Article

Addressing gang-related violence in Glasgow: A preliminary pragmatic quasi-experimental evaluation of the Community Initiative to Reduce Violence (CIRV)

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Abstract

Youth gang-related violence is a public health concern in Glasgow. The Community Initiative to Reduce Violence aims to address violence and weapon carriage among gang-related youths in a deprived area of Glasgow. It offers access to diversionary activity, personal development, and employment preparedness in exchange for adherence to a "no violence, no weapon" pledge. A preliminary post hoc before-and-after quasi-experimental design compared rates of criminal offending (including violent and non-violent offences) for the 167 male youths (aged 16-29) who engaged with the initiative with data for one or two years follow-up for age-matched gang-involved youths from an equally deprived area. Violent offending reduced over the time of the CIRV intervention. In the cohort followed for 2-years the rate reduction was greater in the intervention group (52%) than the comparison group (29%). The reduction in rate of physical violence was not significantly different between intervention and comparator group; however, the rate of weapons carrying was reduced more in the intervention group than the comparison group (84% vs 40% respectively in the 2-year follow-up cohort). The study suggests that adopting a public health approach with gang-related youth was associated with reduced weapon carriage, which can prevent consequences for victims, offenders, and society.

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... Operation Ceasefire II in Boston, MA 15. Community Initiative to Reduce Violence in Glasgow, Scotland (Williams, Currie, Linden, & Donnelly, 2014) 16. Group Violence Reduction Strategy in Chicago, Illinois (Papachristos & Kirk, 2015) 17. ...
... Faced with high levels of violence and a culture of weapon carrying among its youth, Glasgow implemented the CIRV. Modeled closely after Cincinnati's Initiative to Reduce Violence, Williams et al. (2014) described Glasgow's CIRV as a holistic focused deterrence public health approach aimed at reducing physical violence and weapon possession driven by gangs. While firearms were the focus in Cincinnati, cutting instruments and blunt objects were the weapons of interest in Glasgow (Williams et al., 2014). ...
... Modeled closely after Cincinnati's Initiative to Reduce Violence, Williams et al. (2014) described Glasgow's CIRV as a holistic focused deterrence public health approach aimed at reducing physical violence and weapon possession driven by gangs. While firearms were the focus in Cincinnati, cutting instruments and blunt objects were the weapons of interest in Glasgow (Williams et al., 2014). ...
... Working in partnership with Police Scotland and the Scottish Government, the SVRU program was originally conceived using the World Health Organisation's public health terminology to prevent violence found on the streets, in classrooms, homes and in workplaces (WHO, 2002). Since its establishment, the SVRU has been shown to reduce young people's involvement in knife crime by diverting them away from the criminal justice system through community-violence prevention programs (Williams et al., 2014). This outcome has also prompted other parts of the UK, including England and Wales, to learn from the approach and outcomes in Glasgow by tailoring their approach to meet the needs and challenges of their locations. ...
... With a primary focus on deterrence, this multi-faceted, community-based project involved a range of sectors, including the Strathclyde Police, Glasgow Social Work Services, Glasgow Education Services and Glasgow Housing Association, as well as a host of community and voluntary groups, and third sector organisations (Graham & Robertson, 2021). Overall, the CIRV aimed to prioritise the needs of young people and address the social determinants of violence by providing sheriff court self-referral sessions, multi-agency and individualised client support and strategic police enforcement (Williams et al., 2014). Although the CIRV had only tentative findings of its success, it was clear that policy transfer models were used to develop, frame and carry out what was considered a 'successful' program transfer of the Cincinnati Initiative to Reduce Violence (US CIRV). ...
Article
Australia and the United Kingdom (UK) have each witnessed a ‘punitive turn’ in relation to youth justice responses. A lack of contextualisation, such as the impact of trauma and adverse childhood experiences on young people, is often overlooked by media outlets, governments and policymakers, in favour of individual pathologisation of young people. In direct contrast to these punitive responses, the public health approach (PHA) has emerged particularly in the UK; and it identifies experiences of trauma as one of the leading causes of violence within communities. Drawing on the perspectives of those working with children and young people, we critically explore whether the implementation of a PHA could be an effective approach to addressing the underlying causes of young people's involvement in violence. The paper focuses specifically on a case study of the youth justice system in Victoria, Australia and draws on domestic and global perspectives of key stakeholders, to consider whether the introduction of a PHA in Victoria, Australia, would position young people's diverse needs at the centre of policy change in youth justice and better outcomes for young people and communities.
... By utilising a multi-levelled social ecological framework (Bronfenbrenner 1977), the objective is to examine the interplay of individual, interpersonal, community and societal factors on violence reduction (Dahlberg and Mercy 2009). Research evaluating programmes guided by this framework, including peer-led parenting, community initiatives and school-based education initiatives, has reported positive results in relation to deterring weapon-carrying (Day et al. 2012;Gavine, Williams, and Donnelly 2014;Local Government Association 2018;Measor and Squires 2000;Russell 2021;Ward 2019;Williams et al. 2014) yet there is a need for further longitidunal work. While these findings provide growing support for the importance of intervention programmes to help mitigate the environmental and societal factors that may contribute towards knife crime among youth, there is little empirical research evaluating police-led crime deterrents implemented across the UK (Rosbrook- Thompson 2019). ...
... In our study, the young people in the community group noted that news about crime was readily shared within the community, echoing previous research (Bannister et al. 2010;Goodall et al. 2019), and this may have reinforced beliefs about fear of victimisation and encouraged knife-carrying beliefs (e.g. as self-protection, gang status). Such factors may also reinforce pre-existing negative beliefs, stigma and stereotypes about who is likely to carry a knife as well as the areas in which knife crime may be more prevalent (Coid et al. 2021;Grimshaw and Ford 2018;Williams et al. 2014). While knife seizure images may be used with the aim of deterring knife crime, young people expressed concerns about who (e.g. ...
Article
Full-text available
The urgency to reduce knife carrying has been recognised by police services within Scotland and has been addressed by initiatives such as the sharing of knife seizure images on media outlets. This study sought to explore young peoples’ views on the use of knife seizure images as a deterrent to carrying knives by using comparative individual interviews (N = 20). Three themes were discovered: (1) negative reactions towards images of seized knives, (2) images of knives may encourage rather than deter knife carrying, and (3) reinforcement of existing beliefs, stereotypes and stigma. These findings highlight the limitations of using knife seizure images as a deterrent and the importance of involving young people in developing preventative and non-discriminatory approaches to tackling knife crime.
... Evaluation indicated that there was an average of 46% reduction in violent offending by those who engaged with the project, a 73% reduction in gang fighting and a reduction of 85% for weapons offences. Violent offending in the area where CIRV operated also saw a reduction of 56% (Williams et al., 2014). ...
... In an effort to tackle the growing problem, police staff visited the Scottish Violence Reduction Unit in Glasgow and there learned of the Glasgow Community Initiative to Reduce Violence (Glasgow CIRV), that had been established in the city in 2008, to tackle gang violence. The CIRV concept had, in turn, been 'borrowed' from Cincinnati by the Strathclyde Police force in Glasgow police and over a period of 3 years saw dramatic drops in gang violence and weapons offences (Williams et al., 2014). ...
