiation into a wide range of connective tissue cell types. Although significant progress has been made in the identification of defined growth factor conditions to induce lineage commitment, the effect of underlying biomaterial properties on functional differentiation is far less understood. Here we conduct a systematic assessment of the role for surface chemistry on cell growth, morphology, gene expression and function during hMSC commitment along osteogenic, chondrogenic and adipogenic lineages. Using self-assembled monolayers of omega-functionalized alkanethiols on gold as model substrates, we demonstrate that biomaterial surface chemistry differentially modulates hMSC differentiation in a lineage-dependent manner. These results highlight the importance of initial biomaterial surface chemistry on long-term functional differentiation of adult stem cells, and suggest that surface properties are a critical parameter that must be considered in the design of biomaterials for stem cell-based regenerative medicine strategies.

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    • "21 culture substrates or tissue engineering scaffold materials69707172. As culture substrates/scaffolds are often designed to favor various types of electrostatic interactions that influence protein/solute adsorption and ultimately modulate cell attachment, spreading, and differentiation[32,55,58,66676873,74], it is likely that the observed differences in surface energy between TCP, BM-and AD-ECM play a role in determining stem cell fate when cultured on these substrates. In summary, the present study provides evidence indicating that native ECM (BM-ECM and AD-ECM), produced ex vivo, replicated the tissue-specific microenvironment (niche) of BM-MSCs and AD-MSCs. "
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    ABSTRACT: For more than 100 years, cells and tissues have been studied in vitro using glass and plastic surfaces. Over the last 10–20 years, a great body of research has shown that cells are acutely sensitive to their local environment (extracellular matrix, ECM) which contains both chemical and physical cues that influence cell behavior. These observations suggest that modern cell culture systems, using tissue culture polystyrene (TCP) surfaces, may fail to reproduce authentic cell behavior in vitro, resulting in “artificial outcomes.” In the current study, we use bone marrow (BM)- and adipose (AD)-derived stromal cells to prepare BM-ECM and AD-ECM, which are decellularized after synthesis by the cells, to mimic the cellular niche for each of these tissues. Each ECM was characterized for its ability to affect BM- and AD-mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) proliferation, as well as proliferation of three cancer cell lines (HeLa, MCF-7, and MDA-MB-231), modulate cell spreading, and direct differentiation relative to standard TCP surfaces. We found that both ECMs promoted the proliferation of MSCs, but that this effect was enhanced when the tissue-origin of the cells matched that of the ECM (i.e. BM-ECM promoted the proliferation of BM-MSCs over AD-MSCs, and vice versa). Moreover, BM- and AD-ECM were shown to preferentially direct MSC differentiation towards either osteogenic or adipogenic lineage, respectively, suggesting that the effects of the ECM were tissue-specific. Further, each ECM influenced cell morphology (i.e. circularity), irrespective of the origin of the MSCs, lending more support to the idea that effects were tissue specific. Interestingly, unlike MSCs, these ECMs did not promote the proliferation of the cancer cells. In an effort to further understand how these three culture substrates influence cell behavior, we evaluated the chemical (protein composition) and physical properties (architecture and mechanical) of the two ECMs. While many structural proteins (e.g. collagen and fibronectin) were found at equivalent levels in both BM- and AD-ECM, the architecture (i.e. fiber orientation; surface roughness) and physical properties (storage modulus, surface energy) of each were unique. These results, demonstrating differences in cell behavior when cultured on the three different substrates (BM- and AD-ECM and TCP) with differences in chemical and physical properties, provide evidence that the two ECMs may recapitulate specific elements of the native stem cell niche for bone marrow and adipose tissues. More broadly, it could be argued that ECMs, elaborated by cells ex vivo, serve as an ideal starting point for developing tissue-specific culture environments. In contrast to TCP, which relies on the “one size fits all” paradigm, native tissue-specific ECM may be a more rational model to approach engineering 3D tissue-specific culture systems to replicate the in vivo niche. We suggest that this approach will provide more meaningful information for basic research studies of cell behavior as well as cell-based therapeutics.
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    • "When MSCs were incorporated into a scaffold for tissue engineering and regenerative therapies, the influence of the scaffold material on the cellular behavior and functions of MSCs must be clarified and considered as a rational principle for biomaterial design and development. It has been shown that a series of physicochemical properties of cell culture materials such as the surface chemistry [46] [48] [61], elasticity [17] [18] and roughness [4] could strongly affect MSCs by regulating their adhesion, proliferation, morphology, apoptosis, gene expression and differentiation. To date, our knowledge on how PEEK affects the cellular response of MSCs is still limited. "
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    • "A number of other studies also demonstrated that BMSCs induced with chondrogenic medium developed into a round phenotype and aggregated spontaneously into spheroid- or rod-like cell agglomerates. The formation of the aggregates exhibited a more intense staining for chondrogenic matrix deposition (24,25). Consistent with these studies, the present data revealed that treatment with ICA led to the formation of an increased number of and larger aggregates. "
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