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The Benefits of Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) System Implementation in Dry Food Packaging Industry

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The corporate competitive environment is being liberalized and globalized, therefore the organizations, especially dry food packaging industry, need greater interaction between their stakeholders. One of the problems organizations face to is the segregation of the business functions in an organization. Thus, the business experienced to implement ERP systems for solving this problem. In contrast, the ERP projects have not been effective enough and hence have been unable to achieve all the results envisaged. Therefore, an in depth understanding about the benefits of ERP implementation is needed to ensure the successful system implementation. This study seeks to determine and classify the benefits of ERP system implementation in dry food packaging industry. The methodology of this research comprised of three phases: define the benefits of ERP system implementation from the current literatures, categorize them into strategic, tactical and operational benefits in each business functions in an organization. These ERP benefits are summarized in this paper as a research finding to assist the managers in implementing ERP system successfully.
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Procedia Technology 11 ( 2013 ) 220 226
2212-0173 © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Selection and peer-review under responsibility of the Faculty of Information Science & Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia.
doi: 10.1016/j.protcy.2013.12.184
The 4th International Conference on Electrical Engineering and Informatics (ICEEI 2013)
The Benefits of Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) System
Implementation in Dry Food Packaging Industry
Samira Sadrzadehrafieia,
*
, Abdoulmohammad Gholamzadeh Chofrehb, Negin Karimi
Hosseinia, Riza Sulaimana
aFaculty of Information Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600, Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia
bFaculty of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310, Skudai, Johor, Malaysia
Abstract
The corporate competitive environment is being liberalized and globalized, therefore the organizations, especially dry food
packaging industry, need greater interaction between their stakeholders. One of the problems organizations face to is the
segregation of the business functions in an organization. Thus, the business experienced to implement ERP systems for solving
this problem. In contrast, the ERP projects have not been effective enough and hence have been unable to achieve all the results
envisaged. Therefore, an in depth understanding about the benefits of ERP implementation is needed to ensure the successful
system implementation. This study seeks to determine and classify the benefits of ERP system implementation in dry food
packaging industry. The methodology of this research comprised of three phases: define the benefits of ERP system
implementation from the current literatures, categorize them into strategic, tactical and operational benefits in each business
functions in an organization. These ERP benefits are summarized in this paper as a research finding to assist the managers in
implementing ERP system successfully.
© 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Selection and peer-review under responsibility of the Faculty of Information Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan
Malaysia.
Keywords: Enterprise Resource Planning; ERP benefit; ERP implementation; Dry food packaging industry.
* Corresponding author.
E-mail address: samirasadr24@yahoo.com
Available online at www.sciencedirect.com
© 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Selection and peer-review under responsibility of the Faculty of Information Science & Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan
Malaysia.
ScienceDirect
221
Samira Sadrzadehrafi ei et al. / Procedia Technology 11 ( 2013 ) 220 – 226
1. Introduction
Previously businesses have been functioning as an organizational structure which had separated the functional
fields, therefore each functional field has separated the departments. In this way, every department is completely
isolated from other departments. For instance marketing and sales might be separated from supply chain
management. Thus, we might conclude that what happens in one department is not closely related to other
departments. These departments are interdependent, each requiring data and information from others [1].
Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) is one the latest technologies that many organizations have undertaken [2].
ERP system is an enterprise-wide package that integrates all necessary business functions into a single system with a
shared database. These software packages can be customized up to a certain limit to the specific needs of each
organization [3]. ERP was characterized as the most important development in the corporate use of technology in
the 1990s [4]. Unfortunately, many ERP projects have not been effective enough and hence have been unable to
achieve all the results envisaged [2, 5, and 6]. As the cost of an ERP implementation project is very high, it is
critical for an organization to make the project a success and start obtaining benefits out of it as fast as possible [6].
But what is it that makes an ERP implementation project successful is important to be explored. This study aims to
help enterprises successfully implement ERP system by defining and categorizing the benefits in implementing ERP
system.