Chapter
The international need for innovation and reform in policing remains acute, but lacks a conceptual framework that could help guide it towards the goal of achieving public safety effectively, equitably, and with minimal collateral consequences. This article argues that policing and public health are natural conceptual partners in that both seek to reduce morbidity and mortality with broad interventions at the community level. That said, to overcome the problems that lead to recurring crises in policing—things which the medical profession would refer to as the iatrogenic harms of policing’s interventions—policing would be well-served to adopt many of the concepts and metrics of public health. One way to start this process would be to create an international center for policing and public health, which would combine research and practice in an iterative way that brings the two sectors into closer collaboration. The process could start with a series of executive sessions. Such an evolution would allow the civic leaders responsible for a community’s policing and public safety to demonstrate increased accountability by aligning measures of their success with evidence-informed endpoints that show how policing has decreased a community’s morbidity and mortality in meaningful ways, with minimized iatrogenic effects.KeywordsEvidence-based practiceAccountabilityMetricsPublic safetyInnovationPolice reform
... Evaluation indicated that there was an average of 46% reduction in violent offending by those who engaged with the project, a 73% reduction in gang fighting and a reduction of 85% for weapons offences. Violent offending in the area where CIRV operated also saw a reduction of 56% (Williams et al., 2014). ...
... In an effort to tackle the growing problem, police staff visited the Scottish Violence Reduction Unit in Glasgow and there learned of the Glasgow Community Initiative to Reduce Violence (Glasgow CIRV), that had been established in the city in 2008, to tackle gang violence. The CIRV concept had, in turn, been 'borrowed' from Cincinnati by the Strathclyde Police force in Glasgow police and over a period of 3 years saw dramatic drops in gang violence and weapons offences (Williams et al., 2014). ...
Chapter
Over the past four decades, there has been rapidly growing interest in revising and expanding training and education opportunities throughout the world for law enforcement officers. Research has demonstrated that stronger links between police departments and higher education institutions result in increased professionalism in policing. Throughout this period, societal expectations of law enforcement personnel have changed and expanded. This has been accompanied, regrettably, by too many examples of police brutality in the United States. Police officers are being called upon as the “first contact” for an increasing number of societal problems, and especially for citizens experiencing mental health issues. Another factor that has harmed police–community relationships is the trend towards the “militarization” of law enforcement in many nations. Strengthening the relationships between law enforcement and tertiary education faces many challenges, including mutual distrust and high costs. Two illustrations of innovative educational programs are provided and additional opportunities for collaboration and partnerships identified as pathways towards the goal of better education for police, expanded applied research and evidence-based policing.KeywordsLaw enforcementEducationTrainingTrustCollaborative opportunitiesMilitarization
... By utilising a multi-levelled social ecological framework (Bronfenbrenner, 1977), the objective is to examine the interplay of individual, interpersonal, community, and societal factors on violence reduction (Dahlberg & Mercy, 2009). Research evaluating programmes guided by this framework, including peer-led parenting, community initiatives, and school-based education initiatives, has reported positive results in relation to deterring weapon-carrying (Day et al., 2012a,b;Gavine et al., 2014;Local Government Association, 2018;Measor & Squires, 2000;Russell, 2021;Ward, 2019;Williams et al., 2014) yet there is a need for further longitidunal work. While these findings provide growing support for the importance of intervention programmes to help mitigate the environmental and societal factors that may contribute towards knife crime among youth, there is little empirical research evaluating police-led crime deterrents implemented across the UK (Rosbrook-Thompson, 2019). ...
... In our study, the young people in the community group noted that news about crime was readily shared within the community, echoing previous research (Bannister et al., 2010;Goodall et al., 2019), and this may have reinforced beliefs about fear of victimisation and encouraged knife-carrying beliefs (e.g. as self-protection, gang status). Such factors may also reinforce pre-existing negative beliefs, stigma, and stereotypes about who is likely to carry a knife as well as the areas in which knife crime may be more prevalent (Coid et al., 2021;Grimshaw & Ford;Williams et al., 2014). While knife seizure images may be used with the aim of deterring knife crime, young people expressed concerns about who (e.g., mistrust of police, media) and why (e.g., to increase views of media stories, provoke a reaction, political agenda) such images are used. ...
Preprint
The urgency to reduce knife carrying has been recognised by police services within Scotland and has been addressed by initiatives such as the sharing of knife seizure images on media outlets. This study sought to explore young peoples’ views on the use of knife seizure images as a deterrent to carrying knives by using comparative individual interviews (N = 20) with photo elicitation. Three themes were discovered: (1) negative reactions towards images of seized knives, (2) images of knives may encourage rather than deter knife carrying, and (3) reinforcement of existing beliefs, stereotypes and stigma. These findings highlight the limitations of using knife seizure images as a deterrent and the importance of involving young people in developing preventative and non-discriminatory approaches to tackling knife crime.
... These different approaches were deemed successful, as evidenced by the evaluations conducted both in Cincinnati (Engel et al., 2008(Engel et al., , 2011 and 'Glasgow CIRV' (Williams et al., 2014). However, this research identified a switch in these approaches in 2009 whereby, following a change in management at 'Glasgow CIRV', it was proposed that Cincinnati's 'one-stop-shop' approach should be adopted in Glasgow, while, at more or less the same time, Cincinnati decided to restructure their service provision along the lines of Glasgow's 'whole systems' approach (from interview with Professor Engel, 2012). ...
... According to Marsh (1996, 2000), not all policy transfers are successful, the measure of which may be interpreted in different ways, for example, was it seen as a success by the key actors involved and/or did it meet its intended aims? 'Glasgow CIRV' was seen as a success, insofar as it appears to have met the aim of engaging young people and diverting them away from violent crime (Williams et al., 2014). ...
Article
Full-text available
Although there is growing interest in criminal justice policy transfer, a dearth of empirical research in this area has been acknowledged. This article addresses this gap by presenting the results of research conducted on a case of policy transfer of a criminal justice programme, focused on group/gang violence reduction, from America to Scotland. Policy transfer models were used to develop, frame and conduct the analysis of what was considered a ‘successful’ programme transfer; however, it was found that no single model could fully account conceptually for a key finding of the research, namely a policy transfer ‘backflow’. This article details the key processes, mechanisms and outcomes of the policy transfer and in doing so reflects on the usefulness of orthodox and non-orthodox/social-constructionist policy transfer approaches in understanding the outcomes of this case of criminal justice programme transfer.
... Alongside the police message of enforcement was a softer message of empathy. Former offenders were drafted in to share their experiences with the next generation and the Community Initiative to Reduce Violence (CIRV) offered young people an alternative to gang membership, such as youth clubs, and the prospect of education, employment, and training (Deuchar, 2013;Deuchar & Weide, 2018;Williams, Currie, Linden, & Donelly, 2014). The VRU also launched mentoring projects in schools and workplaces as part of its holistic approach to violence reduction. ...
... Young Team members first got younger, with 10 or 12 year olds fighting for status and respect, before they got older, and now Young Team membership has precipitously declined. As discussed in the introductory chapter, much of this had to do with interventions such as the VRU and CIRV (Deuchar, 2013;Williams et al., 2014), although in reality a number of community organisations and initiatives like No More Knives, Better Lives doing outreach and street work helped deescalate gang violence. Collectively, these programs have challenged the normalisation of violence in Glasgow, something that Raph memorably reflected on during the initial fieldwork: Raph suggests the criminal justice system in Glasgow and West Scotland was so accustomed to heightened levels of violence that it had become somewhat desensitised to it. ...
Chapter
In Glasgow, most violence is knife violence and this chapter presents an uncensored look at it, with graphic descriptions of bloody street fights, assault with a deadly weapon, torture, and incidents that result in severe injury. This chapter explores the cycle of gang violence and its consequences.
