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Nanotechnology and Agroecosystem

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Abstract

Increasing production and productivity of crops through crop improvement, crop management and crop protection from pest and disease have been in vogue from time immemorial. Conventional and improved technologies have their own limitations. Technologies available are unable to break through some of the bottlenecks. Nanotechnology, the science of working with smallest possible particles, raises hopes for the future to overcome the difficulties encountered in agriculture. Hitherto, use of this new science, nanotechnology in agriculture has been mostly theoretical, but it has begun and will continue to have a significant effect in the main areas of breeding new crop varieties, development of new functional materials and smart delivery systems for agrochemicals like herbicides, fertilizers and pesticides, smart systems integration for food processing, packaging and other areas like Nanotechnology is working with the smallest possible particles which raise hopes for improving agricultural productivity through encountering problems unsolved conventionally. Improvement of crops in agriculture is a continuous process. Breeding varieties to suite the growing needs are done through conventional breeding and biotechnical means. Recently scientists have started using nanotechnology to deliver the genes to specific sites at cellular levels and rearrange the atoms in the DNA of the same organism to get expression of desired character, thus skipping the time consuming process of transferring the gene from the foreign organisms. In the management aspects, efforts are made to increase the efficiency of applied fertilizer with the help of nano clays and zeolites and restoration of soil fertility by releasing fixed nutrients. Research on smart seeds programmed to germinate under favourable conditions with nanopolymer coating are encouraging. In the controlled environment agriculture and precision farming input requirement of crops are diagnosed based on needs and delivered the required quantities in right time at right place with the help of nanobiosensor and satellite system. Nanoherbicides are being developed to address the problems in perennial weed management and exhausting weed seed bank. Remediation of environmental contamination of the industrial waste and agricultural chemicals like pesticides and herbicide residues are possible through metal nanoparticles. Details of possibilities and concepts of application of nanotechnology in the crop production and results obtained already in these areas are reviewed in this paper.

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... Nano-particles with a target-specific herbicide molecule are aimed at a specific receptor in the roots of herbs; it then enters the root system and inhibits the glycolysis of food reserves which results in starvation and finally death. Nano-herbicides are engineered to solve the problems caused by perennial weed management (Chinnamuthu and Boopathi 2009). ...
... Nano-fertilisers are slow and controlled-release fertilisers, which means that they are compacted in a structure which releases them in an appropriately controlled amount. Conditional release of fertilisers has become important for promoting the development of environmentally friendly and sustainable agriculture (Chinnamuthu and Boopathi 2009). Encapsulation of a fertiliser with nano-particles to synchronize the release of active ingredients for crop uptake also prevents nutrient losses of soil and avoids the interaction of nutrients with the environment (DeRosa et al. 2010). ...
Chapter
Nanotechnology refers to the exploitation of nano-particles for solving the problems faced by humankind for centuries. Green nanotechnology deals with applications of nanotechnology in agriculture and agricultural research. Nanotechnology can be helpful in fields like energy saving, environmental issues, analytical studies, cosmetics, biology, pharmaceutics, construction work, pest control and food processing. There are different types of nano-particles available. The most commonly used ones are titanium and silver particles, which have been helpful in preventing waste production and in solar cell production. Green nanotechnology is also associated with reducing pollution, particularly water pollution. This chapter discusses the goals of green nanotechnology with reference to its applications in nano-fertilisers, nano-pesticides and nano-herbicides along with plant disease management.
... Nano-particles with a target-specific herbicide molecule are aimed at a specific receptor in the roots of herbs; it then enters the root system and inhibits the glycolysis of food reserves which results in starvation and finally death. Nano-herbicides are engineered to solve the problems caused by perennial weed management (Chinnamuthu and Boopathi 2009). ...
... Nano-fertilisers are slow and controlled-release fertilisers, which means that they are compacted in a structure which releases them in an appropriately controlled amount. Conditional release of fertilisers has become important for promoting the development of environmentally friendly and sustainable agriculture (Chinnamuthu and Boopathi 2009). Encapsulation of a fertiliser with nano-particles to synchronize the release of active ingredients for crop uptake also prevents nutrient losses of soil and avoids the interaction of nutrients with the environment (DeRosa et al. 2010). ...
