ArticlePDF Available

Relations of Negative and Positive Work Experiences to Employee Alcohol Use: Testing the Intervening Role of Negative and Positive Work Rumination

Authors:

Abstract and Figures

This study tested a model linking work experiences to employee alcohol use. The model extended past research in three ways. First, it incorporated both negative and positive work experiences. Second, it incorporated a previously unexplored cognitive intervening process involving negative and positive work rumination. Third, it incorporated several important dimensions of alcohol use (heavy use, workday use, and after work use). Data were collected from a national probability sample of 2,831 U.S. workers. Structural equation modeling revealed that the conceptual model provided an excellent fit to the data. Negative work experiences were positively related to negative work rumination, which was positively related to heavy alcohol use, workday alcohol use, and after work alcohol use. Positive work experiences were positively related to positive work rumination, which was negatively related to heavy alcohol use and after work alcohol use, but was unrelated to workday alcohol use. The study also provided initial support for the psychometric properties and construct validity of the Negative and Positive Work Rumination Scale (NAPWRS).
Content may be subject to copyright.
Relations of Negative and Positive Work Experiences to Employee Alcohol
Use: Testing the Intervening Role of Negative and Positive
Work Rumination
Michael R. Frone
State University of New York at Buffalo
This study tested a model linking work experiences to employee alcohol use. The model extended past
research in 3 ways. First, it incorporated both negative and positive work experiences. Second, it
incorporated a previously unexplored cognitive intervening process involving negative and positive work
rumination. Third, it incorporated several important dimensions of alcohol use (heavy use, workday use,
and after-work use). Data were collected from a national probability sample of 2,831 U.S. workers.
Structural equation modeling revealed that the conceptual model provided an excellent fit to the data.
Negative work experiences were positively related to negative work rumination, which was positively
related to heavy alcohol use, workday alcohol use, and after work alcohol use. Positive work experiences
were positively related to positive work rumination, which was negatively related to heavy alcohol use
and after work alcohol use, but was unrelated to workday alcohol use. The study also provided initial
support for the psychometric properties and construct validity of the newly developed Negative and
Positive Work Rumination Scale (NAPWRS).
Keywords: alcohol use, negative work rumination, positive work rumination, work experiences, work stress
Supplemental materials: http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0038375.supp
Alcohol use in the workforce can undermine employee health
and productivity, and increase health care costs (Frone, 2009,
2013;Normand, Lempert, & O’Brien, 1994;Roman & Blum,
1995). Especially relevant is heavy alcohol use off the job, alcohol
use during the workday, and alcohol use after work. Among the
U.S. workforce, the 12-month prevalence rates are 26.1% for
heavy drinking (5 or more drinks per day), 29.5% for drinking to
intoxication, 22.7% for drinking to the point of experiencing a
hangover, 7.0% for drinking during the workday, and 37.8% for
initiating alcohol use within two hours of leaving work (Frone,
2013). Furthermore, among employees who initiate alcohol use
right after work, 5.6% report consuming four or more drinks per
occasion (Frone, 2013). It is not surprising, therefore, that re-
searchers and those formulating social policy are interested in the
factors that influence employee alcohol use.
Because most adults spend a majority of their waking time in
formal employment, it is important from a public health perspec-
tive to develop a better understanding of the potential impact of the
work environment on employee alcohol use. For instance, it
is widely believed that exposure to negative work experiences (i.e.,
work stressors) leads to elevated levels of employee alcohol use,
which has been referred to as work stress–induced alcohol use
(Frone, 1999,2013). In fact, because of this strong and theoreti-
cally justifiable belief, the single largest focus of research on the
workplace and employee drinking has been on negative work
experiences (Frone, 1999,2013). However, this research has pro-
duced a body of inconsistent results and has been limited in several
ways. First, many studies only use overall, context-free, assess-
ments of alcohol use. Incorporating assessments of alcohol use in
temporal contexts that can affect productivity, such as use during
and following the workday, would broaden research findings in
this area (Frone, 1999,2008).
Second, most studies have explored the overall relation be-
tween negative work characteristics and employee alcohol use.
By comparison, relatively little attention has been paid to
intervening variables. The inclusion of intervening variables
has two benefits. First, they help to explain how negative work
experiences might lead to alcohol use. Second, modeling inter-
vening variables might provide a more consistent link between
negative work experiences and alcohol use (Frone, 1999). As
shown by Kenny and Judd (2014), failing to model the inter-
vening variable(s) connecting an independent and dependent
variable may decrease the likelihood of finding evidence that
the two variables are significantly related. Of the studies that
have explored indirect effects between negative work experi-
ences and alcohol use, attention has focused almost exclusively
on some form of negative affect (e.g., depression, anxiety, job
dissatisfaction) as the intervening variable.
This article was published Online First December 22, 2014.
I thank Marie-Cecile O. Tidwell and Steve Harvey for their input during
development of the Negative and Positive Work Rumination Scale. Data
collection was supported by National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and
Alcoholism Grant R01-AA016592 to Michael R. Frone. The content of this
project is solely the responsibility of the author and does not necessarily
represent the official views of the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and
Alcoholism or the National Institutes of Health. These agencies played no
role in the study beyond the provision of funding.
Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to Michael
R. Frone, Research Institute on Addictions, State University of New York
at Buffalo, 1021 Main Street, Buffalo, New York 14203. E-mail: frone@ria
.buffalo.edu
This document is copyrighted by the American Psychological Association or one of its allied publishers.
This article is intended solely for the personal use of the individual user and is not to be disseminated broadly.
Journal of Occupational Health Psychology © 2014 American Psychological Association
2015, Vol. 20, No. 2, 148–160 1076-8998/15/$12.00 http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0038375
148
Consistent with general tension-reduction (Conger, 1956) and
affect regulation models (Cooper, Frone, Russell, & Mudar, 1995)
of alcohol use, prior studies have explored the general proposition
that negative work experiences cause elevated negative affect,
which then causes elevated levels of drinking to reduce the neg-
ative affect. Although some research has found that negative work
experiences were indirectly related to alcohol use via negative
affect (e.g., Frone, Barnes, & Farrell, 1994;Vasse, Nijhuis, & Kok,
1998;Wolff, Rospenda, Richman, Liu, & Milner, 2013), several
other studies have failed to support the intervening role of negative
affect (e.g., Armeli, Tennen, Affleck, & Kranzler, 2000;Bam-
berger & Bacharach, 2006;Cooper, Russell, & Frone, 1990;
Kawakami, Araki, Haratani, & Hemmi, 1993). One reason for
these inconsistent findings is that the relation between negative
affect and alcohol use may be conditional. For instance, this
relation may be strongest among individuals who hold strong
outcome expectancies regarding the tension reduction properties of
alcohol (e.g., Wolff et al., 2013).
Although additional research should explore potential boundary
conditions affecting the indirect relation between negative work
experiences and alcohol use via negative affect (Frone, 1999;
Wolff et al., 2013), it would be useful for theory development and
practical reasons to begin exploring additional intervening vari-
ables that may link work experiences to alcohol use. For example,
Armeli et al. (2000, p. 868) stated that individuals may drink “not
only to reduce negative affect caused by stressful situations, but
also to reduce negative thoughts associated with such events. This
would be consistent with theoretical models positing the antici-
pated dampening effect of alcohol on cognitive processes such as
attention and memory.”
Finally, past research has focused almost exclusively on nega-
tive work experiences and intervening processes as a potential risk
factor for elevated alcohol use. Thus, the possibility that positive
work experiences and intervening processes might have a protec-
tive influence leading to reduced alcohol use has been largely
unexplored. In an effort to more fully understand how the work
environment might influence employee alcohol use, it would be
useful for research to explore both negative and positive work
experiences.
The central goal of the present study, therefore, is to extend past
research on work experiences and alcohol use by developing and
testing a model that addresses each of the three issues discussed
earlier. The conceptual model is depicted in Figure 1 and com-
prises two indirect paths. The model incorporates (a) both negative
and positive work experiences, (b) previously unexplored cogni-
tive intervening variables involving negative and positive work
rumination, and (c) several dimensions of employee alcohol use.
Below, I begin by summarizing the general literature on rumina-
tion and alcohol use, and then I discuss the two indirect paths
comprising the hypothesized model.
General Literature on Rumination and Alcohol Use
Rumination can be defined generally as “a class of conscious
[repetitive] thoughts that revolve around a common instrumental
theme and that occur in the absence of immediate environmental
demands requiring the thoughts” (Martin & Tesser, 1996,p.7).
Although this general definition does not restrict the valence of the
instrumental theme, rumination typically has been cast as a nega-
tive process that involves repetitive thoughts regarding an experi-
enced negative event or mood (Watkins, 2008;Whitmer & Gotlib,
2013). For instance, Whitmer and Gotlib (2013) defined rumina-
tion as “repetitive thinking about negative information” (p. 1036).
Likewise, Brosschot, Gerin, and Thayer (2006) defined persevera-
tive cognition broadly as “the repeated or chronic activation of the
cognitive representation of one or more stressors” (p. 114). As a
form of perseverative cognition, rumination represents prolonged
cognitive activation of stressors already experienced (e.g., Bross-
chot, Pieper, & Thayer, 2005;Brosschot et al., 2006).
Consistent with this general focus on negative perseverative
cognition, research has begun to explore the relation of negative
rumination to alcohol use. It has been hypothesized that alcohol
may be used strategically to reduce negative rumination (Caselli,
Bortolai, Leoni, Rovetto, & Spada, 2008;Caselli et al., 2010;
Nolen-Hoeksema, Stice, Wade, & Bohon, 2007). A theoretical
underpinning for this hypothesis can be developed from two lit-
eratures. First, the literature on rumination discussed earlier sug-
gests that negative rumination represents an unpleasant and unde-
sirable cognitive process because it prolongs exposure to a
negative experience. Therefore, individuals should be motivated to
reduce or eliminate the negative perseverative thoughts, even if
only temporarily. Second, research on the effects of alcohol sug-
gests that it can interfere with the cognitive, especially attentional,
processes that would be involved in rumination (e.g., Frone, 2013;
Glencross, 1990). For example, consider the following scenario
presented by Steele and Josephs (1988, p. 196):
It is not a sudden feeling. It slips up on you. The host hands you the
glass. Your tongue, mouth, and throat experience a familiar flavor, a
strong, attention-grabbing flavor, one that seems capable of altering
your chemistry. You move on, sipping this flavor, talking to friends,
acquaintances. Shortly, your immediate experience begins to take on
a certain intensity. The present seems to move to the foreground of
awareness. Thoughts about the past, the future, problems, and anxi-
eties recede in awareness. They become more difficult to retrieve and
hang onto. It is the present—the conversations, the salient events and
thoughts—that reigns over awareness. The sipping continues, as if to
further intensify the present, to further draw out its distinction from
the rest of experience, to leave the rest behind. Like being on a raft
that has shoved off from the bank, there is a lifting feeling of having
broken away.
This poignant description highlights alcohol’s ability to loosen
the grip of perseverative thoughts regarding past experiences and
events. Applying Steele and Josephs’ (1988,1990) attention–
Alcohol Use
• Heavy Use
• Workday Use
• After Work Use
+
-
Negative Work Characteristics
• Work Demands
• Role Demands
• Emotionally Unpleasant Work
Positive Work Characteristics
• Distributive Justice
• Friendship Formation
• Emotionally Pleasant Work
Negative Work
Rumination
Positive Work
Rumination
+
+
Figure 1. Conceptual model of work experiences, work rumination, and
alcohol use.
This document is copyrighted by the American Psychological Association or one of its allied publishers.
This article is intended solely for the personal use of the individual user and is not to be disseminated broadly.
149
WORK EXPERIENCES, WORK RUMINATION, AND ALCOHOL USE
allocation model, alcohol may reduce negative rumination because
it reduces a person’s attentional capacity. Specifically, “alcohol
can affect a variety of psychological stresses through its ability to
screen out of awareness, in conjunction with activity, a common
source of these states, that is, the thoughts that cause them” (Steele
& Josephs, 1990, p. 929). However, alcohol’s ability to reduce
ongoing negative ruminative will be strongest when consumed in
the presence of a distraction. As blood alcohol levels rise and an
individual’s attentional capacity decreases, a person’s attention
will be directed to the most salient and immediate cues in the
environment. A number of laboratory studies looking at changes in
mood and memory performance support the general prediction that
alcohol reduces attentional capacity, and by doing so can reduce
anticipatory levels of stress (e.g., anxiety) in the presence of a
distracting task (Erblich & Earleywine, 1995;Steele & Josephs,
1988,1990). The requirement for some form of distraction might
seem to be a limiting factor regarding the ability of alcohol to
reduce negative rumination. However, Sayette (1999) pointed out
that, in naturalistic settings, most people drink in situations that
include distractions. These distractions can include conversing
with a friend or stranger, listening to music, watching TV, and
reading e-mail or surfing the Internet on a smart phone.