... Alongside the police message of enforcement was a softer message of empathy. Former offenders were drafted in to share their experiences with the next generation and the Community Initiative to Reduce Violence (CIRV) offered young people an alternative to gang membership, such as youth clubs, and the prospect of education, employment, and training (Deuchar, 2013;Deuchar & Weide, 2018;Williams, Currie, Linden, & Donelly, 2014). The VRU also launched mentoring projects in schools and workplaces as part of its holistic approach to violence reduction. ...
... Young Team members first got younger, with 10 or 12 year olds fighting for status and respect, before they got older, and now Young Team membership has precipitously declined. As discussed in the introductory chapter, much of this had to do with interventions such as the VRU and CIRV (Deuchar, 2013;Williams et al., 2014), although in reality a number of community organisations and initiatives like No More Knives, Better Lives doing outreach and street work helped deescalate gang violence. Collectively, these programs have challenged the normalisation of violence in Glasgow, something that Raph memorably reflected on during the initial fieldwork: Raph suggests the criminal justice system in Glasgow and West Scotland was so accustomed to heightened levels of violence that it had become somewhat desensitised to it. ...
Chapter
This chapter introduces the four key participants in the case study—Leo, Raph, Mikey, and Donnie and their entry into the world of gangs, with an emphasis on their early (adverse) childhood experiences.
... Alongside the police message of enforcement was a softer message of empathy. Former offenders were drafted in to share their experiences with the next generation and the Community Initiative to Reduce Violence (CIRV) offered young people an alternative to gang membership, such as youth clubs, and the prospect of education, employment, and training (Deuchar, 2013;Deuchar & Weide, 2018;Williams, Currie, Linden, & Donelly, 2014). The VRU also launched mentoring projects in schools and workplaces as part of its holistic approach to violence reduction. ...
... Young Team members first got younger, with 10 or 12 year olds fighting for status and respect, before they got older, and now Young Team membership has precipitously declined. As discussed in the introductory chapter, much of this had to do with interventions such as the VRU and CIRV (Deuchar, 2013;Williams et al., 2014), although in reality a number of community organisations and initiatives like No More Knives, Better Lives doing outreach and street work helped deescalate gang violence. Collectively, these programs have challenged the normalisation of violence in Glasgow, something that Raph memorably reflected on during the initial fieldwork: Raph suggests the criminal justice system in Glasgow and West Scotland was so accustomed to heightened levels of violence that it had become somewhat desensitised to it. ...
Chapter
This chapter examines the inner workings of Glasgow’s drug economy and the criminal actualisation of gang, whereby it transforms its existing recreational and criminal networks into something more entrepreneurial, purposeful, and goal-oriented, namely the commission of market-based crimes and the provision of illegal goods and services for profit. Beyond gang evolution and organisation, this chapter explores our respondents’ own struggles with substance abuse and addiction.
... Most of the focused deterrence evaluation literature compares outcomes across aggregate-level units of analysis (e.g., neighborhoods or cities). To our knowledge, only three studies analyzed individual-level outcomes: the randomized controlled trial evaluating Project HOPE (Hawken and Kleiman 2009), a quasi-experimental evaluation of a focused deterrence program in Glasgow, Scotland (Williams et al. 2014), and a quasi-experimental study in Chicago (Wallace et al. 2016). The Project HOPE evaluation found substantially lower recidivism rates among Hawaii probationers randomly assigned to a treatment group involving swift, certain, and graduated sanctions than among probationers subject to standard supervision procedures. ...
... The evaluation of Glasgow's Community Initiative to Reduce Violence (CIRV), based on a similar program in Cincinnati, found that individuals exposed to the program were less likely to be rearrested for gun carrying than individuals in the comparison group. Williams et al. ( 2014) found no significant difference between the two groups in rates of rearrest for violent offenses. Wallace et al. (2016) used a quasi-experimental study design to evaluate the impact of Chicago's Project Safe Neighborhoods' (PSN) Boffender notification forums^on the recidivism rates of returning prisoners, based on hazard models of time to re-incarceration. ...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives This study investigated the role of self-selection in an evaluation of the impact of a focused deterrence notification meeting on subsequent arrests. Methods We conducted a randomized controlled study that randomly assigned probationers and parolees to a treatment group asked to attend a focused deterrence notification meeting and a control group that was not asked to attend the meeting. A sizable proportion of the treatment group did not attend the meeting. We estimated intent-to-treat, average treatment, and local average treatment models to evaluate the effect of attending the notification meeting on future arrests and the effect of self-selection on the results. Results Subjects who attended the notification meeting were less likely than those who did not receive treatment to be arrested over the following 17 months. The results were not significantly affected by selection effects. Conclusions Future evaluations of focused deterrence and related criminal justice interventions should be based on randomized controlled research designs that address selection effects on the outcome.
... Positive results in (unmatched) quasiexperimental studies that employ basically the same weak strategy of comparing (a) a place with an intervention to (b) a nearby place without an intervention, with (c) no good comparison group (that could serve as a plausible counterfactual), do not instil much confidence among Brits. While it is true that Glasgow had great success with focused deterrence and other violence reduction measures imported from the US (Deuchar, 2013;Williams et al., 2014), London did not (Densley & Jones, 2016). I am generally an advocate for focused deterrence, but the UK must think about the risks of different responses to gangs in the absence of rigorous evidence (especially evidence gathered locally), which often are higher (in terms of negative externalities for communities) with police-led initiatives than they are for community-led programmes, all else being equal (Roman, 2021). ...
Chapter
In this chapter, ‘US and UK Gangs: Research, Policy and Practice’, James Densley takes stock of what we now know about UK gangs in comparison to their US counterparts. He therefore examines points of convergence and divergence, and highlights what Britain can learn from the US experience of gangs and vice versa in order to set a research agenda for the next decade. He notes that although there is reluctance among UK criminologists to embrace gang research, UK gang studies should be viewed as foundational to UK criminology. They are important, he argues, for understanding the lives of children and young people because gangs are integral social groups for those involved. Moreover, gang membership changes people’s lives and there is a pressing need to respond to its consequences.
... programmes operated under the city's Violence Reduction Unit (VRU) and Community Initiative to Reduce Violence (CIRV), provide intensive support, training, and substance abuse treatment to youths at highest risk of violence. These 'focused deterrence' programmes are associated with a significant reduction in violence city-wide ( Batchelor et al, 2019 ;Deuchar, 2013 ;Williams et al, 2014 ). ...
Article
This chapter draws upon the voices of our participants to explore some of the reasons why robbery occurs within Scotland's illicit drugs trade. Some motivations are somewhat obvious given the victim-offender overlap and relationship to the law, the potential profits involved, the accessibility of targets, and so on, yet some motivational factors are not so obvious and require deeper contextual analysis. While the chapter aims to discuss robbery in the drugs markets specifically, many of the motivations discussed can be applied to robbery in general (for example Jacobs and Wright, 1999; Contreras, 2012). Robbing for money … and what money can buy Compared to high-end market-based crimes like drugs-, firearms-, and sex-trafficking, robbery provides instant gratification. Usually all that is needed is the willingness to “go ahead” and “get stuck in” when the opportunity presents itself, interviewees said. If done right, the financial rewards can be great because what sets robbery apart from similar predatory-based crimes like theft or burglary is the instant cash – there is less need to work with third parties to store and sell stolen goods. The money is therefore the main reason why our interviewees started robbing. Participant Stephen told us simply: “I do it for money. Really, I do, do it for the money”. Stephen robbed for the money, but money was never an end unto itself. Money was a means to achieve something else. To pay household bills, buy a house, a car, or other luxury goods, even go on holiday. Another interviewee, Dicky, took the pragmatic view that robbery with any motive was primarily fuelled by one's need to self-indulge: “Why does anyone do anything now? Self-indulgence, you know.” Money satisfied this need by affording the offender the means to purchase whatever is “one's poison”. Stephen commented that robbery could bring almost instantaneous changes in fortune. One minute, he was indebted or struggling to pay for goods and services, and then, one robbery later, he was back on track and his worries were in the rear-view mirror. It was the instant gratification that robbery provided, the (financial) stress relief, that drove Stephen to rob.