2. Literature Review
In recent decades, the global economic deterioration caused distress on the cost of food and food packaging
industries are facing, in the same as adjustment has increased and exploration on the supply chain has aggravated.
ERP helps companies manage cost and monitor their supply chains. Food packaging companies and their suppliers
worldwide are looking to ERP systems to streamline their businesses and shift from manual system to automatic
information management systems. A holistic ERP system can replace multiple databases with a single and
centralized data source, with information relating to products, services, customers and suppliers accessible by
anyone in a company. These interconnected and robust systems can be powerful, integrating internal and external
management information across an entire organization [7].
2.1. Dry food packaging industry
The dry food packaging company is an industry in the manufacturing sector that supply packaging for dry food.
The business processes of this industry cover moving, storing goods, and shipping items. For dry food packaging
industries, package design and shipping are the most important business activities. When package design does not
follow the standard requirement, several issues may occur, such as failure to protect the product and failure to fulfill
the demand of customers [8]. A case study from Ace Packaging show that the common challenges to be faced by
food packaging industries are multi-site operations, multiple modes of manufacturing, inaccurate job tracking,
inadequate inventory control, dragon delivery, and reliance on outdated information [9]. In order to better integrate
and coordinate manufacturing, inventory and assembly functions between all locations, dry food packaging
industries need to implement ERP system as a solution. By implementing ERP systems, dry food packaging
industries may attain a number of benefits include coordination of enterprise-wide operations, inventory control
functionality, rapid real-time data sharing, customizable interfaces, and scalable for growing business [10].
The aims of ERP systems are ambitious: to enhance the ability of the food packaging industries to operate safely,
efficiently and effectively, minimizing costs, while ensuring proper labeling, handling of raw ingredients and food
safety. In short, food packaging industries need to communicate and process information at full capacity, to meet
demands. Some additional benefits of ERP systems for food packaging industries include tracking production costs
and quality during each stage of the manufacturing process [7].
222 Samira Sadrzadehrafi ei et al. / Procedia Technology 11 ( 2013 ) 220 – 226
2.2. Current literature on ERP benefits
ERP system provides a number of advantages for firms to improve the organisation performance. Based on
information perspective, ERP system adoption can improve the interaction between the business functions and the
information is more reachable. For other issues related to the interaction between firm with the customers and
suppliers, such as product delivery and inventory control management, have less influence [11 and 12]. ERP
systems have more advantages in information quality and the integration of business processes and operations, but it
does not decrease the information technology costs [11]. Based on Shang and Seddon [11], ERP systems have
several benefits, which can be attained by organisation. These benefits are differed into five major benefits, include
operational benefit, managerial benefit; strategic benefit, IT infrastructure, and organisational benefit. The research
contribution from Shang and Seddon is comparable to Garg and Venkitakrishnan [13], who identified the intangible
benefits of ERP system implementation, include better customer satisfaction, improve vendor performance, increase
flexibility, reduce quality costs, improve resource utility, improve information accuracy, and improved decision-
making capability. Olhager and Selldin [14] identified tangible benefits of ERP system, include reduction of lead
time, on-time shipments, double business, increase of inventory turns to over, cycle time, and work in progress.
Even though the previous researches defined and categorised the ERP benefits, there is still less research that
categorises these benefits into each of business functions and decisional area. Moreover these ERP benefits did not
focus on particular industry. In this study, therefore, the researchers determine the benefits of ERP systems
implementation in dry food packaging industry. The next section of this paper describes research methodology,
research discussion and the significance of ERP system implementation.
3. Research Methodology
This research consists of four phases, which are shown in Fig 1 below. The first phase is reviewing the
literatures, include published journals and proceedings, vendor’s websites, and case study. Phase two discusses the
ERP benefits categorisation, which is divided based on business functions and decisional paradigm. For the next
phase, the researcher explains the benefites of ERP system implementation in dry food packaging. In the last phase,
the benefits of ERP system implementation are summarised from current literatures.