Taken together, the literatures on negative rumination and alco-
hol’s effect on attentional capacity suggest that negative experi-
ences can trigger negative perseverative thoughts, which may
motivate the use of alcohol in an effort to escape the negative
ruminative process. Consistent with these expectations, a longitu-
dinal study by Michl, McLaughlin, Shepherd, and Nolen-
Hoeksema (2013) found that negative life events at T1 led to
increased levels of depressive rumination at T2. Further, ruminat-
ing with regard to negative emotions has been found to predict
alcohol use, even after controlling for level of negative affect, in
cross-sectional (Caselli et al., 2008) and longitudinal studies (Ca-
selli et al., 2010;Nolen-Hoeksema et al., 2007;Nolen-Hoeksema
& Harrell, 2002). In addition, using data from a two-wave panel
study, Nolen-Hoeksema et al. (2007) found that T1 depressive
rumination predicted T2 alcohol use after controlling for T1 alco-
hol use, though earlier alcohol use did not predict later rumination.
Although these results collectively suggest that negative life ex-
periences can trigger a negative ruminative process that leads to
alcohol use to escape the rumination, no single study has directly
tested the full indirect relation in a single sample.
Negative Work Experiences, Negative Work
Rumination, and Alcohol Use
In addition to the broader social and clinical psychology liter-
atures on negative rumination described earlier, a nascent literature
on work-related ruminative processes is developing (e.g., Berset,
Elfering, Luthy, & Semmer, 2011;Cropley, Michalianou, Pravet-
toni, & Millward, 2012;Fritz & Sonnentag, 2006). For the present
study, negative work rumination refers to preoccupation with and
repetitive thoughts focused on negative work experiences that may
extend beyond the workday. Building from the general literature
on negative rumination, these repetitive thoughts about negative
work experiences represent an unpleasant and undesirable cogni-
tive process because they prolong exposure to the negative work
experience. Therefore, as shown in Figure 1, it is expected that
negative work experiences trigger negative work rumination,
which then leads to increased alcohol use in an effort to escape the
negative ruminative process.
Although no work rumination research has assessed alcohol use,
recent research supports the first stage of the indirect effect by
showing that negative work experiences and events predict higher
levels of negative work rumination or reflection. For example, a
cross-sectional study by Berset et al. (2011) reported that two work
stressors (time pressure and effort-reward imbalance) predicted
higher levels of negative work rumination. A limitation of this
study was that the authors failed to control for potential confound-
ing variables, such as negative emotionality, or the frequency of
experiencing negative emotions. However, a daily diary study by
Volmer, Binnewies, Sonnentag, and Niessen (2012) found that
reports of conflict with customers during the workday predicted
higher levels of negative work reflection that occurred after work
during leisure time.
Based on findings from the general and work-related rumination
literatures, the present study explores the indirect relations of three
negative work experiences to employee alcohol use via negative
work rumination. The following specific hypotheses are proposed:
Hypothesis 1: Work demands, role demands, and emotionally
unpleasant work will be positively related to negative work
rumination.
Hypothesis 2: Negative work rumination will be positively
related to heavy alcohol use, workday alcohol use, and after
work alcohol use.
Hypothesis 3: Work demands, role demands, and emotionally
unpleasant work will be positively and indirectly related to
heavy alcohol use, workday alcohol use, and after work alco-
hol use via negative work rumination.
Positive Work Experiences, Positive Work
Rumination, and Alcohol Use
Past research has focused almost exclusively on the relation of
negative work experiences to alcohol use. Thus, the possibility that
positive work experiences might be a protective factor leading to
lower levels of alcohol use has rarely been considered. Only two
daily process studies have looked at this issue using small conve-
nience samples (ns46 and 83). Both studies found evidence of
a negative relation between positive work experiences and alco-
hol use (Armeli et al., 2000;Carney, Armeli, Tennen, Affleck,
& O’Neil, 2000). Neither of these two studies, however, were
able to explain this negative relation. In the Armeli et al. (2000)
study, positive affect failed to explain the negative relation
between positive work experiences and alcohol use, and in the
Carney et al. (2000) study, perceived stress did not explain the
relation.
There also has been a relative lack of attention to positive
ruminative processes (Watkins, 2008). As noted earlier, the pre-
dominant assumption has been that rumination represents a nega-
tive cognitive process, mostly because the a priori focus of past
research has been on repetitive thoughts about negative experi-
ences or moods. However, Martin and Tesser’s (1996) general
definition of rumination, which was presented earlier, does not
presume that the instrumental theme serving as the focus of repet-
itive thoughts must be negative, and they suggest that it may be
This document is copyrighted by the American Psychological Association or one of its allied publishers.
This article is intended solely for the personal use of the individual user and is not to be disseminated broadly.
150 FRONE
positive. In addition, Watkins (2008) noted that rumination may
have constructive outcomes as well as unconstructive outcomes,
and that one determining factor is the valence of the events and
thought content that are the focus of rumination.
Therefore, the conceptual model in Figure 1 incorporates posi-
tive work rumination as a cognitive process linking positive work
experiences to employee alcohol use. For the present study, pos-
itive work rumination refers to preoccupation with and repetitive
thoughts focused on positive work experiences that may extend
beyond the workday. In contrast to negative work rumination,
repetitive thoughts about positive work experiences represent a
pleasant and desirable cognitive process because they prolong
exposure to the positive experiences and events. Consequently,
individuals should be motivated to maintain and prolong positive
perseverative thoughts.
As described earlier, Steele and Josephs’ (1988,1990)
attention–allocation model of alcohol use was developed to help
explain how alcohol might be used instrumentally to reduce neg-
ative perseverative thoughts. Although speculative, the attentional-
allocation model also may provide an explanation for a relation
between positive work rumination and alcohol use. The attention–
allocation model more generally predicts that the ability of alcohol
to reduce attentional capacity will dampen perseverative thoughts
regardless of their valence (negative or positive). Therefore, indi-
viduals involved in positive perseverative thoughts may be less
likely to engage in alcohol use so as not to dampen these positive
cognitions.
Given the conceptualization of positive work rumination and
alcohol’s ability to interfere with such cognitive processes, it is
expected that positive work experiences trigger positive work
rumination, which then leads to lower levels of alcohol use in order
to maintain and extend the positive perseverative thoughts. How-
ever, only one study has explored the first-stage relation between
positive work experiences and positive work–related rumina-
tion. Sonnentag and Grant (2012) found that firefighters and
rescue workers who perceived that they had a positive impact
on the lives of others in a given work day reported more
positive work reflection after work. No research has explored
the second stage relation between any form of positive rumi-
nation and alcohol use. Therefore, the present study explores
the indirect relations of three positive work experiences to
employee alcohol use via positive work rumination. The fol-
lowing specific hypotheses are proposed:
Hypothesis 4: Distributive justice, workplace friendship for-
mation, and emotionally pleasant work will be positively
related to positive work rumination.
Hypothesis 5: Positive work rumination will be negatively
related to heavy alcohol use, workday alcohol use, and after-
work alcohol use.
Hypothesis 6: Distributive justice, workplace friendship for-
mation, and emotionally pleasant work will be negatively
and indirectly related to heavy alcohol use, workday alco-
hol use, and after work alcohol use via positive work
rumination.
Method
Sample and Study Design
There were 2,975 U.S. workers who took part in a telephone
survey called the National Survey of Work Stress and Health. The
population from which the study participants were randomly sam-
pled was all noninstitutionalized adults aged 18 to 65 who were
employed in the civilian labor force and residing in households in
the 48 contiguous United States and the District of Columbia. Data
were collected by 29 extensively trained interviewers using
computer-assisted telephone interviewing (CATI) stations from
December 2008 to May 2012. Of all selected eligible individuals,
47% participated in the study. On average, the interview lasted 55
minutes and participants were paid $25.00 for their time. Of the
2,975 study participants, the present analyses were restricted to the
2,831 workers who had complete data on all of the variables used
in this report.
Sampling Weights
For all analyses, the participants are weighted according to
standard procedures for sample survey data to generalize to the
target population defined earlier (e.g., Korn & Graubard, 1999;
Levy & Lemeshow, 1999). The sampling weights account for
differences in the initial selection probability for the reached
telephone number, the number of different telephone lines through
which the household could be reached, and the number of eligible
adults in the household. The weights further adjust for differential
nonresponse and are poststratified to population totals obtained
from the Current Population Survey (Bowler & Morisi, 2006) for
the months during which the present study was in the field.
Participant Characteristics
The respondent (i.e., population) characteristics are described
with weighted means and percentages. Of the participants, 53.0%
were men. Furthermore, 69.4% were White, 12.7% were Black,
8.7% were Hispanic, and 9.2% were of other racial/ethnic makeup.
The average age of the participants was 41 years. In terms of
highest level of education, 0.4% did not attend high school; 3.7%
attended high school but did not graduate; 18.9% graduated from
high school or obtained a GED; 3.1% attended trade, technical, or
vocational training beyond high school; 19.5% attended some
college; 9.0% received an Associate’s degree; 23.6% received a
bachelor’s degree; 3.0% attended some graduate school; 13.8%
received a Master’s degree; and 4.8% received a doctoral level
degree. Median family income was $68,000. In terms of the 10
intermediate aggregated occupation groups based on the 2000
Standard Occupation Classification codes (U.S. Office of Manage-
ment & Budget, 2000), 15.2% were in management/business/
financial occupations; 31.9% were in professional occupations;
14.9% were in service occupations; 8.0% were in sales occupa-
tions; 13.5% were in office/administrative occupations; 0.4% were
in farming/fishing/forestry occupations; 3.1% were in construc-
tion/extraction occupations; 3.5% were in installation/mainte-
nance/repair occupations; 3.5% were in production occupations;
and 6.1% were in transportation/material moving occupations. On
This document is copyrighted by the American Psychological Association or one of its allied publishers.
This article is intended solely for the personal use of the individual user and is not to be disseminated broadly.
151
WORK EXPERIENCES, WORK RUMINATION, AND ALCOHOL USE
average, the participants worked 40.6 hours per week and held
their present job for 5.9 years.
Measures
Descriptive statistics for and correlations among all study vari-
ables are provided in Table 1. Each of the variables is describe
below.
Work demands. Overall work demands was assessed with six
items commonly used to represent workload and work pace (Hur-
rell & McLaney, 1988;Lisle et al., 1998;Spector & Jex, 1998).
The three workload items were as follows: During the past 12
months, how often did you have too little time to get things done?;
During the past 12 months, how often did you have too much work
to do?; and During the past 12 months, how often did you have to
do more work than you can do well? The three work pace items
were as follows: During the past 12 months, how often did your job
require you to work under time pressure?; During the past 12
months, how often did your job require you to hurry your work?;
and During the past 12 months, how often did your job require you
to work very fast? Response anchors for each item ranged from 0
(never)to4(everyday). Internal consistency reliability was .86 for
workload and .80 for work pace.
Role demands. Overall role demands was assessed with items
assessing role conflict and role ambiguity. Role conflict was as-
sessed with three items—two items from Peterson et al. (1995) and
one item from House, Schuler, and Levanoni (1983). Role ambi-
guity was assessed with four items developed by House et al.
(1983). The three role conflict items were as follows: I often
receive conflicting requests from two or more people at work; I
often have to meet the conflicting demands from various people at
work; and I often have to deal with conflicting demands at work.
The four role ambiguity items were as follows: My work respon-
sibilities are clearly defined; My job has clear goals and objec-
tives; I know what my work responsibilities are; and I know exactly
what is expected of me at work. All role ambiguity items were
reverse scored before averaging to create an overall score. Re-
sponse anchors ranged from 1 (strongly disagree)to4(strongly
agree). Internal consistency reliability was .85 for role conflict and
.82 for role ambiguity.
Emotionally unpleasant work. The extent to which a per-
son’s job exposed them to emotionally unpleasant and disturbing
situations was assessed with two items developed for this study:
During the past 12 months, how often did your job put you in
emotionally unpleasant or disturbing situations?; and During the
past 12 months, how often was the work you do emotionally
unpleasant or disturbing? Response anchors ranged from 0 (never)
to4(everyday). Internal consistency reliability was .80.
Distributive justice. Perceptions of distributive justice were
assessed with four items adapted from Colquitt (2001):My re-
wards reflect the effort I put into my work;My rewards are
appropriate for the work I have completed;My rewards reflect
what I have contributed to the organization; and My rewards are
justified given my performance. Response anchors ranged from 1
(strongly disagree)to4(strongly agree). Internal consistency
reliability was .94.
Friendship formation. The extent to which respondents
formed strong friendships at work was assessed with three items—
one item from Nielsen, Jex, and Adams (2000) and two items
developed for this study. The items were as follows: I have formed
strong friendships at work;I feel close to some of the people I work
with; and I work with people I consider close friends. Response
anchors ranged from 1 (strongly disagree)to4(strongly agree).