... In Glasgow, the council housing stock was transformed following several highprofile demolitions of large inner-city housing estates, as well as new build developments on the outskirts of the city, leading to a substantial reduction in income-related poverty in the inner-city areas and changes in the tenure mix (Glasgow City Council, 2017). The local character of these changes, entailing the interplay between housing and criminal justice strategies is exemplified in the East End of Glasgow where a large reduction of violent crime has been attributed to a range of interventions deployed by the Violence Reduction Unit (set up in 2005) (Williams et al., 2014) and a significant reduction in neighbourhood poverty to the housing investment that took place surrounding the 2014 Commonwealth games (Scottish Government, 2015). ...
Article
Across developed polities, there is growing evidence of the spatial reordering of poverty and of its detrimental impact on the life chances of poorer people. This paper extends this body of research, via a comparative case study of two cities in the United Kingdom, by unravelling the interplay of policies shaping the changing morphology of poverty. It progresses to examine the significance of the changing centralisation and segregation of poverty on neighbourhood inequalities in the exposure to crime, probing the relevance of urban criminological tool sets to account for the spatial patterning of crime. It achieves this through interweaving fifteen years of data on poverty and police recorded crime with accounts of the policies and interventions that have sought to reshape and address their manifestation. Though the cities exhibit distinct trajectories, we find evidence of both the decentralisation of poverty and of decreasing segregation in contrast to previous studies. Poverty and crime patterns are converging in the neighbourhoods closest to, but less so in the neighbourhoods furthest away from, city centres. We discuss the relevance of these findings for research seeking to understand the spatial reordering of poverty and neighbourhood inequality in the exposure to crime.
... Sowohl die Zusammenarbeit und die Kommunikation als auch die Rollen-und Aufgabenverteilung der Akteurinnen und Akteure funktionierten gut untereinander. 26 Graham (2016), S. 14. 18 Williams et al. (2014). 19 Graham (2016), S. 16. 20 Davies et al. (2016), S. 6 f. ...
Article
Full-text available
Bei „Group Violence Intervention (GVI)“ handelt es sich um einen US-amerikanischen Ansatz zur Reduzierung von Gewaltstraftaten durch Gruppen, der zugleich auf Abschreckung und Unterstützungsangebote durch mehrere Akteurinnen und Akteure setzt. Im Rahmen eines Forschungsprojekts untersucht die „Kriminalistisch-Kriminologische Forschungsstelle (KKF)“ des Landeskriminalamtes Nordrhein-Westfalen (LKA NRW) die Übertragbarkeit dieses und anderer Ansätze auf das Phänomen der sogenannten „Clankriminalität“.
... programmes operated under the city's Violence Reduction Unit (VRU) and Community Initiative to Reduce Violence (CIRV), provide intensive support, training, and substance abuse treatment to youths at highest risk of violence. These 'focused deterrence' programmes are associated with a significant reduction in violence city-wide ( Batchelor et al, 2019 ;Deuchar, 2013 ;Williams et al, 2014 ). ...
Book
Robbery can be planned or spontaneous and is a typically short, chaotic crime that is comparatively under-researched. This book transports the reader to the streets and focuses on the real-life narratives and motivations of the youth gang members and adult organized criminals immersed in this form of violence. Uniquely focusing on robberies involving drug dealers and users, this book considers the material and emotional gains and losses to offenders and victims, and offers policy recommendations to reduce occurrences of this common crime.Robbery can be planned or spontaneous and is a typically short, chaotic crime that is comparatively under-researched. This book transports the reader to the streets and focuses on the real-life narratives and motivations of the youth gang members and adult organized criminals immersed in this form of violence. Uniquely focusing on robberies involving drug dealers and users, this book considers the material and emotional gains and losses to offenders and victims, and offers policy recommendations to reduce occurrences of this common crime.
... Programmes around early intervention in interpersonal violence have been used in both the UK and USA. [5,16] The Cure Violence (formerly Cease Fire) programme uses 'social levers' to reduce the incidence of retaliatory shooting and associated murder by up to 41%. [17] One of the central tenets of the Cure Violence programme is the targeting of high-risk individuals. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: South Africa (SA) has one of the highest gun-related mortality rates in the world - 20 people per day. The available data, however, do not reflect the substantial number of patients suffering non-lethal firearm injuries. Gunshot-related injury has been recognised as a highly costly healthcare problem by individual treating centres in SA and other countries; however, no 'national picture' has been examined in detail. Objectives: To explore the burden of gunshot-related orthopaedic injuries across SA. Methods: A multicentre research network was established in SA, and 37 orthopaedic units across 9 provinces participated. A prospective, observational cohort study was performed during a 2-week period in 2019. Patients were screened, enrolled and reported by local orthopaedic teams. Patients were included if they had at least one acute gunshot-related orthopaedic fracture referred to the orthopaedic service. Patients were asked additional questions around baseline health-related quality-of-life (HRQOL) and personal circumstances. Follow-up was at 8 weeks after injury. Results: Thirty-seven centres enrolled 135 patients over the 2-week study period. Western Cape Province had the highest number of reported cases (n=52; 39%), followed by Gauteng (n=35; 26%) and KwaZulu-Natal (n=29; 21%). The median age of patients was 30.5 years and the majority were male (89%). Forty-three percent of patients had been either shot or stabbed prior to this injury. Fifty-two percent of all patients required fracture fixation surgery and 11% required wound debridement without fracture fixation. HRQOL data were collected successfully at baseline, but follow-up data were available for <25% of cases. Conclusions: Gunshot-related orthopaedic injuries represent a significant burden of disease in the SA healthcare environment. This study highlights several areas for further research in the management of the injuries and associated outcomes.
... Admittedly, most SNA studies on violent networks have been conducted in the US, with an underrepresented crime portfolio from UK gangs [58]. Therefore, whilst being able to draw conclusions on the potential validity of SNA to examine the proliferation of knife crime within the UK, these results might be limited in their generalisability as to whether knife crime mimics the contagion effect of U.S. gun and gang violence. ...
Article
Full-text available
Knife crime is a source of concern for the police in England and Wales, however little published research exists on this crime type. Who are the offenders who use knives to commit crime, when and why? Who are their victims, and is there a victim-offender overlap? What is the social network formation for people who are exposed to knife crime? Using a multidimensional approach, our aim is to answer these questions about one of England and Wales’ largest jurisdictions: Thames Valley. We first provide a state-of-the-art narrative review of the knife crime literature, followed by an analysis of population-level data on central tendency and dispersion of knife crimes reported to the police (2015–2019), on offences, offenders, victims, victim-offender overlaps and gang-related assaults. Social network analysis was used to explore the formations of offender-victim networks. Our findings show that knife crime represents a small proportion of crime (1.86%) and is associated largely with violence offenses. 16–34 year-old white males are at greatest risk of being the victims, offenders or victim-offenders of knife crime, with similar relative risks between these three categories. Both knife offenders and victims are likely to have a criminal record. Knife crimes are usually not gang-related (less than 20%), and experienced mostly between strangers, with the altercation often a non-retaliatory ‘one-off event’. Even gang-related knife crimes do not follow ‘tit-for-tat’ relationships—except when the individuals involved have extensive offending histories and then are likely to retaliate instantaneously. We conclude that while rare, an incident of knife crime remains predicable, as a substantial ratio of offenders and victims of future knife crime can be found in police records. Prevention strategies should not be focused on gang-related criminals, but on either prolific violent offenders or repeat victims who are known to the police—and therefore more susceptible to knife crime exposure.