Fig. 1. The activities of analyzing the ERP benefits.
4. Discussion
As mentioned in Table 1 below, one of the strategic benefits of supplier is to improve supplier performance. By
implementing an ERP system, the suppliers track the demand of the company by accessing the data from sales and
marketing department and supply the items to complete the inventory of the company. This ERP benefit gives an
advantage to the suppliers, with the intention that they are able to track the trend of customer demands and supply
the company’s raw materials faster. Furthermore, the tactical benefits can be earned by an organization for short
Phase 1: Gather the benefits of ERP system implementation from
the literature review
Phase 2: Categorise the ERP benefits into strategic, tactical and
operational benefits in each business functions
Phase 3: Analyse the ERP benefits based on business processes in dry
food packaging industry and their advantages to the organisation
Phase 4: The summarisation of ERP benefits
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Samira Sadrzadehrafi ei et al. / Procedia Technology 11 ( 2013 ) 220 – 226
term plan. For instance, the implementation of ERP systems in dry food packaging companies directly force its
suppliers to implement ERP systems. This benefit gives an advantage for dry food packaging industries in
improving their performance. Lastly, operational benefit enabled the integration of data and information between
suppliers and dry food packaging company. This capability improves the suppliers’ performance to fulfil the
company’s demands.
Figure 2 illustrates the summarization of ERP benefits, which are divided into four internal corporate
relationships: operations and logistics, financials, human resources, and sales and marketing; and two external
corporate relationships: suppliers and customers. By implementing ERP systems, an organization can earn the ERP
benefits in every part of corporate relationships. For example, every internal corporate relationship can improve
their information accuracy, speed, quality, and availability. Moreover, the suppliers and customers can increase the
interaction with the organization.In addition, these benefits are also categorized into three levels: strategic, tactical
and operational benefits, in each internal and external corporate relationship. The strategic benefit defines as the
benefits that an organization can earn from the ERP implementation for long term benefits.
The research is significant and important both from the theoretical and practical standpoints. From the theoretical
perspective, the research finding of this research can give the big picture of ERP system benefits, however it is not
explored in previous ERP research. Moreover, from the practical perspective, the executives of the company can
understand more about the benefits, which can be earned in implementing ERP system, in every business functions.
Table 1. The example of ERP benefits and their interrelationship to the business processes in dry food packaging industry
Decisional area
ERP benefit
The interrelationship between ERP benefits and business
processes in dry food packaging industry
Strategic
Improve supplier performance
The supplier can track the demand of the company through
the data in the marketing department and supply the
materials to complete the inventory of the company.
Tactical
Tying the suppliers to the ERP
system
Due to the implementation of the ERP systems in dry food
packaging companies, the suppliers also have to implement
this integrated information systems; therefore the suppliers
can track the data and information of the dry food packaging
Operational
Real time data access across
multiple sites
By implementing the ERP systems, the suppliers can access
the data of dry food packaging company.
Strategic
Generate product
differentiation
Based on the customers’ demands and the markets, the dry
food packaging company can differentiate their products.
Tactical
Improve the interaction
between business units
The ERP systems facilitate the data and information
transformation between the entire business units. This ability
improves the interaction between them.
Oprational
Improve order
management/order cycle
One of the activities in operations and logistics business unit
is to order the raw materials from suppliers. By
implementing ERP systems, the operations and logistics can
improve their order management.
strategic
Finance information accuracy
and faster decision making
capability
By having data and information integration in the entire
business processes, the finance business unit has finance
information accuracy that can support faster decision making
capability.
Tactical
Improve cash management
ERP Financials, you can report, analyse, and allocate cash in
real time, and establish in-house banks or payment centers.
Operational
Decrease financial close cycle
ERP Financials, the dry food packaging companies can
streamline accounting, consolidation, process scheduling,
workflow, and collaboration.