Internal consistency reliability was .89.
Emotionally pleasant work. The extent to which a person’s
job exposed them to emotionally pleasant and enjoyable situations
was assessed with two items developed for this study: During the
past 12 months, how often did your job put you in emotionally
pleasant or enjoyable situations?; and During the past 12 months,
how often was the work you do emotionally pleasant or enjoyable?
Response anchors ranged from 0 (never)to4(everyday). Internal
consistency reliability was .77.
Work rumination. To assess negative and positive rumina-
tive thoughts related to work, the Negative and Positive Work
Rumination Scale (NAPWRS) was developed for this study.
This measure was composed of eight items—four items for
negative work rumination and four items for positive work rumi-
nation. The items are presented in the Appendix, and more detail
on the measure can be found in the online supplemental material.
Internal consistency reliability was .91 for negative work rumina-
tion and .86 for positive work rumination.
Alcohol use. Three dimensions of alcohol use were assessed
with items used in prior research (e.g., Frone, 2013). Heavy
drinking was represented by three items assessing the frequency
over the past 12 months of drinking five or more drinks within two
hours[if male]/four or more drinks within two hours [if female];
drinking to intoxication; and drinking enough to experience a
hangover. Workday drinking was assessed with two indicators—
one indicator represented the frequency during the past 12 months
of drinking while working, during lunch, or during other breaks
and the other indicator represented the typical number of drinks
consumed when drinking during the workday. After-work drinking
was assessed with two items—one item assessed the frequency
during the past 12 months of commencing drinking within two
hours of leaving work and the other item assessed the typical
number of drinks consumed when drinking after work. Response
anchors for the five alcohol items assessing frequency of drinking
ranged from 0 (never)to4(everyday). The two items assessing
quantity of alcohol consumed were open-ended. Internal consis-
tency reliability was .82 for heavy drinking, .89 for workday
drinking, and .81 for after-work drinking.
Covariates. Several covariates were included in the analyses
to control for possible confounding and spurious relations between
work experiences, work rumination, and alcohol use. The demo-
graphic covariates were gender (0 women,1men), race (0
White,1minority), age (in years), years of formal education (10
ordinal response options), total family income, and working in a
human services-related occupation (0 no,1yes). Human
services–related occupations, defined broadly, included social
workers, teachers, lawyers, physicians, nurses, firefighters, police
officers, and emergency medical technicians.
In addition to these demographic variables, the analyses con-
trolled for negative and positive affectivity, as well as negative and
positive affect. Negative affectivity was assessed with seven items
developed by Denollet (2005). Example items are as follows: I
take a gloomy view of things and I am often down in the dumps.
Positive affectivity was assessed with six items developed by
Tellegen (1982). Example items are as follows: Most days I have
This document is copyrighted by the American Psychological Association or one of its allied publishers.
This article is intended solely for the personal use of the individual user and is not to be disseminated broadly.
152 FRONE
Table 1
Descriptive Statistics and Correlations for Covariates and Model Constructs (Weighted)
Variable Mean SD 1234567891011121314151617181920212223
1. Gender (men) .53 .50
2. Race (minority) .31 .46 .01
3. Age 41.07 12.63 .02 .12 —
4. Education 5.91 2.26 .04 .12 .22 —
5. Family income 68,000
a
116,614 .06 .07 .18 .26 —
6. Human Services
occupations .24 .42 .23 .06 .09 .39 .05
7. Negative affectivity 1.67 .59 .02 .12 .08 .00 .00 .01 —
8. Positive affectivity 3.16 .61 .03 .02 .06 .03 .02 .09 .50 —
9. Negative affect 1.39 .50 .12 .10 .00 .06 .02 .04 .58 .32 —
10. Positive affect 2.60 .42 .03 .03 .01 .02 .01 .07 .48 .49 .31 —
11. Workload 2.10 1.27 .01 .02 .08 .14 .06 .09 .26 .14 .22 .14 —
12. Work pace 2.76 1.15 .08 .05 .00 .10 .07 .02 .18 .09 .16 .06 .62 —
13. Role conflict 2.56 .98 .07 .03 .03 .03 .02 .05 .22 .11 .15 .11 .34 .32 —
14. Role ambiguity 1.47 .59 .08 .05 .00 .15 .07 .04 .21 .20 .17 .19 .24 .13 .32
15. Emotionally
unpleasant work 1.50 1.14 .01 .06 .06 .12 .07 .22 .24 .07 .25 .14 .35 .30 .29 .17
16. Distributive justice 2.84 .92 .02 .05 .01 .05 .04 .08 .21 .24 .17 .20 .22 .17 .25 .32 .20 —
17. Friendship
formation 3.22 .80 .08 .07 .04 .01 .02 .07 .16 .26 .11 .17 .07 .02 .07 .16 .00 .16 —
18. Emotionally
pleasant work 2.65 1.04 .12 .09 .11 .09 .02 .18 .15 .32 .04 .24 .01 .01 .09 .19 .23 .18 .26
19. Negative work
rumination 1.70 .78 .08 .16 .09 .22 .13 .13 .40 .26 .41 .21 .30 .27 .21 .24 .38 .20 .04 .01 —
20. Positive work
rumination 2.05 .68 .09 .03 .09 .03 .00 .09 .16 .28 .08 .29 .06 .03 .14 .21 .04 .24 .23 .41 .07
21. Heavy alcohol use .41 .66 .15 .06 .30 .12 .02 .12 .13 .07 .11 .09 .03 .11 .09 .05 .05 .04 .04 .12 .05 .15 —
22. Workday alcohol
use .08 .35 .11 .07 .01 .10 .07 .08 .03 .00 .06 .02 .02 .05 .02 .04 .00 .04 .00 .01 .07 .04 .23
23. After work alcohol
use .96 1.21 .18 .14 .02 .09 .11 .08 .10 .07 .11 .08 .06 .11 .06 .06 .06 .02 .02 .06 .13 .10 .54 .25
Note.n2,831. Correlations with absolute values .04 are significant at p.05.
a
Median family income is reported.
This document is copyrighted by the American Psychological Association or one of its allied publishers.
This article is intended solely for the personal use of the individual user and is not to be disseminated broadly.
153
WORK EXPERIENCES, WORK RUMINATION, AND ALCOHOL USE
moments of real fun or joy and Everyday interesting things happen
to me. The response anchors for each of the affectivity items
ranged from 1 (strongly disagree)to4(strongly agree). Negative
and positive affect was assessed by asking how often the partici-
pants experienced each of nine negative (nervous, hostile, de-
pressed, anxious, furious, sad, worried, angry, and gloomy) and
nine positive (joyful, lively, confident, happy, active, proud, cheer-
ful, energetic, and strong) emotions during the prior 12 months.
The emotion adjectives were taken from the Brunel mood scale
(Terry & Lane, 2003) and the PANAS-X (Watson & Clark, 1994).
The response anchors for the emotion adjectives ranged from 0
(never)to3(often). Internal consistency reliability estimates were
.83 for negative affectivity, .86 for positive affectivity, .83 for
negative affect, and .87 for positive affect.
Data Analysis
The latent variable structural model shown in Figure 2 was
analyzed using Mplus 7.2 software (Muthén & Muthén, 2012). A
robust weighted least squares estimator (WLSMV) was used to
accommodate the sampling weights and the mix of continuous and
ordinal manifest indicator variables (Asparouhov, 2005;Muthén &
Muthén, 2012). Although not shown in the figures (but see Table
4), the 10 covariates were treated as correlated exogenous vari-
ables and each covariate predicted each of the 11 latent variables
representing negative and positive work experiences, negative and
positive work rumination, and alcohol use. Model fit was assessed
with the
2
statistic, the comparative fit index (CFI), Tucker-Lewis
index (TLI), and the root mean square error of approximation
(RMSEA). Based on recommendations by Hu and Bentler (1999),
the following cut-offs were used to indicate adequate model fit:
CFI and TLI .95 and RMSEA .06. Chi-square difference
testing of nested models was accomplished using a robust chi-
square difference test (DIFFTEST) developed for mean and vari-
ance adjusted weighted least squares (WLSMV) estimation (Asp-
arouhov & Muthen, 2006). Finally, because the sampling
distribution of indirect effects (i.e., a product of two coefficients)
is nonnormal, the significance of the indirect effects was based on
bias-corrected bootstrap confidence intervals using 5,000 bootstrap
samples (e.g., Edwards & Lambert, 2007;Preacher, Rucker, & Hayes,
2007). Bootstrapping also was used to obtain the standard errors for
the reported standardized factor loadings and path coefficients.
Results
Overall Model Fit
The hypothesized conceptual model, which was the model
shown in Figure 2 without a path from emotionally unpleasant
work to positive work rumination, showed an excellent fit to the
data:
2
(564, n2,831) 882.60, p.001; CFI .995; TLI
.994; and RMSEA .014 (90% CI [.012, .016]). Nonetheless, the
hypothesized model contained 24 paths constrained to equal ze-
ro—three direct paths from negative work experiences to positive
work rumination, three direct paths from positive work experi-
ences to negative work rumination, and 18 direct paths from the six
work experiences variables to the three alcohol outcomes. To test
whether or not these 24 constraints were reasonable, the fit of the
hypothesized model was compared to a saturated model that freed
these additional 24 paths. A robust chi-square difference test
showed that freeing these 24 constraints led to a significant reduc-
tion in the model chi-square, ⌬␹
2
(24, n2,831) 49.47, p.01.
An examination of the additional parameter estimates suggested
that a path from emotionally unpleasant work to positive work
rumination should be freed in the conceptual model. After freeing
this single path, a robust chi-square difference test showed that the
revised conceptual model fit better than that hypothesized concep-
tual model, ⌬␹
2
(1, n2,831) 17.28, p.001. The fit of the
revise conceptual model was also compared with the saturated
model to see whether it was reasonable to constrain the remaining
23 nonhypothesized paths to zero. The nonsignificant robust chi-
square difference test supported these 23 constraints, ⌬␹
2
(23, n
2,831) 32.26, ns. Therefore, the revised conceptual model
shown in Figure 2 was retained, and showed an excellent overall
fit to the data:
2
(563, n2,831) 841.42, p.001; CFI
.996; TLI .995; and RMSEA .013 (90% CI [.011, .015]).
Parameter Estimates
The parameter estimates for the structural equation model are
presented in Tables 2 through 5 and Figure 2.Table 2 presents the
factor loadings for each of the latent variables. These results
indicate that the 30 indicator variables loaded highly and signifi-
cantly on their respective latent variable. Table 3 presents the
correlations among the latent negative and positive work experi-
ence variables, negative and positive work rumination variables,
Work
Demands
Role
Demands
Emotionally
Unpleasant Work
Negative Work
Rumination
Positive Work
Rumination
Heavy
Alcohol Use
Workday
Alcohol Use
After Work
Alcohol Use
.13***
.07** -.12***
.12***
.09
.45***
-.16***
.11**
.09**
Distributive
Justice
Friendship
Formation
Emotionally
Pleasant Work
.22***
-.14***
.10***
.14***
Figure 2. Structural equation modeling results for the revised conceptual
model (weighted). n2,831. All coefficients are standardized. The
standard errors used for significance testing were based on 5,000 bootstrap
samples. To simplify presentation of the model, the standardized factor
loadings for the latent variables are shown in Table 2. Correlations among
the negative and positive work experience variables, negative and positive
work rumination variables, and the alcohol use variables are shown in
Table 3. Relations involving the covariates are shown in Table 4.
ⴱⴱ
p
.01,
ⴱⴱⴱ
p.001.
This document is copyrighted by the American Psychological Association or one of its allied publishers.
This article is intended solely for the personal use of the individual user and is not to be disseminated broadly.
154 FRONE
and the alcohol use variables. The results show that within the
three sets of latent variables, the variables were generally signifi-
cantly correlated. Table 4 presents the standardized regression
coefficients relating the covariates to each of the 11 latent vari-
ables comprising the conceptual model. Several noteworthy pat-
terns can be observed. Compared with women, men reported more
negative work experiences, fewer positive work experiences, less
negative rumination, and higher levels of alcohol use. Compared
with White employees, minority employees reported fewer posi-
tive work experiences, less negative rumination, and lower levels
of alcohol use. Compared with low levels of education, high levels
of education were related to more negative work experiences,
fewer positive work experiences, more negative rumination, and
higher levels of workplace and after work alcohol use, though
lower levels of heavy alcohol use. Compared with employees not
working in human services-related occupations, employees in hu-
man services-related occupations reported fewer role demands but
more emotionally unpleasant work; lower distributive justice but
more friendship formation and more emotionally pleasant work;
and lower levels of alcohol use. Negative affectivity and negative
affect were generally positively related negative work experiences,
negative work rumination, and higher levels of alcohol use. In
contrast, positive affectivity and positive affect were general pos-
itively related to positive work experiences and positive work
rumination, and unrelated to alcohol use.