... Young Team members first got younger, with 10 or 12 year olds fighting for status and respect, before they got older, and now Young Team membership has precipitously declined. As discussed in the introductory chapter, much of this had to do with interventions such as the VRU and CIRV (Deuchar, 2013;Williams et al., 2014), although in reality a number of community organisations and initiatives like No More Knives, Better Lives doing outreach and street work helped deescalate gang violence. Collectively, these programs have challenged the normalisation of violence in Glasgow, something that Raph memorably reflected on during the initial fieldwork: Raph suggests the criminal justice system in Glasgow and West Scotland was so accustomed to heightened levels of violence that it had become somewhat desensitised to it. ...
Chapter
This chapter reflects on the status of gangs and organised crime in Scotland, drawing on key findings from the book, with implications for research and practice.
... As part of Chicago's Project Safe Neighborhoods grant, parolees with a history of weapons offenses attended FD-based call-in sessions, which resulted in lower neighborhood gun violence levels (Papachristos & Kirk, 2015). In an international context, FD reduced stabbings among ganginvolved youth in Glasgow (Williams, Currie, Linden, & Donnelly, 2014). A major criticism of FD evaluations is that they have long relied on quasi-experimental evaluations (Braga, Weisburd, & Turchan, 2018b). ...
... Deuchar's qualitative study suggested that 'the initiative complemented and supported offenders' journeys towards desistance by providing them with positive institutional influences, supportive human relationships and an opportunity to take on generative activities'. 282 A post hoc quantitative evaluation of CIRV, conducted by Damien Williams et al., compared rates of criminal offending for the 167 young men who engaged with the initiative with data for a matched group from a non-intervention area of the city. Their analysis found violent offending reduced across all groups over the time of the study. ...
Research
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This report seeks to consolidate existing research knowledge about violence in Scotland, broadly defined, drawing on a range of quantitative and qualitative sources. It is not a systematic review; rather it presents a more selective and convenience sampling approach to research that reflects key trends in both research and patterns of the phenomenon under review. The aim is to provide an accessible document that brings together relevant information about the state of violence and violence research, focusing on Scotland, but reflecting wider developments in understanding as a means to inform future research priorities.
... As new strategies to tackle knife-enabled crime are commissioned the current vogue is to stress the newly articulated public health, rather than criminal justice, approach, i.e. advocating partnership working to reduce risk factors (Foster, 2013;Eades et al, 2007;Sethi et al, 2010;Cordis Bright, 2015;Williams et al, 2014;McVie, 2010). For a recent analysis of contemporary evidence on knife crime, see Grimshaw and Ford (2018). ...
Article
Amid rising public concern of knife-enabled crime, this article seeks to review and reframe the contemporary debates on knife crime which remain tied to concepts of fear, protection and fashion. Concepts of social field theory and street capital theory have much to offer in reframing a more contemporary narrative. Through such analysis, knife crime can be redefined as a logical response to the unpredictable asymmetrics of the social field, offering mechanisms for agency and control while providing both a pressure release and opportunity to demonstrate authenticity in ‘The Game’.
... Drug Market Intervention in Peoria, Illinois ( Corsaro and Brunson, 2013) 14. Operation Ceasefire II in Boston, Massachusetts ( ) 15. Community Initiative to Reduce Violence in Glasgow, Scotland ( Williams, Currie, Linden, and Donnelly, 2014) 16. Group Violence Reduction Strategy in Chicago, Illinois ( Papachristos and Kirk, 2015) 17. ...
Article
Focused deterrence strategies are increasingly being applied to prevent and control gang and group-involved violence, overt drug markets, and individual repeat offenders. Our updated examination of the effects of focused deterrence strategies on crime followed the systematic review protocols and conventions of the Campbell Collaboration. Twenty-four quasi-experimental evaluations were identified in this systematic review. The results of our meta-analysis demonstrate that focused deterrence strategies are associated with an overall statistically significant, moderate crime reduction effect. Nevertheless, program effect sizes varied by program type and were smaller for evaluations with more rigorous research designs.
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Tom Davies and Nigel South note that despite the growth of gang scholarship in the twenty-first century, empirical research on the policing response in the UK is surprisingly sparse. Their chapter aims to help fill this knowledge gap, focusing on London and the Metropolitan Police Service (MPS) to present critical insights regarding the processes and mechanisms which have combined to shape the MPS understanding of, and response to, gang related criminality over the past decade. The chapter begins by providing a brief review of the origins and evolution of gang policing in the UK, before exploring strategic and intelligence developments such as the MPS Gangs Violence Matrix. Barriers to and benefits of current approaches are discussed in the context of the evolution of gang forms and fluid networks, and in some cases, the blurring of boundaries with organised crime. The chapter concludes with a discussion of the current landscape, the increased focus on exploitation and vulnerability, and the idea of a public health approach to violence reduction.
Article
The main aim of this article is to summarize the best available evidence (from systematic reviews) of the eff ectiveness of 12 types of interventions in reducing juvenile off ending and antisocial behaviour. In the interests of making the results widely understandable to researchers, practitioners, policy makers, and the general public, all eff ect sizes are converted into percentage decreases in antisocial behaviour or off ending. Based on the most important systematic review in each category, the most eff ective interventions are parent training, focused deterrence, child skills training, cognitive-behavioural therapy, mentoring, and family therapy. Anti-bullying programs, anti-cyberbullying programs, and pre-court diversion programs are quite eff ective, while school exclusion reduction, aft er-school programs, and boot camps are least eff ective. Th e good news is that, based on estimated reductions in off ending, intervention programs are usually found to be much more eff ective than is commonly believed (based on other measures).
Article
Knives and sharp objects are tools used in a wide range of violent offences. However, knife offending may have different risk factors than general violence, thus requiring tailored interventions. This systematic review aims to synthesise evidence on the characteristics of knife offenders and interventions aimed at the reduction of knife crime. After screening 1352 titles and abstracts, 344 articles were fully considered of which 21 papers met the inclusion criteria and were quality assessed. These consisted of 15 offender characteristic studies and six intervention studies. Findings suggested that knife crime may be associated with illicit drug use, exposure to any violence as a witness, victim or perpetrator and mental health problems. Males were more at risk of engaging in knife crime in the community and females in domestic settings. Different risk factors were found between gang involved and non-involved knife offenders. Primary prevention strategies, such as stop and search, knife amnesties, media campaigns and curfews did not show a significant impact in reducing knife crime. By contrast, increasing offenders' access to tailored support regarding housing, education, and employment showed an impact in reducing weapon carrying. Further research is required in the area to support the reliability of outcomes.