Chapter
Both natural and anthropogenic activities have increased heavy metal (HM) contamination in the soil. HM has negative effects on the environment, agricultural productivity and human health through the soil-crop-food chain. The remediation of HM is needed to ensure sustainable crop growth, and maintain the natural ecosystem on unpolluted soils. Many methods for the remediation of polluted soils have been developed, but they are expensive and laborious. Moreover, secondary pollution also affects the soil microbial community. The exploitation of biological and organic amendments, like arbuscular mycorrhiza fungi (AMF) and biochar (BC), are costeffective and environmentally-friendly approaches to plant growth and phytoremediation in polluted soils. The individual role of AMF and/or BC for the remediation of contaminated soils has been reported in the literature, but studies regarding their combined effects are still limited, and there remains a large knowledge gap regarding their connection. This chapter highlights the potential benefits, tolerance and implementation of AMF and BC interactive use in the remediation of polluted soils and plant nutrition in sustainable agriculture.
... Since silver has an antibacterial effect against pathogens yet is harmless to people, it has been used in many applications, either as pure free metal or as a composite. Nanoparticles declare a new era of natural remedy improvements that might offer feasible solutions to the most challenging ecological clean-up problems [3] . Nanotechnology has turned out to be a standout amongst the most encouraging new methodologies for pest control [4] . ...
... Improper concentration of nano-fertilizer i.e., low or over concentration causes the various physiological changes like it can increase various enzyme activities which not needed. Likewise, foliar spray at improper concentration or over dose affect the seedling growth, oxidative stress and exhibited toxicity (Chinnamuthu & Boopathi, 2009). The shoot and root length were regulated with dosage concentrations, and fruit traits like diameter, weight, number of fruits also affected (Fern andez-Luqueño et al., 2014). ...
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Application of nano-biotechnology in agriculture is an emerging practice to improve the crop productivity by delivering the nutrients to plants in a controlled release manner. However, it offers an alternative solution to overcome the disadvantages of conventional practices as replacement of nano-fertilizer. This chapter presented an innovative overview on the use of nano-fertilizer for improvement of nutrient use efficiency, increase crop yield and reduce the excessive use of chemical fertilizers. The properties of nano-sized fertilizers have been discussed that contain macro and/or micronutrients and applied frequently in small amounts. Recently, nutrient use efficiency has been considered as serious research issue for field crops. So, the nano-fertilizer is considered as more responsive which enter to the plant cell by epidermis and allow to gradual release, targeted distribution, and reducing nutrients excess and enhance nutrient use efficiency (NUE). Further, optimum level of nano-fertilizer application could increase the nutrients use efficiency by reduced the toxic effects of NPs on plants to overcome the oxidative damage and regulation the antioxidative defense mechanism. This study critically insight on the improvement of nutrients use efficiency by replacing the conventional fertilizer to nano-fertilizer that has less antagonistic effects on the environment.
... According to Juárez-Maldonado et al. (2019), active NPs could help enlarge pore size of the cell walls and successfully form new pores to support their uptake. Some of the carrier proteins may also bind NPs and transport them via aquaporins, endocytosis, or ion channels (Nair et al., 2010) Chinnamuthu and Boopathi (2009) further elaborated that nano zeolites and clays which are usually available minerals are one of the new strategies for increasing the efficiency of the fertilizer. The network of these NPs is filled with the likes of macronutrients as nitrogen, phosphorous, potassium, calcium, and traces of micro-nutrients, therefore release nutrients slowly. ...
Article
Excessive use of synthetic fertilizers cause economic burdens, increasing soil, water and atmospheric pollution. Nano-fertilizers have shown great potential for their sustainable uses in soil fertility, crop production and with minimum or no environmental tradeoffs. Nano-fertilizers are of submicroscopic sizes, have a large surface area to volume ratio, can have nutrient encapsulation, and greater mobility hence they may increase plant nutrient access and crop yield. Due to these properties, nano-fertilizers are regarded as deliverable 'smart system of nutrients'. However, the problems in the agroecosystem are broader than existing developments. For example, nutrient delivery in different physicochemical properties of soils, moisture, and other agro-ecological conditions is still a challenge. In this context, the present review provides an overview of various uses of nanotechnology in agriculture, preference of nano-fertilizers over the conventional fertilizers, nano particles formation, mobility, and role in heterogeneous soils, with special emphasis on the development and use of chitosan-based nano-fertilizers.