Figure 2 presents the standardized estimates for the direct rela-
tions that constituted the revised conceptual model, and Table 5
presents the indirect effects between the work experience variables
and the alcohol use outcomes. After adjusting for the covariates,
the results in Figure 2 support Hypotheses 1 and 2 because all three
negative work experiences were significantly and positively re-
lated to negative work rumination, which was positively related to
all three alcohol use outcomes. The results in Table 5 partially
support Hypothesis 3 by showing that all indirect relations from
three negative work experiences variables to heavy alcohol use and
after work alcohol use via negative work rumination were signif-
icant and positive. However, of the three negative work experience
variables, only emotionally unpleasant work was positively and
indirectly related to workday alcohol use via negative work rumi-
nation. Finally, the results also support a negative relation between
emotionally unpleasant work and positive work rumination (see
Figure 2), as well as a significant and positive indirect effect of
emotionally unpleasant work to heavy alcohol use and after work
alcohol use via reduced positive work rumination (see Table 5).
The results in Figure 2 support Hypothesis 4 by showing that the
three positive work experiences variables were positively related
to positive work rumination. The results partly support Hypothesis
5 in that positive work rumination was negatively related to heavy
alcohol use and after work alcohol use, but it was not related to
workday alcohol use. The results in Table 5 partially support
Hypothesis 6 by showing that all indirect relations from the three
positive work experience variables to heavy alcohol use and after-
work alcohol use were significant and negative. Consistent with
the nonsignificant relation between positive work rumination and
workday alcohol use shown in Figure 2, the results in Table 5 do
not support negative indirect relations from the positive work
experiences variables to workday alcohol use via positive work
rumination.
Table 3
Correlations Among the Latent Variables (Weighted)
Parameter
estimates
Latent predictor variables
Work demands–Role demands .49
ⴱⴱⴱ
Work demands–Emotionally unpleasant work .39
ⴱⴱⴱ
Work demands–Distributive justice .22
ⴱⴱⴱ
Work demands–Friendship formation .03
Work demands–Emotionally pleasant work .02
Role demands–Emotionally unpleasant work .42
ⴱⴱⴱ
Role demands–Distributive justice .48
ⴱⴱⴱ
Role demands–Friendship formation .05
Role demands–Emotionally pleasant work .24
ⴱⴱⴱ
Emotionally unpleasant work–Distributive justice .17
ⴱⴱⴱ
Emotionally unpleasant work–Friendship formation .07
Emotionally unpleasant work–Emotionally pleasant work .30
ⴱⴱⴱ
Distributive justice–Friendship formation .11
ⴱⴱⴱ
Distributive justice–Emotionally pleasant work .15
ⴱⴱⴱ
Friendship formation–Emotionally pleasant work .19
ⴱⴱⴱ
Latent intervening variables
Negative work rumination–Positive work rumination .29
ⴱⴱⴱ
Latent outcome variables
Heavy alcohol use–Workday alcohol use .49
ⴱⴱⴱ
Heavy alcohol use–After work alcohol use .69
ⴱⴱⴱ
Workday alcohol use–After work alcohol use .46
ⴱⴱⴱ
Note.n2,831.
p.05.
ⴱⴱⴱ
p.001.
Table 2
Standardized Factor Loadings for the Substantive Model
(Weighted)
Standardized factor Standardized factor
loadings
a
loadings
a
Work demands Negative work rumination
Workload .82 Item 1 .82
Work pace .77 Item 2 .88
Item 3 .93
Role demands Item 4 .93
Role conflict .59
Role ambiguity .58 Positive work rumination
Item 1 .71
Emotionally unpleasant work Item 2 .84
Item 1 .91 Item 3 .91
Item 2 .81 Item 4 .88
Distributive justice Heavy alcohol use
Item 1 .89 5 drinks per day .84
Item 2 .95 Intoxication .95
Item 3 .94 Hangover .83
Item 4 .92 Workday alcohol use
Friendship formation Frequency .98
Item 1 .90 Quantity .98
Item 2 .93
Item 3 .92 After work alcohol use
Frequency .91
Emotionally pleasant work Quantity .93
Item 1 .87
Item 2 .81
Note.n2,831.
a
All estimates significant at p.001.
This document is copyrighted by the American Psychological Association or one of its allied publishers.
This article is intended solely for the personal use of the individual user and is not to be disseminated broadly.
155
WORK EXPERIENCES, WORK RUMINATION, AND ALCOHOL USE
Discussion
The goal of this study was to develop and test a conceptual
model linking negative and positive work experiences to employee
alcohol use via negative and positive work rumination, respec-
tively. The present study both supports and extends prior research
and theorizing in several ways. First, the findings from the first
stage of the model show that several dimensions of negative work
experiences were positively related to negative work rumination
and several dimensions of positive work experiences were posi-
tively related to positive work rumination. These results support a
developing literature exploring the predictors of negative (Berset
et al., 2011;Volmer et al., 2012) and positive (Sonnentag & Grant,
2012) work-related ruminative processes. Moreover, because this
was the first study to assess both positive and negative work
experiences and both negative and positive work rumination, it
extends past research by showing that there is little evidence of
cross-prediction from negative work experiences to positive work
rumination and from positive work experiences to negative work
rumination.
Second, the results from the second stage of the model show that
negative work rumination was positively related and positive work
rumination was negative related to both heavy and after work
alcohol use. Because this was the first study to explore the relation
of work rumination to employee alcohol use, these findings extend
the developing work rumination literature. The present results also
support the findings from the general rumination literature, which
showed that ruminating about negative emotions is positively
related alcohol use (Caselli et al., 2008,2010;Michl et al., 2013;
Nolen-Hoeksema et al., 2007;Nolen-Hoeksema & Harrell, 2002).
This study extends the general rumination literature by showing
for the first time that positive rumination may be a protective
factor associated with lower levels of alcohol use.
Third, taken together, the first and second stage results support
two indirect effects from work experiences to employee alcohol
use. Negative work experiences may trigger perseverative thoughts
about the negative work experiences, which then leads to alcohol
use in an effort to escape the unpleasant ruminative process. In
contrast, positive work experiences may trigger perseverative
thoughts about the positive work experiences, which then leads to
an avoidance of alcohol use to maintain the pleasant ruminative
process. This pattern of findings support previous theoretical ar-
guments that negative work experiences are a potential risk factor
for increased employee alcohol use (for reviews, see Frone, 1999,
2013) and support two small daily process studies (Armeli et al.,
Table 4
Standardized Path Coefficients Relating the Covariates to the Model Constructs (Weighted)
Model constructs
Covariates Work
demands Role
demands
Emotionally
unpleasant
work Distributive
justice Friendship
formation
Emotionally
pleasant
work
Negative
work
rumination
Positive
work
rumination Heavy
alcohol use
Workday
alcohol
use After work
alcohol use
Gender (men) .07
ⴱⴱ
.12
ⴱⴱⴱ
.06
ⴱⴱ
.01 .08
ⴱⴱⴱ
.08
ⴱⴱⴱ
.08
ⴱⴱⴱ
.01 .16
ⴱⴱⴱ
.18
ⴱⴱⴱ
.18
ⴱⴱⴱ
Race (minority .02 .04 .02 .08
ⴱⴱⴱ
.08
ⴱⴱⴱ
.08
ⴱⴱⴱ
.08
ⴱⴱⴱ
.03 .13
ⴱⴱⴱ
.14
ⴱⴱ
.16
ⴱⴱⴱ
Age .04 .02 .05
ⴱⴱ
.03 .00 .09
ⴱⴱⴱ
.03 .06
ⴱⴱ
.37
ⴱⴱⴱ
.08
.03
Education .12
ⴱⴱⴱ
.13
ⴱⴱⴱ
.02 .06
ⴱⴱ
.07
ⴱⴱ
.03 .12
ⴱⴱⴱ
.00 .06
.31
ⴱⴱⴱ
.15
ⴱⴱⴱ
Family income .04 .04 .05 .07
ⴱⴱ
.04 .01 .11
.01 .01 .03 .06
Human services
occupations (yes) .03 .09
ⴱⴱ
.23
ⴱⴱⴱ
.07
ⴱⴱ
.07
ⴱⴱ
.16
ⴱⴱⴱ
.01 .02 .07
ⴱⴱ
.31
ⴱⴱⴱ
.12
ⴱⴱⴱ
Negative affectivity .22
ⴱⴱⴱ
.25
ⴱⴱⴱ
.17
ⴱⴱⴱ
.09
ⴱⴱ
.04 .01 .14
ⴱⴱⴱ
.07
.03 .07 .02
Positive affectivity .01 .07
.07
ⴱⴱ
.17
ⴱⴱⴱ
.21
ⴱⴱⴱ
.31
ⴱⴱⴱ
.11
ⴱⴱⴱ
.05
.09
ⴱⴱⴱ
.02 .03
Negative affect .12
ⴱⴱⴱ
.11
ⴱⴱⴱ
.18
ⴱⴱⴱ
.07
ⴱⴱ
.03 .06
.19
ⴱⴱⴱ
.03 .11
ⴱⴱⴱ
.10
.09
ⴱⴱ
Positive affect .02 .09
ⴱⴱ
.06
ⴱⴱ
.07
ⴱⴱ
.04 .12
ⴱⴱⴱ
.02 .14
ⴱⴱⴱ
.02 .04 .01
Note. n 2,831.
p.05.
ⴱⴱ
p.01.
ⴱⴱⴱ
p.001.
Table 5
Standardized Indirect Effects of Negative and Positive Work Experiences on Alcohol Use (Weighted)
Indirect effects Heavy alcohol use
(95% BC CI) Workday alcohol use
(95% BC CI) After work alcohol use
(95% BC CI)
Negative work experiences
Work demands via negative work rumination .01 (.001, .02)
.01 (.00, .02) .01 (.002, .02)
Role demands via negative work rumination .02 (.003, .03)
.02 (.00, .03) .02 (.01, .03)
ⴱⴱ
Emotionally unpleasant work via negative work rumination .03 (.01, .04)
ⴱⴱⴱ
.03 (.002, .05)
.03 (.02, .05)
ⴱⴱⴱ
Emotionally unpleasant work via positive work rumination .02(.01, .04)
ⴱⴱⴱ
.01 (.03, .00) .02 (.01, .03)
ⴱⴱ
Positive work experiences
Distributive justice via positive work rumination .02 (.03, .01)
ⴱⴱⴱ
.01 (.00, .02) .01 (.02, .004)
ⴱⴱ
Friendship formation via positive work rumination .01 (.02, .004)
ⴱⴱ
.01 (.00, .02) .01 (.02, .002)
ⴱⴱ
Emotionally pleasant work via positive work rumination .07 (.10, .05)
ⴱⴱⴱ
.04 (.00, .08) .05 (.08, .03)
ⴱⴱⴱ
Note. n 2,831. ␤⫽standardized indirect effects. The bias corrected confidence intervals were based on 5,000 bootstrap samples.
p.05.
ⴱⴱ
p.01.
ⴱⴱⴱ
p.001.
This document is copyrighted by the American Psychological Association or one of its allied publishers.
This article is intended solely for the personal use of the individual user and is not to be disseminated broadly.
156 FRONE
2000;Carney et al., 2000), suggesting that positive work experi-
ences may represent a potential protective factor resulting in lower
levels of alcohol use. Collectively, these findings support the
usefulness of the general rumination literature (for reviews, see
Nolen-Hoeksema, Wisco, & Lyubomirsky, 2008;Watkins, 2008;
Whitmer & Gotlib, 2013) in terms of helping to explain how work
experiences may influence employee alcohol use.
Implications
The relations constituting the conceptual model were supported
even after controlling for negative and positive affectivity and
negative and positive affect. This indicates that negative and
positive work rumination represent cognitive outcomes that are
distinguishable from negative and positive affect. Therefore, work-
specific and more general affect regulation models of alcohol use
(e.g., Cooper et al., 1995;Frone et al., 1994;Wolff et al., 2013)
need to be expanded to include drinking to regulate negative and
positive perseverative cognitions.
The findings also suggest that it may not be sufficient to reduce
or eliminate negative work conditions in an effort to reduce em-
ployee alcohol misuse. Interventions also need to focus on devel-
oping and expanding positive work experiences and characteris-
tics. This conclusion is consistent with recommendations from
Parker’s (2014) review of the work design literature in terms of
promoting employee health generally. Also, even if alcohol use is
successful in dulling negative work rumination, it may only pro-
vide a temporary interruption and it comes with its own negative
effects on health and productivity. Thus, interventions should be
employed to help employees manage and reduce negative work
rumination. A review by Querstret and Cropley (2013) of 19
intervention studies suggests that mindfulness-based and
cognitive–behavioral interventions may be effective and deserve
further consideration. The present results also suggest that it may
be beneficial to promote positive work rumination to improve
employee health and health-related behaviors. For example, Selig-
man and colleagues (Seligman, Steen, Park, & Peterson, 2005)
developed the Three Good Things in Life intervention that requires
individuals to write down three things that went well that day, as
well as what caused them. This intervention encourages people to
reflect and ruminate about the good things that have happened to
them every day. Research suggests that this exercise increases
happiness and reduces depression (e.g., Seligman et al., 2005).