Chapter
Collaborative working draws together institutions and actors from different sectors, spheres, and even countries who may have different traditions, different governance structures and different values and priorities. While partnership approaches are not new and can operate successfully, there are continued challenges around sustaining partnerships in the longer term. These include short-term planning cycles, limited resources, shifting priorities and political pressures. These pressures often contribute to the re-enforcing of siloed approaches and retreatism back into organisational cultures and norms as a way of managing hurdles that these challenges raise. After developing on the Scotland model of ‘Prevention First’, this chapter examines two programmes based on initiatives focused on collaborative working to prevent crime and violence in Scotland (the Public Health Approach in Glasgow, and the Northampton Community Initiative to Reduce Violence), and then discusses the benefits of partnerships to resolve challenges faced by vulnerable communities. It also raises some of the difficulties to maintain these partnerships in the longer term.KeywordsCollaborationGovernanceCultureSiloPartnershipsCrime preventionViolence
Chapter
While this book is focused upon the British ‘knife crime crisis’, there is wider global context and a longer historical perspective to the British story that we discuss in this chapter. The significance of knives in history and culture is an aspect of how we make sense of ‘knife crime’, one that is often overlooked. In order to bring this more global perspective to bear upon what is an especially British concern, we address three global and historical themes which help to inform our approach. Firstly, drawing upon history, archaeology and anthropology, we explore the evolution and cultural significance of knife design, symbolism and use, referring both to civilising processes and the broader ‘aesthetics of weapons’. Secondly, through historical criminology, and histories of violence we explore the consistent but varied depictions of ‘knife fighting’ in particular times and places, paying special attention to anthropologies of masculine honour and heroism and the identification/imputation of certain national or regional cultures and values. The third and final dimension concerns when, where and how knives manifest themselves as a particular crime problem, demonstrating the wider influences which might predict and go on to shape such societal reactions. While the UK does not have the highest international rates of knife violence, it is certainly one of the societies currently most preoccupied by this troubling social problem. By contextualising the British knife crime phenomenon within a history of ‘knife crime’ construction, we aim to position this issue as something both old and new; the latest manifestation of an embodied and symbolic form of violence.
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What works in preventing young people from involvement in violent offending, from membership of gangs or from being drawn into organized crime? The chapter is divided into two sections. The first provides an overview of the findings of a series of 14 research reviews published between 2010 and 2017, several of which became the basis of policy or advisory documents. The second is a review of research studies published between 2017 and 2020 which evaluated interventions provided by police working in partnership with other agencies. There was a large quantity of research on youth offending, yet only a small fraction of it focused on methods of preventing involvement in violent crime or in gangs. Previous reviews found positive results in terms of reducing rates of serious violence by young people. The most successful interventions came from pulling levers interventions in several US cities. Other effective projects involved providing high-risk individuals with appropriate support services, supervision and opportunities for engagement in activities. Promising methods were identified of working with young people at risk of joining gangs, by developing multi-agency community-based projects, including work in schools. Research on this however remains limited. Given the nature of organized crime, its relationship to youth violence and gangs is difficult to ascertain because (1) it is predominantly carried out by adult offenders, (2) little is known about the processes by which younger people are recruited into it and (3) other than major investigations and law enforcement efforts, little is known about how to reduce it.
Article
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Focused deterrence is a gang violence reduction strategy that relies on a unique mix of strong enforcement messages from law enforcement and judicial officials coupled with the promise of additional services. At the heart of the intervention is a coordinated effort to communicate the costs and consequences of gun violence to identified gang members during face-to-face meetings and additional community messaging. In Philadelphia, focused deterrence was implemented between 2013 and 2016, and although an impact evaluation showed a significant decrease in shootings in targeted areas relative to matched comparison neighborhoods, the effect on targeted gangs was not universal, with some exhibiting no change or an increase in gun-related activity. Here, we employ data on group-level social media usage and content to examine the correlations with gun violence. We find that several factors, including the nature of social media activity by the gang (e.g., extent of activity and who is engaging), are associated with increases in the average rate of gang-attributable shootings during the evaluation period, while content-specific variables (e.g., direct threats towards rivals and law enforcement) were not associated with increases in shootings. Implications for violence reduction policy, including the implementation of focused deterrence, are discussed.
Book
This Element examines an increasingly important community crime prevention strategy - focused deterrence. This strategy seeks to change offender behavior by understanding underlying crime-producing dynamics and conditions that sustain recurring crime problems, and implementing a blended set of law enforcement, community mobilization, and social service actions. The approach builds on recent theorizing on optimizing deterrence, mobilizing informal social control, enhancing police legitimacy, and reducing crime opportunities through situational crime prevention. There are three main types of focused deterrence strategies: group violence intervention programs, drug market intervention programs, and individual offender programs. A growing number of rigorous program evaluations find focused deterrence to be an effective crime prevention strategy. However, a number of steps need to be taken to ensure focused deterrence strategies are implemented properly. These steps include creating a network of capacity through partnering agencies, conducting upfront and ongoing problem analysis, and developing accountability structures and sustainability plans.
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This chapter offers a brief history of gangs and gang research in Glasgow by reviewing the literature. It then introduces the current study, including the data sources and methods, the participants, and research questions at the heart of Scotland’s Gang Members: Life and Crime in Glasgow. The chapter concludes with a preview of the book.
Article
Background: Homicide is an extreme expression of violence that has attracted less attention from public health researchers and policy makers interested in prevention. The purpose of this study was to examine the socioeconomic gradient of homicide and to determine whether risk differs by immigration status. Methods: We conducted a population-based cohort study using linked vital statistics, census and population data sets that included all deaths by homicide from 1992 to 2012 in Ontario, Canada. We calculated age-adjusted death rates for homicide by material deprivation quintiles, stratified by immigration status. Count-based negative binomial regression models were used to calculate unadjusted and adjusted rate ratios with predictors of interest being age, urban residence, material deprivation and immigration status. A subanalysis containing immigrants only examined the effect of time since immigration and immigration class. Results: There were 3345 homicide deaths registered between 1992 and 2012. Relative to low material deprivation areas, age-adjusted rates of homicide deaths in high materially deprived areas were similar among refugees (RR: 48.49; 95%CI 36.99 to 62.45) and long-term residents (RR: 47.67; 95%CI 44.66 to 50.83), but were slightly lower for non refugee immigrants (RR: 38.53; 95%CI 32.42 to 45.45). Female refugees experienced a 1.31 (95% CI 0.88 to 1.94) higher rate and male refugees experienced a 1.23 (95% CI 0.90 to 1.67) higher rate of homicide victimisation compared with long-term residents. In an immigrant only analysis, the risk of homicide among refugees increased with duration of residence. Conclusions Given the large area-level, socioeconomic status gradients observed in homicides among refugees, community-level and culturally appropriate prevention approaches are important.
Article
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Background Homicide is an extreme expression of violence that has attracted less attention from public health researchers and policy makers interested in prevention. The purpose of this study was to examine the socioeconomic gradient of homicide and to determine whether risk differs by immigration status. Methods We conducted a population-based cohort study using linked vital statistics, census and population data sets that included all deaths by homicide from 1992 to 2012 in Ontario, Canada. We calculated age-adjusted death rates for homicide by material deprivation quintiles, stratified by immigration status. Count-based negative binomial regression models were used to calculate unadjusted and adjusted rate ratios with predictors of interest being age, urban residence, material deprivation and immigration status. A subanalysis containing immigrants only examined the effect of time since immigration and immigration class. Results There were 3345 homicide deaths registered between 1992 and 2012. Relative to low material deprivation areas, age-adjusted rates of homicide deaths in high materially deprived areas were similar among refugees (RR: 48.49; 95% CI 36.99 to 62.45) and long-term residents (RR: 47.67; 95% CI 44.66 to 50.83), but were slightly lower for non-refugee immigrants (RR: 38.53; 95% CI 32.42 to 45.45). Female refugees experienced a 1.31 (95% CI 0.88 to 1.94) higher rate and male refugees experienced a 1.23 (95% CI 0.90 to 1.67) higher rate of homicide victimisation compared with long-term residents. In an immigrant only analysis, the risk of homicide among refugees increased with duration of residence. Conclusions Given the large area-level, socioeconomic status gradients observed in homicides among refugees, community-level and culturally appropriate prevention approaches are important.