224 Samira Sadrzadehrafi ei et al. / Procedia Technology 11 ( 2013 ) 220 – 226
HUMAN
RESOURCE
Strategic
Improve employee performance
management
By implementing ERP systems, the companies can align
team and individual goals with corporate goals and
strategies, standardize employee reviews and appraisals, tie
compensation to performance, support a performance-
oriented compensation process.
Tactical
Improve the performance of the
industry
By implementing ERP systems, the human and resource
business unit in dry food packaging company can improve
their activities.
Operational
General information integration
ERP systems can integrate all of the data and information
from the human and resources department with the entire
departments in the dry food packaging company.
SALES &
MARKETING
Strategic
Improve the interaction with
customers
ERP systems help to provide a better understanding of the
customer needs for the customized services and products.
Tactical
Improve the customer services
Customer service is more than how the companies treat the
customers in direct interactions at the point of sale. Customer
service is also delivering a quality product, at a fair price and
delivering it when it is promised. ERP systems are designed
to help improve customer service in those key areas.
Operetional
Real time data access across
multiple sites
By implementing the ERP systems, the employees of sales
and marketing department can access the latest information
of the customers.
CUSTOMER
Strategic
Better customer satisfaction
The dry food packaging companies can increase the
customer satisfaction, because by implementing ERP
systems, they can deliver their products faster to the
customers, and the most important thing is the company can
produce the best quality of the products.
Tactical
Better customer responsiveness
Integration with outsourced customer support has improved
responsiveness to customer inquiries.
Operational
Improve on-time delivery
The dry food packaging companies can deliver their products
on-time to the customers, because of the benefits that they
can get from ERP system implementation, such as streamline
their business processes and faster decision making.
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Samira Sadrzadehrafi ei et al. / Procedia Technology 11 ( 2013 ) 220 – 226
Fig 2. The summarisation of ERP benefits.
SUPPLIER
Strategic benefits:
Improve supplier performance
Generate product differentiation
Increase the interaction between
supplier and organisation
Tactical benefits:
Tying the suppliers to ERP system
Operational benefits:
General information integration
Real time data access across
multiple sites
Improve information
accuracy/speed/ quality/ and
avability
OPERATIONS AND LOGISTICS
Strategic benefits:
Generate product differentiation
Increas e the interaction between
organisation with customers and
suppliers in a long term plan
Tactical benefits:
Better production planning and
scheduling
Improve resource utilisation
Lower inventory level
Improve decision making capability
Improve the interaction between
business units
Centralise the administrative activities
Greater ability to deploy new
information systems functionality
Improve the performance of the
industry
Facilitate business learning
Operational benefits:
Improve the information accuracy/
speed/quality/ and availability
Improve order management/order cycle
Reduce quality costs
Reduce cycle time of production
Reduction of lead time
Better inventory management
Better operations efficiency
Reduction in maintenance and
downtime
Manufacturing flexibility
Reduce direct operating costs
General information integration
Real time data access across multiple
sites
Reduce work in process
FINANCIAL
Strategic benefits:
Finance information accuracy and
faster decision making capability
Improve corporate governance and
transparency
Tactical benefits:
Improve the interaction between
business units
Centralise the administrative activities
Greater ability to deploy new
information systems functionality
Improve the performance of the
industry
Improve cash management
Improve decision making capability