... Fostering an objective of explicit herbicide embodied with nanoparticle is focused on a specific receptor found in the target weeds, which goes into roots arrangement of the weeds and moved to parts that restrain glycolysis, making the particular weed plant starve for food and gets in final death phase. Detoxification of weed deposits is vital as overuse/utilization of herbicides for a longer time deteriorates soil fertility and composition (Chinnamuthu and Boopathi, 2009). Just as nonstop utilization of the same herbicide for a steady timeframe prompts the advancement of weed resistance against specific herbicides. ...
Book
Relationship Between Microbes and Environment for Sustainable Ecosystem Services, Volume One: Microbial Products for Sustainable Ecosystem Services promotes advances in sustainable solutions, value-added products, and fundamental research in microbes and the environment. Topics include advanced and recent discoveries in the use of microbes for sustainable development. Users will find reference information ranging from the description of various microbial applications for sustainability in different aspects of food, energy, the environment and social development. Volume One includes the direct and indirect role of bacteria, fungi, actinomycetes, viruses, mycoplasma and protozoans in the development of products contributing towards sustainable. The book provides a holistic approach to the most recent advances in the application of various microbes as a biotechnological tool for a vast range of sustainable applications, modern practices, exploring futuristic strategies to harness its full potential.
... Nanotechnology provides the possibilities of exploring nanoscale materials as nutrient carrier or release control vectors (smart fertilizers) which can improve the nutrient use efficiency and minimize the risk of environmental contamination (Chinnamuthu & Boopati, 2009). A nano-fertilizer can be defined as a substance in nanometre scale that supplies nutrients to the crops. ...
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Full-text available
Carbon dioxide (CO2) is the major cause of global warming and involve�ment in climate change between 1750 and 2007. Concerns about carbon (C) overloading in the atmosphere have sparked international attention in agricul�tural soils’ ability to act as carbon sinks. In India and elsewhere, the effects of improved cropland management practices (when from traditional system to residue return, crop rotation and no-till) on soil C have been indecisive and inconsistent for various extents of management changes and soil depths. Searches of many databases suggest that these enhanced techniques can only store carbon at the soil’s surface (0–10 cm) for a short period of time. (CAB Abstracts, Agricola, Web of Science, Scopus, Natural Resources Index and Agriculture), and by investigating the all references which are cited to extract the published reports/data on the issue. This process has released a lot of carbon into the atmosphere, resulting in poor levels of soil organic carbon storage in agricultural soils, especially in the tropics. With future land use change expected to increase even more, adopting optimal land management techniques to croplands as a potential carbon sink option to store carbon permanently (a century or more) while also improving soil condition and therefore productivity is critical. Based up on the extensive study of published work, this chapter aimed to analyse the consequences of new and sustainable land management options on soil carbon and its sequestration which is considered as a novel strategy and soil stewardship practices to build soil-crop resilience and mitigate climate change impacts with potential to offset carbon dioxide emissions
... They are used to increase the efficiency of fertilizers use. These networks of nano-particles are filled with macro-nutrients such as nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, or minor or trace elements that act as a slowrelease source of nutrients in the soil (Chinnamuthu Boopathi, 2009). Nano-zeolites are important in agriculture due to their ability to capture, store and slow-release nutrients (Leggo, 2000). ...
... Nanotechnology provides the possibilities of exploring nanoscale materials as nutrient carrier or release control vectors (smart fertilizers) which can improve the nutrient use efficiency and minimize the risk of environmental contamination (Chinnamuthu & Boopati, 2009). A nano-fertilizer can be defined as a substance in nanometre scale that supplies nutrients to the crops. ...
Chapter
Full-text available
In the last decade, nanotechnology has emerged as a recent evolving sector in the field of science and technology. Nanoparticles due to their small size show exceptional physical, chemical, optical and magnetic properties. These unique properties of nanoparticles make them useful in horticulture for obtaining sustainability in production through their application in production of quality planting material, nano fertilizers for improving plant nutrition, nano sensors for monitoring plant health and quality of soil and water, nano pesticides for disease and pest management and improved packaging for enhancing shelf-life. Nanoparticles can be used for improving germination percentage of seeds and controlling contamination rate in in vitro propagation. They can also improve stress tolerance in plants against various biotic and abiotic stresses. Nanotechnology provides the possibilities of exploring nanoscale materials in the form of nano fertilizers or nano pesticides which can improve the nutrient use efficiency, enhance the efficacy and specificity of pesticides and at the same time minimize the risk of pollution to ecosystem. Smart packaging developed through the use of nanomaterials can reduce the occurrence of food-borne diseases and improve food safety by ensuring fresh and tasty purchase to the consumers. Nano biosensors can not only be used for monitoring soil and plant health but also can help in predicting the outbreak of pest or diseases, thus reducing the economic loss. Better understanding about the interaction of nanomaterials in the horticultural field, however, is required for eliminating the adverse effects of nanoparticles in the horticultural crops.KeywordsNano fertilizerNano pesticideNano biosensorNano edible coating
... Nanotechnology supplies eco-friendly materials have insecticidal activity and can be used for pest management without affecting the environment (Owolade et al. 2008;Chinnamuthu & Boopathi, 2009;Mahendra & Avinash, 2012). ...