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Much has been written about how to reduce homicide. Unfortunately, many of these prescriptions are based on anecdotes, opinions, unsupported claims, advocacy, or weak research. However, there is a growing body of rigorous social science research that can provide a useful foundation for making evidence-based policy choices for reducing lethal violence. This chapter provides a brief review of research evidence on preventing homicide.
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This research explores the Detroit Gun Violence Reduction Initiative as an example of one programmatic effort to marshal criminal justice resources to reduce gun violence and homicides. The initiative focused on individuals arrested for carrying concealed weapons (CCW) in Northwest Detroit. Understanding whether and how this initiative changed case processing is framed within The New Criminal Justice, which specifically addresses local problem-focused initiatives. Data drawn from local record management systems provide partial support for a systematic change in CCW case processing, consistent with the program's focus and expectations. The analysis, however, presents a clear argument for better measurement of implementation and dosage of criminal justice innovations.
Article
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Youth violence poses a significant public health issue due to its health antecedents (e.g. health inequalities, mental health issues, alcohol misuse) and consequences (i.e. physical and psychological morbidity, and mortality). While violence and its desistance have traditionally been the purview of the criminal justice system, the importance of a preventative public health approach has been increasingly acknowledged. The public health approach employs scientific methods, seeks to intervene at multiple levels (primary, secondary and tertiary), and advocates for the involvement of multidisciplinary stakeholders. This paper outlines the public health approach to youth violence; discusses examples of current public health research into youth violence prevention (i.e. school-based interventions, and gang interventions); and provides a brief review of the evidence regarding youth violence perpetrators and well-being, which suggests mixed outcomes (positive and negative) depending upon intentionality of violence, and congruency with group norms. The paper concludes by highlighting future research directions.
Article
The use of focused deterrence to reduce lethal violence driven by gangs and groups of chronic offenders has continued to expand since the initial Boston Ceasefire intervention in the 1990s, where prior evaluations have shown relatively consistent promise in terms of violence reduction. This study focuses on the capacity of focused deterrence to impact lethal violence in a chronic and high-trajectory homicide setting: New Orleans, Louisiana. Using a two-phase analytical design, our evaluation of the Group Violence Reduction Strategy (GVRS) observed the following findings: (a) GVRS team members in the City of New Orleans closely followed model implementation; (b) homicides in New Orleans experienced a statistically significant reduction above and beyond changes observed in comparable lethally violent cities; (c) the greatest changes in targeted outcomes were observed in gang homicides, young Black male homicides, and firearms violence; and (d) the decline in targeted violence corresponded with the implementation of the pulling levers notification meetings. Moreover, the observed reduction in crime outcomes was not empirically associated with a complementary violence-reduction strategy that was simultaneously implemented in a small geographic area within the city.
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An exploratory study that examines the manifestations and impacts of territorial behaviour among young people in disadvantaged areas of British cities. Territoriality among young people has been identifi ed as a source of social exclusion and disadvantage, and as one of the roots of gang behaviour in some previous studies. It has also begun to be recognised by policy-makers working to improve young people's life chances and to promote safer communities. However, until now, there has been no research that has focused on understanding territoriality in its own right. This report examines the following. • What territoriality is, how it is experienced by young people and who is involved. • The origins of territoriality in disadvantaged places, including the persistence of territorial cultures and young people's motivations for being involved in territoriality. • The impacts of territoriality on young people's lives, including its potential to block access to opportunities, to foment violence and to act as an escalator to more serious forms of crime, including involvement in criminal gangs. • The range of projects that aim to deter or counteract territorial behaviour. • The public policy implications of recognising territoriality as an important social force in disadvantaged places.
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Chapter Overview Evaluation encompasses the set of tools that are used to measure the effec-tiveness of public health programs by determining what works. Traditional evaluations in public health have focused on assessing the impact of specific program activities on defined outcomes. Evaluation is also a conceptual ap-proach to the use of data—as part of a quality improvement process—in pub-lic health management. Public health organizations must continually improve upon the standards of evidence used in the evaluation of public health so that results can inform managerial and policy decision making. As public health interventions become more integrated within the community, collaboration in evaluation efforts is a growing imperative. Evaluation concepts and methods are of growing importance to public health organizations, as well as to education and social services programs. Increasingly, public health managers are being held accountable for their actions, and managers, elected officials, and the public are asking whether programs work, for whom, and under what conditions. Public health decision makers need to know which program variants work best, whether the public is getting the best possible value for its investment, and how to increase the impact of existing programs. These evaluation questions are being asked of long-standing programs, new activities, and proposed interventions. These developments parallel today's emphasis on "evidence-based medicine" in clinical areas and suggest the growing role of "evidence-based management" within public health organizations. In this context, evaluation is, first of all, a set of tools that is used to improve the effectiveness of public health programs and activities by deter-mining which programs work, and also which program variants work most effectively. These tools derive from social science and health services research and include concepts of study design, a variety of statistical methods, and 38425_CH18.495_544 4/4/07 12:00 PM Page 495 © Jones and Bartlett Publishers. NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION economic evaluation tools. Evaluation is also a conceptual approach to the use of data—as part of a quality improvement process—in public health management. However defined, evaluation can be useful to managers in public health who need, for example, to do the following activities: • Judge the effectiveness of new approaches to public health service de-livery systems that were developed elsewhere, and judge their potential applicability in one's own jurisdiction. For instance, do the immuniza-tion registries being tried in a number of US cities actually result in more children being immunized? • Judge the effectiveness of new approaches to public health service de-livery systems that were developed in one's own jurisdiction. For in-stance, does the new community-based outreach program actually result in more children being immunized? If not, why not? • Assess how well an intervention is being implemented in one's own jurisdiction. What fraction of children is being enrolled in the commu-nity's new immunization registry at birth? Which children are left out? What can be done to improve coverage? • Ensure accountability of contractors and other entities with a responsi-bility to the public health agency. Are the managed care organizations with Medicaid contracts in the community ensuring that the children enrolled in their plans are receiving all of the recommended immuniza-tions? Are some plans doing better than others? Why? • Demonstrate accountability of internal programs to funders or higher authorities. Are federal funds for immunization being used according to the funders' guidelines? Are they achieving the intended effect? This chapter begins with a primer on evaluation research methods, includ-ing economic evaluation, used by public health organizations drawing on ex-amples from immunization programs and needle exchange programs to prevent human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Special issues in the evaluation of community-based interventions are also covered, as are issues of measurement and data. The second section of the chapter deals with practical aspects of program evaluation in public health, drawing on examples from family violence and other areas, and proposes a process for evaluation in pub-lic health settings. The final section focuses on performance measurement— in organizations as well as community settings—as a form of evaluation methodology. An extended example dealing with public health preparedness illustrates the concept of performance measurement.
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To evaluate the effectiveness of anonymised information sharing to prevent injury related to violence. Experimental study and time series analysis of a prototype community partnership between the health service, police, and local government partners designed to prevent violence. Cardiff, Wales, and 14 comparison cities designated "most similar" by the Home Office in England and Wales. After a 33 month development period, anonymised data relevant to violence prevention (precise violence location, time, days, and weapons) from patients attending emergency departments in Cardiff and reporting injury from violence were shared over 51 months with police and local authority partners and used to target resources for violence prevention. Health service records of hospital admissions related to violence and police records of woundings and less serious assaults in Cardiff and other cities after adjustment for potential confounders. Information sharing and use were associated with a substantial and significant reduction in hospital admissions related to violence. In the intervention city (Cardiff) rates fell from seven to five a month per 100,000 population compared with an increase from five to eight in comparison cities (adjusted incidence rate ratio 0.58, 95% confidence interval 0.49 to 0.69). Average rate of woundings recorded by the police changed from 54 to 82 a month per 100,000 population in Cardiff compared with an increase from 54 to 114 in comparison cities (adjusted incidence rate ratio 0.68, 0.61 to 0.75). There was a significant increase in less serious assaults recorded by the police, from 15 to 20 a month per 100,000 population in Cardiff compared with a decrease from 42 to 33 in comparison cities (adjusted incidence rate ratio 1.38, 1.13 to 1.70). An information sharing partnership between health services, police, and local government in Cardiff, Wales, altered policing and other strategies to prevent violence based on information collected from patients treated in emergency departments after injury sustained in violence. This intervention led to a significant reduction in violent injury and was associated with an increase in police recording of minor assaults in Cardiff compared with similar cities in England and Wales where this intervention was not implemented.