Applying this intervention to the workplace, where individuals
write down up to three positive work experiences each day, may
increase positive work rumination over time, and lead to reduc-
tions in alcohol use.
Strengths and Weaknesses
The present results should be interpreted within the context of
the strengths and weaknesses of this study. In terms of strengths,
this study used a broad probability sample of employed adults
in the United States, which would provide more variation in the
key constructs. Also, compared with studies using convenience
samples, the present sample was large thereby providing adequate
statistical power to detect the hypothesized effects and providing
more accurate effect sizes (Ioannidis, 2008;Schmidt, 1992). These
strengths notwithstanding, the present study has three potential
weaknesses. First, the study relied on self-reports that may lead to
misreporting of various types. Nonetheless, in many circum-
stances, self-reports may be the best way to assess mental pro-
cesses or behaviors that are not directly observable or may be
hidden from others (Baldwin, 2000;Turkkan, 2000). This may be
particularly true for reports of alcohol use. Although information
about a target individual’s alcohol use may be obtained from
collateral informants (e.g., friends, spouses, coworkers), these in-
formants are subject to the same types of biases that affect reports
from the target individual (e.g., Connors & Maisto, 2003). In
general, however, research indicates that self-reports of alcohol
use tend to be reliable and valid (e.g., Del Boca & Darkes, 2003).
Second, although the 12-month reporting period is common in
large epidemiologic field studies, it may result in some level of
forgetting. Nonetheless, this possibility needs to be balanced
against other concerns. For instance, an expert panel was convened
by the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (2003)
to make recommendations regarding the assessment of alcohol use.
One issue they considered was the appropriate reporting period.
After considering potential trade-offs between recall and misclas-
sification of infrequent drinkers, the panel’s consensus was that a
12-month reporting period was the best choice.
Third, although the results were consistent with theoretical
expectations, the present cross-sectional data do not lend them-
selves to strong inferences regarding the direction of causal effects
because they cannot rule out reverse or reciprocal relations. None-
theless, prior research provides some support for the hypothesized
causal direction. For example, daily process data support a causal
relation from work experiences to negative and positive work
reflection (Sonnentag & Grant, 2012;Volmer et al., 2012). Also,
longitudinal studies support a causal effect from depressive rumi-
nation to alcohol use (Caselli et al., 2010;Nolen-Hoeksema et al.,
2007;Nolen-Hoeksema & Harrell, 2002), but not from alcohol use
to depressive rumination (Nolen-Hoeksema et al., 2007). Further,
two daily process studies support a relation of positive work
experiences to reduced alcohol use (Armeli et al., 2000;Carney et
al., 2000).
Modest Effect Sizes and Future Research
One potential concern with the present findings is that most of
the significant standardized coefficients in the hypothesized model
are modest in size. There are several reasons for these modest
effects that may suggest further refinements to the model. The first
reason for modest effects is because most health-related outcomes
are multidetermined. In fact, heavy and problematic alcohol use is
considered to be a complex phenotype because it is the likely result
of many determinants, each having small individual effects (see
Frone, 2013 for an overview). For example, the quantitative ge-
netics literature shows that roughly 50% of the population variance
in heavy and problematic alcohol use is attributable to genetics
(genotype) and 50% is attributable to nonshared (nonfamilial)
environmental influences (see Frone, 2013, for a review). How-
ever, the molecular genetics literature has had limited success in
identifying specific variants of genes (polymorphisms) that predict
heavy drinking and alcoholism, and the few polymorphisms that
have been located each account for very small percentages in the
variance of heavy and problematic alcohol use (e.g., Agrawal &
Bierut, 2012;Frone, 2013). For instance, Agrawal and Bierut
This document is copyrighted by the American Psychological Association or one of its allied publishers.
This article is intended solely for the personal use of the individual user and is not to be disseminated broadly.
157
WORK EXPERIENCES, WORK RUMINATION, AND ALCOHOL USE
(2012) pointed out that “although the heritability of alcohol de-
pendence approaches 50%, the explained genetic variance to date
is less than 1%” (pp. 279–280).
Turning to the other 50% of population variation in heavy and
problematic drinking, should we expect anything different on the
environment side? Past research also seems to support the notion
that alcohol use is the complex outcome of many environmental
determinants, each having modest individual effects. For instance,
research shows that employee alcohol use is not only a function of
negative and positive work experiences, it also may be an outcome
of descriptive and injunction social workplace norms about alcohol
use, physical availability and opportunity to use at work, work-
place social control, alcohol-related outcome expectancies, person-
ality, and a multitude of potential interactions between these fac-
tors (see Frone, 2013, for a review). Further, there are many
environmental causes that exist outside the workplace.
Collectively, these findings suggest that future research trying to
link negative and positive work experiences to alcohol use and
other health outcomes might consider assessing many dimensions
of the work environment simultaneously. Although genetic re-
searchers still undertake hypothesis-driven, single gene studies,
they also began using analytic techniques that simultaneously
examine hundreds of thousands of gene variants, known as
genome-wide association studies (GWAS). Similarly, although
hypothesis-driven studies that focus on a few negative and positive
work experiences will always be important, there may be a place
for alternate analytic strategies that allow for a more holistic and
integrative examination of many negative and positive work ex-
periences simultaneously, and perhaps other dimensions of the
work environment that can affect employee alcohol use.
The second reason for modest effects may be that the relations
are moderated by various person or situational characteristics. In
other words, the basic relations in the model may be stronger in
certain subgroups of workers. Considering the first stage of the
model, it may be that not all workers who experience negative and
positive work experiences will ruminate about those experiences.
For example, identity theory posits that individual differences exist
in the salience of a given role for self-definition (e.g., Burke, 1991;
Thoits, 1991). To the extent that the work role is psychologically
salient for self-definition, the work experiences will be identity-
relevant and have greater implications for self-evaluation and
well-being (e.g., Burke, 1991;Thoits, 1991). Thus, the psycholog-
ical salience of the work role may moderate the relation between
work experiences and work rumination. The positive relations
between negative work experiences and negative work rumination
and between positive work experiences and positive work rumi-
nation may be stronger at higher levels psychological work sa-
lience.
In terms of the second stage of the model, the relations of
negative and positive rumination to alcohol use may be moderated
by alcohol outcome expectancies (see Frone, 2013, for a discus-
sion of substance use outcome expectancies). For example, per-
formance regulation expectancies refer to the anticipated effects of
alcohol on cognitive and motor performance. People who hold
negative performance regulation expectancies anticipate that alco-
hol will impair cognitive processes. Therefore, relative to individ-
uals who do not believe alcohol will impair cognitive process,
those who do may be more likely to drink in response to negative
work rumination and may be less likely to drink in response to
positive work rumination.
The final reason for modest effects may be the use of a between-
persons study design that assessed, retrospectively, processes over
a 12-month reporting period. Although longer reporting periods
may be useful when assessing lower base-rate behaviors, the
relations in the model may actually exist over short time periods,
such as hours or days, and they may be better represented in terms
of within-person changes over these shorter time periods. There-
fore, future research should test the model using longitudinal daily
diary/experience sampling data, taking into account some of the
suggestions in terms of evaluating negative and positive work
experiences holistically and the use of moderator variables.
References
Agrawal, A., & Bierut, L. J. (2012). Identifying genetic variation for
alcohol dependence. Alcohol Research: Current Reviews, 34, 274–281.
Armeli, S., Tennen, H., Affleck, G., & Kranzler, H. R. (2000). Does affect
mediate the association between daily events and alcohol use? Journal of
Studies on Alcohol, 61, 862–871.
Asparouhov, T. (2005). Sampling weights in latent variable modeling.
Structural Equation Modeling, 12, 411–434. http://dx.doi.org/10.1207/
s15328007sem1203_4
Asparouhov, T., & Muthen, B. (2006). Robust chi square difference testing
with mean and variance adjusted test statistics. (Mplus web notes No.
10). Los Angeles, CA: Muthén & Muthén; http://www.statmodel.com/
download/webnotes/webnote10.pdf
Baldwin, W. (2000). Information no one else knows: The value of self-
report. In A. A. Stone, J. S. Turkkan, C. A. Bachrach, J. B. Jobe, H. S.
Kurtzman, & V. S. Cain (Eds.), The science of self-report: Implications
for research and practice (pp. 3–7). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
Bamberger, P. A., & Bacharach, S. B. (2006). Abusive supervision and
subordinate problem drinking: Taking resistance, stress and subordinate
personality into account. Human Relations, 59, 723–752. http://dx.doi
.org/10.1177/0018726706066852
Berset, M., Elfering, A., Luthy, S., & Semmer, N. K. (2011). Work
stressors and impaired sleep: Rumination as a mediator. Stress and
Health, 27, e71–e82. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/smi.1337
Bowler, M., & Morisi, T. L. (2006). Understanding the employment
measures from the CPS and CES survey. Monthly Labor Review, 129,
23–38.
Brosschot, J. F., Gerin, W., & Thayer, J. F. (2006). The perseverative
cognition hypothesis: A review of worry, prolonged stress-related phys-
iological activation, and health. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 60,
113–124. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpsychores.2005.06.074
Brosschot, J. F., Pieper, S., & Thayer, J. F. (2005). Expanding stress
theory: Prolonged activation and perseverative cognition. Psychoneu-
roendocrinology, 30, 1043–1049. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.psyneuen
.2005.04.008
Burke, P. J. (1991). Identity processes and social stress. American Socio-
logical Review, 56, 836849. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2096259
Carney, M. A., Armeli, S., Tennen, H., Affleck, G., & O’Neil, T. P. (2000).
Positive and negative daily events, perceived stress, and alcohol use: A
diary study. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 68, 788
798. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.68.5.788
Caselli, G., Bortolai, C., Leoni, M., Rovetto, F., & Spada, M. M. (2008).
Rumination in problem drinkers. Addiction Research & Theory, 16,
564–571. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/16066350802100822
Caselli, G., Ferretti, C., Leoni, M., Rebecchi, D., Rovetto, F., & Spada,
M. M. (2010). Rumination as a predictor of drinking behaviour in
alcohol abusers: A prospective study. Addiction, 105, 1041–1048. http://
dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1360-0443.2010.02912.x
This document is copyrighted by the American Psychological Association or one of its allied publishers.
This article is intended solely for the personal use of the individual user and is not to be disseminated broadly.
158 FRONE
Colquitt, J. A. (2001). On the dimensionality of organizational justice: A
construct validation of a measure. Journal of Applied Psychology, 86,
386400. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.86.3.386
Conger, J. J. (1956). Alcoholism: Theory, problem and challenge. II.
Reinforcement theory and the dynamics of alcoholism. Quarterly Jour-
nal of Studies on Alcohol, 17, 296–305.
Connors, G. J., & Maisto, S. A. (2003). Drinking reports from collateral
individuals. Addiction, 98(Suppl 2), 21–29.
Cooper, M. L., Frone, M. R., Russell, M., & Mudar, P. (1995). Drinking to
regulate positive and negative emotions: A motivational model of alco-
hol use. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 69, 990–1005.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.69.5.990
Cooper, M. L., Russell, M., & Frone, M. R. (1990). Work stress and
alcohol effects: A test of stress-induced drinking. Journal of Health and
Social Behavior, 31, 260–276. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2136891
Cropley, M., Michalianou, G., Pravettoni, G., & Millward, L. J. (2012).
The relation of post-work ruminative thinking with eating behaviour.
Stress and Health, 28, 23–30. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/smi.1397
Del Boca, F. K., & Darkes, J. (2003). The validity of self-reports of alcohol
consumption: State of the science and challenges for research. Addiction,
98(Suppl 2), 1–12.
Denollet, J. (2005). DS14: Standard assessment of negative affectivity,
social inhibition, and Type D personality. Psychosomatic Medicine, 67,
89–97. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/01.psy.0000149256.81953.49
Edwards, J. R., & Lambert, L. S. (2007). Methods for integrating moder-
ation and mediation: A general analytical framework using moderated
path analysis. Psychological Methods, 12, 1–22. http://dx.doi.org/
10.1037/1082-989X.12.1.1
Erblich, J., & Earleywine, M. (1995). Distraction does not impair memory
during intoxication: Support for the attention-allocation model. Journal
of Studies on Alcohol, 56, 444448.