Article
Full-text available
The red palm weevil Rhynchophorus ferrugineus infest more than nearly 40 palm species around the world. They damage the internal tissues of palms by the larval stage which is the serious stage. Nanoparticles represent a new generation of environmental remediation technologies that can provide cost-effective solution to some of the most challenging environmental clean-up problems. They also help to produce new pesticides. Nanochitosan is used to control the red palm weevil larvae and adults. The results show that it affects the mortality percentage of R. ferrugineus larvae. The mortality percentage increased by increasing the time and concentrations of nanochitosan, since 100% mortality was obtained at the concentration 80000 ppm after (15–20) days time interval. The percentage of mortality of R. ferrugineus female and male showed that the most effective concentration of nanochitosan was 20000 ppm, where 100% mortality was obtained in time interval 10–20 days. In addition, nanochitosan affects the biology of red palm weevil by decreasing pupation percentage, emergence percentage, pupal duration number of eggs/female, hatchability percentage and longevity of males and females as compared to the control. LC50 and Lc25 of nanochitosan disturbs the total protein and total carbohydrates. The activity of enzymes (protease, invertase and amylase) of larvae and adult (males and females) was disordered. We conclude that nanochitosan can be used as a control tool to the red palm weevil.
... Its layered network is interconnected with tunnels and cages so this structure helps in loading with nutrients nitrogen and potassium. This nutrient loading can be done by combining the nutrients with other ingredients having slow rate of dissolution and containing elements like phosphorous, calcium and also trace nutrients [13]. The important advantages of Zeolite based nanofertilizers are it is capable of releasing the encapsulated nutrients very slowly thus making the nutrients available for plant uptake throughout the crop growing season [14]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Global population is rapidly increasing and is predicted to reach 9.6 billion by 2050 and the limited resources tend to push the sector forward demanding the development of a highly efficient agriculture thus allowing reduction of worldwide poverty and hunger [1]. To meet the food demands of this growing population the agriculture sector is being pressurized to assure food security. Hence chemical fertilizers are being considered as an inevitable source of plant nutrition for improving the crop production. This lead to a notion in farmers that using higher quantities of chemical fertilizers gains higher crop yields. However, only less than half of the amount of applied fertilizers will be utilized by the crop whereas the remaining amount of fertilizer which is intended to be taken up by plant may get lost through leaching, become fixed in soil or contribute to water pollution which is even worse. According to recent statistical reports it has been observed that the key macronutrient elements Nitrogen, Phosphorous and Potassium applied to the soil are lost at a rate of 40-70%, 80-90% and 50-90%, respectively, thus causing a considerable loss of applied resources [2]. Additionally, farmers tend to apply fertilizers repeatedly in order to achieve yields at desired levels, this overdose of chemicals counter acts and lead to decreased soil fertility and increased salt concentrations thereby causing future crop losses. Furthermore, irregular use of fertilizers without control on nutrient release patterns causes deterioration of product quality. Therefore, developing slow or controlled release fertilizers plays a crucial role not only in enhancing the crop production, productivity and quality, but also helps towards upgradation of sustainability in agricultural production. Given the unique properties of nano-materilas such as high surface-to-volume ratio, controlled-release kinetics of nutrients to the targeted sites and sorption capacity, nanotechnology has a high importance for designing and using of new fertilizers. Nanofertilizers are nutrients encapsulated/coated with different types of nanomaterials for the control and slow delivery of one or more nutrients in order to satisfy the imperative nutrient requirements of plants [3]. These "smart fertilizers" are now being regarded as a promising alternative, to an extent that they are to be considered as preferred form of fertilizers over the conventional ones in several cases.