Reduce overall finance costs
Operational benefits:
Improve the information accuracy/
speed/quality/ and availability
Decrease financial close cycle
General information integration
Real time data access across multiple
sites
HUMAN RESOURCES
Strategic benefits:
Improve employee performance
management
Improve learning, training and
development
Tactical benefits:
Facilitate business learning
Better resource management
Improve decision making capability
Improve the interaction between
business units
Centralise the administrative activities
Greater ability to deploy new
information systems functionality
Improve the performance of the
industry
Operational benefits:
Improve the information accuracy/
speed/quality/ and availability
General information integration
Talent management analytics
Real time data access across multiple
sites
ERP
System
SALES AND MARKETING
Strategic benefits:
Improve interaction with customers
Tactical benefits:
Improve customer services
Improve decision making
capability
Improve the interaction between
business units
Centralise the administrative
activities
Greater ability to deploy new
information systems functionality
Improve the performance of the
industry
Facilitate business learning
Operational benefits:
Improve the information accuracy/
speed/quality/ and availability
Improve order entry
Improve on time delivery
General information integration
Real time data access across
multiple sites
CUSTOMER
Strategic benefits:
Better customer satisfaction
Increas e the interaction between
organisation with customers and
suppliers in a long term plan
Tactical benefits:
Better customer responsiveness
Improve customer flexibility
Tying the customers to ERP system
Operational benefits:
Improve the information accuracy
Improve on-time delivery
226 Samira Sadrzadehrafi ei et al. / Procedia Technology 11 ( 2013 ) 220 – 226
5. Conclusion
As a conclusion, the benefits of ERP system implementation is presented in this study as a research finding. The
researchers determine these ERP benefits from the literatures and categorise them into internal and external
corporate relationships and decisional areas in an organisation. In addition to this, in order to have comprehensive
analysis, the researchers construct the interrelationships between the ERP benefits and the business process in dry
food packaging industry. The researchers expect that the research findings can bridge the gap in ERP system
research. Furthermore, this study may assists the practitioners, in this case dry food packaging companies, to
implement ERP systems successfully.
References
[1] Monk, E.F., Wagner, B.J. Concepts in Enterprise Resource Planning, Third Edition, Course Technology Cengage Learning 2009.
[2] Kumar, V., Maheshwari, B., Kumar, U. An investigation of critical management issues in ERP implementation: emperical evidence from
Canadian organizations, Technovation 2003; 2: 793-807.
[3] Cardoso, J., Bostrom, R.P., Sheth, A. Workflow Management Systems and ERP Systems: Differences, Commonalities, and Applications,
Information Technology and Management 2004; 5: 319-338.
[4] Motwani, J., Akbulut, A.Y., Nidumolu, V. Successful implementation of ERP systems: a case study of an international automotive
manufacturer, International Journal of Automotive Technology and Management 2005; 5: 375-386.
[5] Daavenport, T.H. Putting the enterprise into the enterprise system, Harvard Bus iness Review 1998; 121-131.
[6] Sondoss El, S., Assem Abd El Fattah, T., Hassan, R.M. A Quantitative model to predict the Egyptian ERP implementation success index,
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[14] Olhager, J., Selldin, E. Strategic Choice of Manufacturing Planning and Control Approaches: Empirical Analysis of Driver s and