Fritz, C., & Sonnentag, S. (2006). Recovery, well-being, and performance-
related outcomes: The role of workload and vacation experiences. Jour-
nal of Applied Psychology, 91, 936–945. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/
0021-9010.91.4.936
Frone, M. R. (1999). Work stress and alcohol use. Alcohol Research &
Health, 23, 284–291.
Frone, M. R. (2008). Are work stressors related to employee substance
use? The importance of temporal context in assessments of alcohol and
illicit drug use. Journal of Applied Psychology, 93, 199–206. http://dx
.doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.93.1.199
Frone, M. R. (2009). Does a permissive workplace substance use climate
affect employees who do not use alcohol and drugs at work? A U.S.
national study. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 23, 386–390. http://
dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0015965
Frone, M. R. (2013). Alcohol and illicit drug use in the workforce and
workplace. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/13944-000
Frone, M. R., Barnes, G. M., & Farrell, M. P. (1994). Relationship of
work–family conflict to substance use among employed mothers: The
role of negative affect. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 56, 1019
1030. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/353610
Glencross, D. J. (1990). Alcohol and human performance. Drug and Alcohol
Review, 9, 111–118. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09595239000185161
House, R. J., Schuler, R. S., & Levanoni, E. (1983). Role conflict and
ambiguity scales: Reality or artifact? Journal of Applied Psychology, 68,
334–337. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.68.2.334
Hu, L., & Bentler, P. M. (1999). Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance
structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Struc-
tural Equation Modeling, 6, 1–55. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/
10705519909540118
Hurrell, J. J., Jr., & McLaney, M. A. (1988). Exposure to job stress—A
new psychometric instrument. Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environ-
ment & Health, 14(Suppl 1), 27–28.
Ioannidis, J. P. A. (2008). Why most discovered true associations are
inflated. Epidemiology (Cambridge, Mass.), 19, 640648. http://dx.doi
.org/10.1097/EDE.0b013e31818131e7
Kawakami, N., Araki, S., Haratani, T., & Hemmi, T. (1993). Relations of
work stress to alcohol use and drinking problems in male and female
employees of a computer factory in Japan. Environmental Research, 62,
314–324. http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/enrs.1993.1116
Kenny, D. A., & Judd, C. M. (2014). Power anomalies in testing mediation.
Psychological Science, 25, 334–339. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/
0956797613502676
Korn, E., & Graubard, B. (1999). Analysis of health surveys. New York,
NY: Wiley. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/9781118032619
Levy, P. S., & Lemeshow, S. (1999). Sampling of populations: Methods
and applications (3rd ed.). New York, NY: Wiley.
Lisle, J., van Veldhoven, M., & Moors, S. (1998). Questionnaire on the
experience and evaluation of work (QEEW). Amsterdam, The Nether-
lands: National Institute for Working Conditions.
Martin, L. L., & Tesser, A. (1996). Some ruminative thoughts. In R. Wyer
Jr. (Ed.), Ruminative thoughts: Advances in social cognition (Vol. 11,
pp. 1–47). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Michl, L. C., McLaughlin, K. A., Shepherd, K., & Nolen-Hoeksema, S.
(2013). Rumination as a mechanism linking stressful life events to
symptoms of depression and anxiety: Longitudinal evidence in early
adolescents and adults. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 122, 339–352.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0031994
Muthén, L. K., & Muthén, B. O. (2012). Mplus user’s guide (Version 7).
Los Angeles, CA: Author.
National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. (2003). Recom-
mended alcohol questions. Bethesda, MD: Author. http://www.niaaa
.nih.gov/research/guidelines-and-resources/recommended-alcohol-
questions
Nielsen, I. K., Jex, S. M., & Adams, G. A. (2000). Development and
validation of scores on a two-dimensional workplace friendship scale.
Educational and Psychological Measurement, 60, 628643. http://dx
.doi.org/10.1177/00131640021970655
Nolen-Hoeksema, S., & Harrell, Z. A. (2002). Rumination, depression, and
alcohol use: Tests of gender differences. Journal of Cognitive Psycho-
therapy, 16, 391–403. http://dx.doi.org/10.1891/jcop.16.4.391.52526
Nolen-Hoeksema, S., Stice, E., Wade, E., & Bohon, C. (2007). Reciprocal
relations between rumination and bulimic, substance abuse, and depres-
sive symptoms in female adolescents. Journal of Abnormal Psychology,
116, 198–207. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-843X.116.1.198
Nolen-Hoeksema, S., Wisco, B. E., & Lyubomirsky, S. (2008). Rethinking
rumination. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 3, 400424. http://
dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-6924.2008.00088.x
Normand, J., Lempert, R. O., & O’Brien, C. P. (1994). Under the influ-
ence? Drugs and the American work force. Washington, DC: National
Academy Press.
Parker, S. K. (2014). Beyond motivation: Job and work design for devel-
opment, health, ambidexterity, and more. Annual Review of Psychology,
65, 661–691. http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-psych-010213-115208
Peterson, M. F., Smith, P. B., Akande, A., Ayestaran, S., Bochner, S.,
Callan, V.,...Sinha, T. N. (1995). Role conflict, ambiguity, and
overload: A 21-nation study. Academy of Management Journal, 38,
429452. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/256687
Preacher, K. J., Rucker, D. D., & Hayes, A. F. (2007). Addressing mod-
erated mediation hypotheses: Theory, methods, and prescriptions. Mul-
tivariate Behavioral Research, 42, 185–227. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/
00273170701341316
Querstret, D., & Cropley, M. (2013). Assessing treatments used to reduce
rumination and/or worry: A systematic review. Clinical Psychology
Review, 33, 996–1009. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cpr.2013.08.004
This document is copyrighted by the American Psychological Association or one of its allied publishers.
This article is intended solely for the personal use of the individual user and is not to be disseminated broadly.
159
WORK EXPERIENCES, WORK RUMINATION, AND ALCOHOL USE
Roman, P. M., & Blum, T. C. (1995). Employers. In R. H. Coombs &
D. M. Ziedonis (Eds.), Handbook on drug abuse prevention (pp. 129
158). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Sayette, M. A. (1999). Does drinking reduce stress? Alcohol Research &
Health, 23, 250–255.
Schmidt, F. L. (1992). What do data really mean? Research findings,
meta-analysis, and cumulative knowledge in psychology. American Psy-
chologist, 47, 1173–1181. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.47.10
.1173
Seligman, M. E. P., Steen, T. A., Park, N., & Peterson, C. (2005). Positive
psychology progress: Empirical validation of interventions. American
Psychologist, 60, 410421. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.60.5
.410
Sonnentag, S., & Grant, A. M. (2012). Doing good at work feels good at
home, but not right away: When and why perceived prosocial impact
predicts positive affect. Personnel Psychology, 65, 495–530. http://dx
.doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-6570.2012.01251.x
Spector, P. E., & Jex, S. M. (1998). Development of four self-report
measures of job stressors and strain: Interpersonal conflict at work scale,
organizational constraints scale, quantitative workload inventory, and
physical symptoms inventory. Journal of Occupational Health Psychol-
ogy, 3, 356–367. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/1076-8998.3.4.356
Steele, C. M., & Josephs, R. A. (1988). Drinking your troubles away. II: An
attention-allocation model of alcohol’s effect on psychological stress.
Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 97, 196–205. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/
0021-843X.97.2.196
Steele, C. M., & Josephs, R. A. (1990). Alcohol myopia. Its prized and
dangerous effects. American Psychologist, 45, 921–933. http://dx.doi
.org/10.1037/0003-066X.45.8.921
Tellegen, A. (1982). Brief manual for the multidimensional personality
questionnaire. Unpublished manuscript, University of Minnesota.
Terry, P. C., & Lane, A. M. (2003). User guide for the Brunel mood scale
(BRUMS). Unpublished manual, University of Southern Queensland.
Thoits, P. A. (1991). On merging identity theory and stress research. Social
Psychology Quarterly, 54, 101–102. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2786929
Turkkan, J. S. (2000). General issues in self-report. In A. A. Stone, J. S.
Turkkan, C. A. Bachrach, J. B. Jobe, H. S. Kurtzman, & V. S. Cain
(Eds.), The science of self-report: Implications for research and practice
(pp. 1–2). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
U.S. Office of Management and Budget. (2000). Standard occupational
classification manual. Lanham, MD: Bernan Press.
Vasse, R. M., Nijhuis, F. J. N., & Kok, G. (1998). Associations between
work stress, alcohol consumption and sickness absence. Addiction, 93,
231–241. http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1360-0443.1998.9322317.x
Volmer, J., Binnewies, C., Sonnentag, S., & Niessen, C. (2012). Do social
conflicts with customers at work encroach upon our private lives? A
diary study. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 17, 304–315.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0028454
Watkins, E. R. (2008). Constructive and unconstructive repetitive thought.
Psychological Bulletin, 134, 163–206. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0033-
2909.134.2.163
Watson, D., & Clark, L. A. (1994). The PANAS-X: Manual for the positive
and negative affect schedule—Expanded form. Unpublished manual,
Department of Psychology, University of Iowa. http://www2
.psychology.uiowa.edu/faculty/clark/panas-x.pdf
Whitmer, A. J., & Gotlib, I. H. (2013). An attentional scope model of
rumination. Psychological Bulletin, 139, 1036–1061. http://dx.doi.org/
10.1037/a0030923
Wolff, J. M., Rospenda, K. M., Richman, J. A., Liu, L., & Milner, L. A.
(2013). Work-family conflict and alcohol use: Examination of a mod-
erated mediation model. Journal of Addictive Diseases, 32, 85–98.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10550887.2012.759856
Appendix
Negative and Positive Work Rumination Scale (NAPWRS)
Interviewer-Administered Instructions:
I’m going to ask you several questions regarding the extent to
which you think about the positive and negative experiences you
have at work. These experiences can include things like the nature
of your work, your physical work environment, policies and pro-
cedures, interpersonal relations at work, or your successes and
failures.
Self-Administered Instructions:
Below are several questions regarding the extent to which you
think about the positive and negative experiences you have at work.
These experiences can include things like the nature of your work,
your physical work environment, policies and procedures, interper-
sonal relations at work, or your successes and failures. Please check
the box that best represents your answer to each question.
How often do you... Often Sometimes Rarely Never
1. find yourself preoccupied with positive aspects of your job even after you leave work? ee ee
2. replay negative work events in your mind even after you leave work? ee ee
3. think back to the good things that happened at work even when you’re away from work? ee ee
4. find yourself preoccupied with the negative aspects of your job even after you leave work? ee ee
5. keep thinking about the positive things that happened at work even when you’re away from work? ee ee
6. think back to the bad things that happened at work even when you’re away from work? ee ee
7. replay positive work events in your mind even after you leave work? ee ee
8. keep thinking about the negative things that happened at work even when you’re away from work? ee ee
Note. Odd number items represent positive work rumination and even number items represent negative work rumination.
Received April 1, 2014
Revision received October 9, 2014
Accepted October 14, 2014
This document is copyrighted by the American Psychological Association or one of its allied publishers.
This article is intended solely for the personal use of the individual user and is not to be disseminated broadly.
160 FRONE
1
Supplemental Materials
Relations of Negative and Positive Work Experiences to Employee Alcohol Use: Testing the
Intervening Role of Negative and Positive Work Rumination
by M. R. Frone, 2014, Journal of Occupational Health Psychology
http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0038375
Brief Description and Evaluation of the Negative and
Positive Work Rumination Scale (NAPWRS)
Development
To assess negative and positive work rumination, the Negative and Positive Work
Rumination Scale (NAPWRS) was developed for this study. After reviewing the general social
and clinical psychology literatures on rumination and perseverative cognition (see main article for
relevant references), definitions were formulated for negative and positive work rumination.
Negative work rumination was defined as preoccupation with and repetitive thoughts focused on
negative work experiences that may extend beyond the workday. Positive work rumination was
defined as preoccupation with and repetitive thoughts focused on positive work experiences that
may extend beyond the workday. After developing these definitions, a new set of items and an
instructional set was developed. Hinkin (1998) refers to this as the deductive approach to
measure development because a strong conceptual definition provides adequate information to
generate a set of items, as well as an instructional set. The initial set of instructions and six items
was drafted by Author. These materials were subsequently revised by an expert in measure
development and survey design (Expert), which were again revised by Author 1. Several iterative
cycles of revisions occurred until a set of eight items were developed and the Author and Expert
were satisfied with the instructions and items (see Appendix in main article). That is, the
instructions and items had a high level of fidelity to the proposed definitions. During this
2
iterative process of item development and refinement, the instructions and items were sent to an
outside content expert, whose comments were incorporated into the refinement of the items.