Article
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In 1996, the World Health Assembly declared violence a major public health issue. To follow up on this resolution, on Oct 3 this year, WHO released the first World Report on Violence and Health. The report analyses different types of violence including child abuse and neglect, youth violence, intimate partner violence, sexual violence, elder abuse, self-directed violence, and collective violence. For all these types of violence, the report explores the magnitude of the health and social effects, the risk and protective factors, and the types of prevention efforts that have been initiated. The launch of the report will be followed by a 1-year Global Campaign on Violence Prevention, focusing on implementation of the recommendations. This article summarises some of the main points of the world report.
Article
This survey of Scotland reviews: core Scottish criminal justice institutions; statistical trends in crime and punishment over the past 40 years; the history and politics of Scottish criminal justice; and the emergence of a distinctively Scottish criminology. In particular, it highlights the cross-cutting modalities of power and identity that have shaped both institutional and policy development and made strong linkages between knowledge and politics.
Article
In recent years, there has been continuing debate about the extent and significance of sectarianism in Scotland and the wider links with territorial gang culture. This article focuses on a small qualitative study conducted in some of the most deprived urban communities in Glasgow. Semi-structured interviews and focus group discussions were conducted with 10 youth workers and 40 young persons (aged 16—18 years), with follow-up interviews conducted with senior operational police officers. Social capital indicators generated by recent research were used as a lens through which to explore the participant responses. The findings suggest that the combined social forces associated with territoriality and intense football rivalry limit the young people’s potential for maximizing social capital. However, the extent to which these issues can be fully ascribed to the continued existence of sectarianism in Scotland is less clear. The article concludes with some implications for further sociological debate around these issues.
Article
During the 1930s, Glasgow was widely renowned as a gang infested city. This article explores gang members' involvement in both property crime and street violence through a case study of the Beehive Boys, a territorial gang based in the Gorbals district in Glasgow's South Side. The criminal 'careers' of individual members of the Beehive Boys are profiled in some depth in order to highlight the breadth of their criminal enterprises. It is argued that street gangs increasingly functioned as networks of property offenders during an era of mass unemployment, and remained an integral part of working class neighbourhood life despite heavy police surveillance of known gang members. Local attitudes towards gangs such as the Beehive Boys were highly ambivalent and gang members were widely admired for their toughness, bravado and conspicuous consumption. However, they relied on intimidation to prevent those local people who were victims of theft and violence from testifying against them, and this case study highlights the difficulties encountered by the police and courts throughout the 1930s in their efforts to curb gang violence and property crime in the Gorbals.
Article
The Glasgow gangs of the 1920s and 1930s were widely viewed as fighting gangs rather than as criminal gangs in any wider sense. Retrospective accounts frequently suggest that the gangs only fought each other, leaving ‘ordinary’ residents of the city's working-class districts safe from the threat of robbery or random assault.This article offers an alternative perspective. It examines widespread reports of extortion by the gangs, whose ‘protection’ rackets targeted traders in both the legal and illicit sectors of the local economy. It further explores allegations that the gangs mounted a ‘Reign of Terror’ in the city's East End and South Side. Gang members demanded contributions from local residents towards bail monies and fines, and used violence and intimidation to deter victims and witnesses from testifying to crimes of theft as well as violence in court.
Article
Research indicates that focused deterrence interventions are associated with violence reductions, although levels of success vary across sites. It is unknown if these strategies can produce sustained reductions over time, and if the variation in success is due to differences in program activities and dosages. This study provides a detailed description and evaluation of the Cincinnati Initiative to Reduce Violence (CIRV), a focused deterrence violence reduction strategy implemented in Cincinnati, Ohio. CIRV’s organizational structure and enhanced social services were designed to address sustainability issues that threaten to undermine long-term success. Results from our pooled time series regression models indicate that two violent outcomes—group/gang-member involved homicides and violent firearm incidents—declined significantly following implementation. These declines were observed in both 24- and 42-month post-intervention periods, but not in comparison outcomes. Additional analyses, however, reveal that provision of social services was not responsible for the significant and sustained decline.
Article
Investigating the seasonal asymmetry of violent behaviour has a long history. Despite this, there still remains considerable debate about the nature and aetiology of this phenomenon. Reports on homicide, for example, are mixed: some have found homicide seasonality but most have not. In contrast, all published studies on assault report that this behaviour is seasonal. Moreover, only two studies, both using US data, have examined the seasonal variation of assault and homicide in the same population over the same period of time. One group found assault was seasonal but homicide was not, whilst the other found, overall, that both homicide and assault were seasonal. This first of these findings seems paradoxical, in that there is no seasonal variation in injury related deaths (i.e. homicides), despite the antecedent behaviour (i.e. assaults) having a seasonal pattern of occurrence. We examined the seasonal variation in homicide and assault in UK and found a similar result. Furthermore, our findings are not easily understandable using conventional social models of seasonal behaviour and we suggest biologically mediated seasonal variation in the capacity of equally injured individuals to survive trauma may also play a role, which should be investigated further.
Article
This was clearly not a normal day at Glasgow Sheriff Court. Four mounted police constables provided a visible presence outside the entrance, while on the River Clyde two more constables cruised slowly up and down on a launch. A police helicopter hovered overhead. As the young gang members were escorted into the building they were taken through two separate metal detectors before being led, surrounded by police in fluorescent jackets and anti-stab vests, into a courtroom. With rival gangs from all over the East End of Glasgow being brought together it was imperative that police were present in large enough numbers to intervene immediately and decisively should trouble arise. They had to ensure the safety of all in attendance. The other side of the court was full of representatives of the various agencies who had committed themselves, through Glasgow’s community initiative to reduce violence (CIRV), being launched this week (see News, doi:10.1136/bmj.a2972), to do everything they could to help. Social workers sat with housing experts, criminologists with youth workers, ministers of religion with mothers of victims. All shared a feeling that enough was enough, that the gang violence had to come to an end, and the initiative offered an alternative. As the sheriff entered all rose. In formal dress and solemn terms he declared his court in session and made it clear that he would brook no nonsense. Some of those young men present will have been before him and his colleagues before. Indeed some on day release from Polmont Young Offenders Institution were led up from the cells to sit guarded in the dock. All of these young men were here for one purpose: to be told that …
Article
Homicide rates have been increasing in Scotland, and homicides involving knives are of particular concern. and results We use mortality and population data from 1981 to 2003 to calculate smoothed, standardized mortality rates for all homicides and homicides involving knives and other sharp objects, for all of Scotland and separately for Glasgow. Over half of homicides where the victim was male involved the use of a knife. Over 20 years, the homicide rate rose 83%, whilst that involving knives increased by 164%. The rapid increase in homicide involving knives is becoming a public health problem. Proposed changes to legislation are unlikely to halt this rise.
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