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ÖNSÖZ İnsanoğlunun hayatta kalabilmesi ve sağlıklı nesillerin devamlılığı beslenme ihtiyaçlarının doğru şartlar altında karşılanabilmesine bağlıdır. Bu noktada gıda güvenliği ve gıda güvencesi en önemli konular olarak karşımıza çıkmaktadır. İnsanların kaliteli ve yeterli miktarda gıdaya erişimi için tarım-gıda tedarik zincirinin amaca uygun şekilde yönetilmesi gerekmektedir. Tarım-gıda tedarik zinciri yönetimi, gıda ürünlerinin tarladan çatala serüveninde verimliliği ve katma değeri arttıracak şekilde tedarik zinciri üyelerinin tek bir işletmeymiş gibi çalışmalarını öngören bir felsefedir. Tarım-gıda tedarik zinciri; tedarikçiler, çiftçiler, gıda işleyicisi işletmeler, lojistikçiler, toptancılar, perakendeciler ve devletler gibi aktörlerin yer aldığı karmaşık bir yapıdır. Bu yapıda küreselleşmenin etkisiyle karmaşıklık daha da artmakta, iklim değişikliği ve Covid’19 salgını gibi faktörlerin etkisiyle önemli zorluklarla karşılaşılmaktadır. Tüm bu zorluklarla mücadele etmek ve insanların kaliteli gıdaya yeterli ve makul ücretlerle ulaşabilmesi için tarım-gıda tedarik zincirinin çiftçiden tüketiciye, işletmelerden devletlere kadar tüm aktörlerin katılımı ve katkısıyla doğru bir şekilde yönetilmesi, bugün olduğu gibi gelecekte de en önemli konular arasında yer alacaktır. Bu konudaki sorunları ele almak, gelişmeleri ortaya koymak, sektörün dünya ve Türkiye ayağını irdelemek için bilimin ışığında bu kitabı sunuyoruz. Her ne kadar tarım-gıda tedarik zincirinin konusu bitkisel ve hayvansal ürünler olsa da konuların çok geniş olması sebebiyle bu kitapta sadece bitkisel üretim yönü ele alınmıştır. Kitapta; tarım-gıda tedarik zinciri yönetimi, konunun çok yönlü olması sebebiyle tarım ekonomisi, iktisat, işletme (yönetim organizasyon, üretim ve pazarlama) ve uluslararası ticaret ve lojistik gibi disiplinlerden alanında uzman yazarlar katkı sağlayarak disiplinler arası bir yaklaşımla irdelenmiştir. Bu doğrultuda kitap; “Tarım Sektörünün Gıda Tedarik Sistemleri İçindeki Önemi”, “Tarım Sektörü Ekonomik Büyümenin İtici Gücü Müdür? Dünya ve Türkiye Üzerine Bir Araştırma”, “Tarımsal Girişimcilik”, “Tarımsal Üretim”, “Tarımsal Pazarlama”, “Tarım-Gıda Tedarik Zincirinde Depolama”, “Tarım-Gıda Tedarik Zincirinde Taşımacılık”, “Tarım-Gıda Tedarik Zincirinde Bilişim Teknolojileri”, “Tarımsal Kooperatifçilik”, “Tarım-Gıda Tedarik Zincirinde Sürdürülebilirlik”, “Tarım-Gıda Tedarik Zincirinde Kamusal Düzenlemeler”, “Küresel Salgının Tarım-Gıda Tedarik Zincirine Etkisi” ve “Türkiye’de Tarım-Gıda Tedarik Zinciri Yönetimi: Nohut Üzerine Bir İnceleme” bölümlerinden oluşmaktadır. Bu kitabın oluşturulması aşamasında özellikle salgın sürecinin zorluklarını da göğüsleyerek değerli katkılarını esirgemeyen tüm bölüm yazarlarına ve kitabın basım aşamasında çalışan Nobel Akademik Yayıncılık çalışanlarına şükranlarımı sunarım. Ayrıca kitap hakkında değerli görüşlerini bizimle paylaşan Prof. Dr. Mehmet TANYAŞ hocamıza teşekkür ederim. Kitapta yer alan bölümlerdeki yazıların her türlü bilimsel yazım, etik ve hukuksal sorumluluğu yazarların kendilerine aittir. Bu kitabın konuya ilgi duyan tüm tarım-gıda tedarik zinciri aktörlerine, akademisyenlere ve öğrencilere katkı sağlaması dileklerimle. Editör Dr. Öğr. Üyesi Abdullah Oktay DÜNDAR
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User resistance in post Enterprise Resource Planning (erp) implementation phase is one of the main causes for failure of erp systems. Existing research identified different factors that cause erp failure in the post erp implementation phase. However, existing research is fragmented without strong theoretical base. The main objective of this study is to identify factors that cause user resistance in the post erp implementation phase using innovation resistance theory as a theoretical lens. The study used causal research design as a research method. Data was collected using Google’s online form. The empirical data from this research revealed that risk barriers and usability barriers as main factors that increase user resistance in the post erp implementation phase. The research also developed and validated data collection instruments to use innovation resistance theory for empirical investigation of user resistance in the post erp implementation phase for other researchers. It has also practical implication for managers what intervention to undertake so as to increase success of erp system implementation.
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