Furthermore, for maximally interpretable comparisons of means, prevalence rates, and the
relative strength of relations involving predictors and outcomes across the two dimension of work
rumination, the items assessing negative and positive rumination were developed to be fully
commensurate. Drawing from the person-environment fit (e.g., Edwards & Shipp, 2007) and
integrative data analysis (e.g., Hussong, Curran, & Bauer, 2013) literatures, fully commensurate
measures have two features. First, conceptual equivalence requires that the two dimensions of
work rumination are described in the same terms, have the same number of items, and have the
same conceptual meaning. More specifically, the wording of the two sets of items used to assess
negative and positive work rumination should be parallel in construction, differing only in the
valence of the work experiences that serve as the source of ruminative thoughts (see Appendix in
main article). Second, metric equivalence means that the measures of negative and positive work
rumination need to employ the same metric or response scale.
Evaluation of the NAPWRS
The psychometric properties and construct validity of the NAPWRS was assessed using
the sample described and findings presented in the main article, as well as the supplemental
analyses reported below.
Psychometric properties. The factor structure of the NAPWRS was assessed with
confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) taking into account sampling weights and the ordinal
indicator variables (see Data Analysis section in the main article for more detail). A one factor
model provided a very poor fit to the data: χ2 (df = 20, N = 2,831) = 5,296.38, p<.001; CFI = .833;
TLI = .766; and RMSEA = .305 (90% CI [.298, .312]). In contrast, the hypothesized correlated
3
two-factor model provided an excellent fit to the data: χ2 (df = 19, N = 2,831) = 46.79, p<.001;
CFI = .999; TLI = .999; and RMSEA = .023 (90% CI [.015, .031]). Further supporting the two
factor model, all items loaded highly on their respective factors. The average of the standardize
loadings was .89 (range = .82 to .93) for negative rumination and .83 (range = .69 to .91) for
positive rumination. The two dimensions of work rumination were not highly correlated (r = .08,
p < .01). Finally, the two measures exhibited high internal consistency reliability—.91 for
negative work rumination and .86 for positive work rumination.
Construct validity. The structural equation modeling results reported in the main study,
and additional analyses described below, provide initial support for the convergent, discriminant,
and predictive validity of the NAPWRS. In terms of convergent and discriminant validity, the
measurement model in Table 2 of the main article was consistent with the two-factor CFA
reported above and showed that the negative and positive rumination items loaded highly on their
respective latent variables: .89 (range = .82 to .93) for negative rumination and .84 (range = .71 to
.91) for positive rumination. Furthermore, an examination of the modification indices suggested
that the rumination items would not have loaded highly on any of the other nine substantive latent
variables. Specifically, the modification indices for the 72 cross-factor loadings involving the
eight rumination items and the other nine latent variables revealed that the expected size of the
standardized cross-factor loadings if they were to be freely estimated ranged from -.11 to .13.
Finally, the size of the relation between the two ruminations measures and other constructs in the
model (see Table 1 and Figure 2 in the main article) support the discriminant validity of the
negative and positive work rumination measures.
Because negative and positive affect were covariates in the main analyses, they were not
explicitly included in the measurement model. Therefore, to provide discriminant validity
4
evidence that negative and positive work rumination are distinct from negative and positive
affect, an additional set of CFAs were estimated. These analyses used the eight rumination items
and six indicator variables representing affect. To create the six affect indicator variables from
the 18 emotion adjectives (see Methods section in the main article), six sets of three emotion
adjectives were averaged to create three negative affect variables (sadness, anxiety, and anger)
and three positive affect variables (happiness, confidence, and vigor).
I first estimated a one factor model, which provided a very poor fit to the data: χ2 (df = 83,
N = 2,807) = 7,169.14, p<.001; CFI = .759; TLI = .735; and RMSEA = .174 (90% CI [.171,
.178]). Next, I estimated a correlated two-factor model where the four negative rumination items
and the three negative affect variables loaded on a general negativity factor, and the four positive
rumination items and the three positive affect variables loaded on a general positivity factor. This
model fit better than the one factor model, but still exhibited a poor fit to the data: χ2 (df = 76, N =
2,807) = 2,691.494, p<.001; CFI = .911; TLI = .893; and RMSEA = .111 (90% CI [.107, .114]).
Finally, I estimated a correlated four-factor model representing negative work rumination,
positive work rumination, negative affect, and positive affect. This model fit substantially better
than the correlated two-factor model and provided an excellent fit to the data: χ2 (df = 71, N =
2,807) = 193.84, p<.001; CFI = .996; TLI = .995; and RMSEA = .025 (90% CI [.023, .029]).
The results from the correlated four-factor model showed that the variables loaded highly
on their respective factors. The average standardized loadings were: .89 (range = .83 to .93) for
negative rumination, .83 (range = .70 to .91) for positive rumination, .71 (range = .65 to .82) for
negative affect, and .78 (range = .75 to 81) for positive affect. Furthermore, an examination of
the modification indices found no evidence for possible cross-factor loadings for any of the
rumination and affect items. Specifically, the modification indices for the 28 cross-factor
5
loadings between the eight rumination items and two affect factors and the six affect indicators
and the two rumination factors revealed that the expected size of the standardized cross-factor
loadings if they were to be freely estimated ranged from -.19 to .11, with an average absolute
value of .05. Finally, the correlations between the rumination factors and affect factors further
support the discriminant validity of the rumination constructs. Negative rumination correlated .49
with negative affect and -.25 with positive affect. Positive rumination correlated .33 with positive
affect and -.10 with negative affect (also see Tables 1 and 4 in the main article).
Further supporting the convergent and discriminant validity of the NAPWRS, Table 1,
Table 4 and Figure 2 generally show that negative work rumination was positively related to
negative work experiences and negative affect, and was unrelated to positive work experiences
and positive affect. In contrast, positive work rumination was generally positively related to
positive work experiences and positive affect, and was unrelated to negative work experiences
and negative affect.
Finally, in terms of predictive validity, consistent with expectations from Steele and
Josephs (1988, 1990) attention-allocation model, negative work rumination was positively related
and positive work rumination was negatively related to alcohol use.
In summary, the results of this study suggest that the NAPWRS is psychometrically sound
and provides evidence for its construct validity.
Comparison of the NAPWRS to Other Measures of Work-Related Ruminative Processes
Because research on work rumination is a new and developing area of occupational health
psychology, it would be useful to provide a conceptual comparison of the NAPWRS to two other
existing measures of work-related ruminative processes. As noted earlier, the NAPWRS was
developed to assess the extent to which individuals engaged in perseverative cognition about
6
negative and positive work experiences. Further, the items assessed repetitive thinking that could
occur during the workday and extend into nonwork hours. At the time the NAPWRS was being
developed in 2008, Fritz and Sonnentag (2006) had published a work reflection measure with
three-item assessments of negative and positive work reflection. However, this measure did not
meet the needs of the present study for two reasons. First, the items asked about work reflection
during leisure time. Therefore, the reporting period did not reflect the totality of repetitive
thinking across the workday and any nonwork time. Second, and more importantly, the work
reflection items did not seem to capture repetitive thinking about negative and positive work
experiences. For example, consider one item from the negative work reflection scale: During
vacation, I realized what I did not like about my job. Consistent with the construct name,
negative work reflection, the item assesses a perhaps one-time reflective self-discovery process
relating to one’s job. Therefore, even if a person answered totally true to this question, one might
still ask about the extent to which the person engaged in repetitive thinking about the negative
aspect of their job once it was realized. The same issue carries over to the positive work
reflection items (e.g., During vacation, I realized what I like about my job).
At the time data collection for the present study was in the final stages in 2012, Cropley,
Michalianou, Pravettoni, and Milward (2012) published the Work-Related Rumination
Questionnaire (WRRQ). The WRRQ items assess three dimensions—affective rumination,
problem-solving rumination, and detachment. The WRRQ differs from the NAPWRS in two
important ways. First, the WRRQ does not assess positive work rumination. Second, the three
dimensions do not directly assess the extent to which individuals engage in repetitive thinking
about their negative work experiences. For example, the affective rumination scale assesses the
frequency of experiencing negative affective reactions that result from ruminating about work,
7
rather than assessing the frequency of repetitive thoughts about negative work experiences or
events per se (e.g., “Do you become tense when you think about work-related issues during your
free time?”). The problem-solving rumination measure assesses the extent to which individuals
think about what they need to do at work or about ways to do things better (e.g., “After work, I
tend to think of how I can improve my work performance”). Although this construct may be
predictive of constructive outcomes because it may capture a form of active or adaptive coping, it
does not represent an assessment of negative or positive work rumination as defined in this study.
Finally, the detachment scale assesses the extent to which individuals are able to detach or
disengage from work (e.g., Do you find it easy to unwind from work?). The level of work
detachment is a potential outcome of work rumination as conceptualized in the NAPWRS.
In summary, an examination of the NAPWRS, the work reflection measure (Fritz &
Sonnentag, 2006), and the WRRQ (Cropley et al., 2012) suggests that these measures do not
assess the same constructs and conceptually are not substitutes for one another. Consistent with
the broader rumination literature (see Watkins, 2008), these three measures may assess different
and important aspects of the general work-related ruminative process, and therefore more than
one measure may be useful in the same study. The researcher interested in work rumination
needs to evaluate each measure to determine which will be most useful for a particular study.
Moreover, future research assessing and comparing two or more of these work-rumination
measures would be useful for a broader assessment of their construct validity.
8
References
Cropley, M., Michalianou, G, Pravettoni, G., & Milward, L. J. (2012). The relation of post-work
ruminative thinking with eating behavior. Stress and Health, 28, 23-30.
Edwards, J. R., & Shipp, A. J. (2007). The relationship between person-environment fit and
outcomes: An integrative theoretical framework. In C. Ostroff & T.A. Judge (Eds.),
Perspectives on organizational fit (pp. 209-258). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Fritz, C., & Sonnentag, S. (2006). Recovery, well-being, and performance-related outcomes:
The role workload and vacation experiences. Journal of Applied Psychology, 91, 936-
945.
Hinkin, T. R. (1998). A brief tutorial on the development of measures for use in survey
questionnaires. Organizational Research Methods, 1, 104-121.
Hussong, A. M., Curran, P. J., & Bauer, D. J. (2013). Integrative data analysis in clinical
psychology research. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 9, 61-89.
Steele, C. M., & Josephs, R. A. (1988). Drinking your troubles away. II: An attention-allocation
model of alcohol’s effect on psychological stress. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 97,
196–205.
Steele, C. M., & Josephs, R. A. (1990). Alcohol myopia: Its prized and dangerous effects.
American Psychologist, 45, 921-933.
Watkins, E. R. (2008). Constructive and unconstructive repetitive thought. Psychological
Bulletin, 134, 163-206.
... Positive work reflection may be seen as a specific form of savouring (Bryant, 1989), focusing on positive thoughts about one's work. Some authors use the term 'positive work rumination' to capture similar positively toned thought processes related to one's job (Frone, 2015). ...
... In addition, people who reflected positively about work during non-work time reported an increase in proactive work behaviour, organizational citizenship behaviour, and creativity over a sixmonth period (Binnewies, Sonnentag, & Mojza, 2009). Moreover, positive work reflection is associated with affective commitment (Jiang & Johnson, 2018) and work-life enrichment (Daniel & Sonnentag, 2014), whereas the lack of it was found to be positively related to alcohol consumption (Frone, 2015). Current research addressing within-person fluctuation of positive work reflection demonstrated the affective benefits of positive work reflection at the day level with short timeframes. ...
... In concert with research on work events and work experiences as predictors of work reflection (Demsky, Fritz, Hammer, & Black, 2019;Frone, 2015), our findings demonstrate that work experiences and work-related cognitions during the evening are reciprocally interconnected. Work events and experiences trigger work-related cognitions during evening time, which then become associated with work experiences during the next day. ...
Article
Unwinding and recovering from everyday work is important for sustaining employees’ well-being, motivation, and job performance. Accordingly, research on work recovery has grown tremendously in the past few decades. This article summarizes research on recovery during work breaks, leisure-time evenings, weekends, and vacations. Focusing on day-level and longitudinal field studies, the article describes predictors as well as outcomes of recovery in different recovery settings and addresses potential between-group and cross-cultural differences. It presents findings from intervention research demonstrating that recovery processes can be improved by deliberate training programs. The article then discusses how future recovery research can address emerging themes relevant to the future of work—changing boundaries between work and nonwork life, increased reliance on teams and technology, and changes in employment arrangements. We conclude with an overall summary, open research questions, directions for methodological improvements, and practical implications. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Organizational Psychology and Organizational Behavior, Volume 9 is January 2022. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.
... Accordingly, we propose that individuals will be motivated to engage in behaviors that reduce these repetitive, unpleasant cognitions. One way that individuals may cope with such rumination is through alcohol consumption, as it reduces attentional capacities and in turn allows individuals to temporarily escape from their sustained ruminative thoughts (Frone, 2015;Steele & Josephs, 1990). Further, since rumination depletes individuals of cognitive executive functioning resources (Denson et al., 2012), individuals may be less able to control the amount of alcohol consumed. ...
... Further, since rumination depletes individuals of cognitive executive functioning resources (Denson et al., 2012), individuals may be less able to control the amount of alcohol consumed. Meta-analytic evidence supports this assertion, indicating that at the person-level, rumination (both general and work-related) is associated with more health risk behaviors, including increased negative eating behaviors (Cropley et al., 2012) and alcohol consumption (Clancy et al., 2016;Frone, 2015). ...
... Emotionally disturbing work was measured with a two-item scale developed by Frone (2015), which was adapted to refer to the past week. Participants were asked to report how often they witnessed emotionally disturbing events at work over the past 7 days (1 = never; 5 = always). ...
Article
The burgeoning occupational callings literature has shown that feeling called to a job is associated with an array of positive job-, career-, and health-related outcomes. However, recent studies have begun to indicate that there may also be a "negative side" of callings. The present study builds on this emerging perspective to examine whether feeling called to a job makes helping professionals more vulnerable to the negative effects of acute stressors. Specifically, we integrated identity, cognitive rumination, and psychological detachment theories to explain how feeling called to one's job (i.e., the strength of one's calling intensity) might bolster the negative, indirect relationship between emotionally disturbing work and strain (i.e., mental exhaustion, sleep quality, and alcohol consumption) through negative work rumination. Results from a 10-week diary study with a national U.S. sample of 211 paramedics revealed that on weeks that paramedics experienced more emotionally disturbing work, they engaged in greater levels of negative work rumination, which in turn was associated with greater mental exhaustion and worse sleep quality, but not greater alcohol consumption. In addition, calling intensity moderated the indirect effect of emotionally disturbing work on both mental exhaustion and sleep quality, such that these indirect effects were stronger among those with higher (vs. lower) levels of calling intensity. These results provide evidence that employees who feel most called to their jobs may be particularly vulnerable to short-term negative outcomes associated with emotionally disturbing work. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved).
... We used Frone's (2015) Negative and Positive Work Rumination Scale (four items, 1 = 'never', 7 = 'always', α = 0.92). A sample item was 'Even after work, I still remember the negative events at work'. ...
... We also drew from the cultural learning perspective of gossip (Baumeister et al., 2004) to argue that newcomers may engage in negative rumination when receiving NWG and subsequently report higher job anxiety (Martinescu et al., 2014). Our results were consistent with this theory, as we found that individuals who received NWG engaged in negative rumination, a conscious cognitive process (Frone, 2015 (Hauke & Abele, 2020). This is particularly necessary because until recently (Brady et al., 2017), gossip has predominately been treated as a dyadic action with cooperation from both ends (e.g., Grosser et al., 2012;Ellwardt, Steglich, & Wittek, 2012, Ellwardt, Wittek, & Wielers, 2012, suggesting that gossip can impact the initiator and the receiver in similar ways. ...
Article
Full-text available
As research regarding the targets and initiators of workplace gossip is gaining traction, one perspective that remains overlooked is the gossip receiver. Organizational newcomers are a particularly relevant population to study the impact of receiving negative gossip on because they use social information to navigate an unfamiliar organizational terrain. We propose a parallel moderated mediation model in which receiving negative gossip has contradicting effects on newcomer job anxiety through perceived social inclusion and negative rumination, and agreeableness as a boundary condition of the effects of receiving negative gossip. We collected data from 202 newcomers using a four-wave time-lagged design and found that receiving negative gossip increased newcomer job anxiety via negative rumination but did not decrease job anxiety via perceived social inclusion. Further, agreeableness moderated the effect of receiving negative gossip on negative rumination (but not perceived social inclusion) such that the effect of receiving negative gossip on negative rumination was stronger for less agreeable newcomers. Lastly, the indirect effect of receiving negative gossip on job anxiety via negative rumination was stronger for less agreeable newcomers. Theoretical and practical implications specific to gossip and newcomers are discussed.
... Previous research also shows rumination at work is related to decreased productivity (Frone, 2015;Querstret & Cropley, 2012). Negative affect at work is also associated with poor work performance (Kaplan et al., 2009). ...
Article
Full-text available
Despite increased media coverage of police using lethal force against Black civilians, little research aims to understand how such events affect employees, particularly Black employees, at work. We draw on spillover—transferring emotions and/or behaviors from one domain to another—to examine how collective, indirect trauma, or trauma experienced by a large group of people not directly involved in an event, affected employees at work. Across two studies, we investigated Black and White employees’ differential cognitive (Study 1), emotional, and interpersonal reactions (Studies 1 & 2) to hearing about police officers’ use of lethal force against Black civilians (i.e., collective, indirect racial trauma). Results from a survey with open- and close-ended questions (Study 1) supported our predictions that Black (vs. White) employees would be more upset about police shootings and would think about, talk about, and be more distracted by these incidents while at work. Open-ended responses revealed social support, seeking advice and comfort from our social networks, as a strategy Black and White employees may use to cope with collective, indirect racial trauma at work. Importantly, support communicating mutual understanding—or shared perspective—was particularly important for Black employees. An experiment (Study 2) further probed the emotional and relational consequences of interactions with coworkers and, counter to predictions, found coworkers who expressed pro-police attitudes (i.e., not communicating mutual understanding) in the aftermath of a racially biased shooting were negatively evaluated by Black and White employees. Our findings provide implications for research on spillover and understanding coworker/team dynamics in organizations.
... Indeed, the stressors that employees have to face at work may lead to high levels of negative psycho-biological activation (Ilies et al., 2010;Sonnentag & Fritz, 2006) and negative affect (Rodell & Judge, 2009;Volmer et al., 2012), which linger after work. Such high levels of negative activation make it harder for employees to detach from work during non-work hours as they may remain preoccupied with the stressors that caused this negative activation, worry or vent about those demands, try to find solutions to deal with them, in sum, ruminate (Cropley & Purvis, 2003;Frone, 2015). This negative reflection is, in essence, incompatible with psychological detachment (Sonnentag & Fritz, 2007). ...
Article
This study examined how individual strategies (boundary creation around information and communication technology; ICT) and job stressors (work‐related extended availability) relate to psychological detachment, and how the latter associates with employees' behaviors (presenteeism) and attitudes (family life satisfaction). This research also explored the moderating role of performance‐based self‐esteem in these relationships. Questionnaire surveys were collected among 321 teachers in Sample 1 and 283 workers in Sample 2. Results from Sample 1 revealed that boundary creation surrounding ICT was positively linked to psychological detachment but only among employees with low performance‐based self‐esteem. Results from Sample 2 indicated that work‐related extended availability negatively related to psychological detachment but only among employees with high performance‐based self‐esteem. In addition, psychological detachment was associated with lower levels of presenteeism (Samples 1 and 2) and higher levels of family‐life satisfaction (Sample 2). More generally, these results confirm performance‐based self‐esteem to be a maladaptive individual characteristic, adding up to a negative cycle of stressors to decrease psychological detachment, in turn leading to maladaptive functioning.
... The process of problem-solving enables individuals to generate positive emotions and obtain pleasant experiences. Research (Frone, 2015) has shown that these two dimensions affect an individual's work and life. Work-related rumination belongs to continuous cognition, which is essentially a cognitive evaluation. ...
Article
Full-text available
This study extended the Wellbeing Process Questionnaire by adding new variables, namely a multi-dimensional demands measure and work-related rumination. One hundred and nine employees from a variety of jobs in mainland China participated in the survey. The Wellbeing Process Questionnaire contained 38 questions measuring 11 dimensions. The results showed that the scales had good reliability. Analyses controlling for the combined effects of established predictors of well-being showed that work uncertainty negatively impacted well-being. Affective rumination was negatively associated with well-being, whereas problem-solving pondering was positively associated with well-being. The combined effects of established predictors of well-being must be controlled when assessing the impact of other variables. When this was done, unpredictable job demands and rumination were shown to be associated with well-being. The present study aimed to extend research on job demands and investigate the effects of rumination on well-being. These two topics were placed in the context of the Demands-Resources-Individual Effects model and recent developments in measuring the well-being process. These are introduced in the following sections.
... Rumination refers to a way or process of thinking that individuals habitually do toward the past (Brinker & Dozois, 2009). Individuals with high rumination tend to review their life regrets and ruminate on negative events in the past (Frone, 2015). Therefore, rumination indicates the belief that one's environment is uncontrollable, and failures inevitably emerge in one's mind (Martin & Tesser, 2006;Shigemoto et al., 2017). ...
Article
Full-text available
Subjective well-being (SWB) varies within a person. However, even though previous studies have paid attention to why people with a more proactive personality have higher SWB, they have ignored how proactive personality influences an individual’s state SWB using a within-person approach. According to the time perspective, we propose that proactive personality positively influences an individual’s weekly SWB. Moreover, we propose that weekly rumination, weekly mindfulness, and weekly future optimism—which represent the past, present, and future time perspective, respectively—mediate the relationship between proactive personality and weekly SWB. Using a multilevel model, including 97 people and 388 within-person data points, we found that proactive personality positively influences an individual’s weekly SWB. Only the mediation of weekly future optimism underlying this relationship was supported. We discuss the theoretical and practical implications of our findings.
Article
Full-text available
This paper focuses on the topic of alcohol and wellbeing in contemporary work organisations. It explores the relationship between stakeholders’ viewpoints regarding alcohol in the workplace and how they have shaped organisational practices regarding wellbeing. The work of Michel Foucault is used to explore these issues. The notions of power, knowledge and discipline are identified as key Foucauldian themes that offer an alternative understanding of how discourses on alcohol are shaped in the United Kingdom workplace. The paper combines certain stages of Checkland’s Soft Systems Methodology and Foucault’s Poststructuralist approach in addressing the topic. Foucault’s method of analysis, particularly archaeology and genealogy, is used to explore how and why certain discourses surrounding alcohol in the workplace become dominant over time. Qualitative cases with semi-structured interviews in knowledge-intensive firms were adopted to capture contrasting, varied experiences and perceptions of these organisational actors and shed light on alcohol and wellbeing and its relationships with the power dimension.
Chapter
The search for new market opportunities in order to expand operations has been on the increase globally, and organizations are progressively pouring their resources into these expansions probably because of the huge turnover and return on investment derived from new market explorations. Multinational corporations (MNCs) that seek the market expansions in other developing countries transfer specific advantages and benefits to the emerging markets in order to operate effectively. The MNCs are required by law to comply with the legal obligations, local regulations, and cultural adaptations in the bid to transfer specific advantages. The situation becomes more complex because of the different cultures in different countries. New strategies are introduced to resolve the new challenges that each new market entrance offers. These strategies pose tremendous risk to expanding markets and their operations, especially to developing markets. Recommendations are suggested to HRM practitioners and scholars, and issues are considers for future research.
Article
Full-text available
How should data be interpreted to optimize the possibilities for cumulative scientific knowledge? Many believe that traditional data interpretation procedures based on statistical significance tests reduce the impact of sampling error on scientific inference. Meta-analysis shows that the significance test actually obscures underlying regularities and processes in individual studies and in research literatures, leading to systematically erroneous conclusions. Meta-analysis methods can solve these problems-and have done so in some areas. However, mela-analysis represents more than merely a change in methods of data analysis. It requires major changes in the way psychologists view the general research process. Views of the scientific value of the individual empirical study, the current reward structure in research, and even the fundamental nature of scientific discovery may change.
Article
This study explores the dimensionality of organizational justice and provides evidence of construct validity for a new justice measure. Items for this measure were generated by strictly following the seminal works in the justice literature. The measure was then validated in 2 separate studies. Study 1 occurred in a university setting, and Study 2 occurred in a field setting using employees in an automobile parts manufacturing company. Confirmatory factor analyses supported a 4-factor structure to the measure, with distributive, procedural, interpersonal, and informational justice as distinct dimensions. This solution fit the data significantly better than a 2- or 3-factor solution using larger interactional or procedural dimensions. Structural equation modeling also demonstrated predictive validity for the justice dimensions on important outcomes, including leader evaluation, rule compliance, commitment, and helping behavior.
Article
Half TitleSeries InfoTitleCopyrightDedicationContentsPreface
Article
Studies that combine moderation and mediation are prevalent in basic and applied psychology research. Typically, these studies are framed in terms of moderated mediation or mediated moderation, both of which involve similar analytical approaches. Unfortunately, these approaches have important shortcomings that conceal the nature of the moderated and the mediated effects under investigation. This article presents a general analytical framework for combining moderation and mediation that integrates moderated regression analysis and path analysis. This framework clarifies how moderator variables influence the paths that constitute the direct, indirect, and total effects of mediated models. The authors empirically illustrate this framework and give step-by-step instructions for estimation and interpretation. They summarize the advantages of their framework over current approaches, explain how it subsumes moderated mediation and mediated moderation, and describe how it can accommodate additional moderator and mediator variables, curvilinear relationships, and structural equation models with latent variables.