... They are used to increase the efficiency of fertilizers use. These networks of nano-particles are filled with macro-nutrients such as nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, or minor or trace elements that act as a slowrelease source of nutrients in the soil (Chinnamuthu Boopathi, 2009). Nano-zeolites are important in agriculture due to their ability to capture, store and slow-release nutrients (Leggo, 2000). ...
Chapter
Full-text available
Soil fertility management has two requirements: establishing and maintaining the soil pH and essential plant nutrient elemental content within their desired ranges for that soil type and crop or cropping sequence, with its associated cultural management practices. It is obvious that none of the soil fertility management systems will meet all these requirements. However, there are basic principles that do apply, requiring moderate modification to suit the specifications of soil type, crop species, and climatic/weather characteristics. Management requirements for achieving a moderate yield and average product quality, require fewer inputs and skill requirements than those required for achieving maximum yield and highest product quality, the latter not allowing for errors in procedural practices. For most cropping situations, the maximum biological yield potential based on the combination of soil and plant parameters is unknown. It is also not possible to advance quickly from a moderate soil fertility/plant nutrition status to one that results in high yield or quality product achievement. Those management practices applied to one set of soil, plant, or climatic conditions are not applicable to all ranges of conditions. Hence, this chapter tends to discuss the problems of soil fertility and productivity, nutrients and mining and imbalance, and inadequate plant nutrients supply in Nigeria’s agriculture, as well as the problems affecting the use of chemical fertilizers, the types, and role of organic sources of plant nutrients. Finally, a case will be made for integrated nutrient supply that combines chemical fertilizers with biological and organic sources.
... In the agricultural field, nanotechnology is emerging as an alternative tool to reduce agricultural inputs, enhance food value, improve shelf life with improved nutrient contents, maintain freshness and quality of food, enhance micronutrients, and antioxidant absorption (Kanjana 2015). Nanoparticles are believed to confer novel applications in various aspects like crop management, crop improvement, protection of crops through genetic modulations, controlled release of agrochemicals (nutrients, fertilizers, pesticides, herbicides), target-specific delivery of biomolecules, detection of diseases and pests, seed management and their protection from pathogens (Chinnamuthu and Boopathi 2009). The advancement of nanotechnology is currently directed toward the development of nanosensors for monitoring soil conditions, nutrition availability, management of pathogen and pests, detection of hazardous or toxic substances, and also other environmental factors associated with plant growth and development (Cheng et al. 2016). ...
Chapter
Agriculture is one of the important sources to fulfill the demand of human food requirements.The conventional methods of increasing crop production presently depend upon chemical substances,which are harmful to the environment as a major proportion of the applied chemicals get accumulated in the environment.Therefore, a sustainable and environment-friendly method to produce food from comparatively diminishing agricultural fields to feed the rapidly growing world population is the need of the hour.To address the present scenario, nanotechnology has emerged as a potential tool for the development of sustainable and productive agricultural systems. Nanoparticles owing to their tiny size and surface chemistry are relatively easier to be absorbed by plants and most importantly impart negligible toxic effects on the agricultural system. The other advantages of using nanoparticles lie within their flexibility in shape, size, solubility, and other features, which make them a suitable carrier for beneficial agrochemicals. Therefore, this chapter will focus on the different types of nanoparticles available, their mechanism of uptake, and their potential to stimulate crop improvement either by directly boosting the plant growth or by indirectly managing the losses incurred due to the effects of abiotic or biotic stresses.
... Its layered network is interconnected with tunnels and cages so this structure helps in loading with nutrients nitrogen and potassium. This nutrient loading can be done by combining the nutrients with other ingredients having slow rate of dissolution and containing elements like phosphorous, calcium and also trace nutrients [13]. The important advantages of Zeolite based nanofertilizers are it is capable of releasing the encapsulated nutrients very slowly thus making the nutrients available for plant uptake throughout the crop growing season [14]. ...
... They are used to increase the efficiency of fertilizers use. These networks of nano-particles are filled with macro-nutrients such as nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, or minor or trace elements that act as a slowrelease source of nutrients in the soil (Chinnamuthu Boopathi, 2009). Nano-zeolites are important in agriculture due to their ability to capture, store and slow-release nutrients (Leggo, 2000). ...
Chapter
Full-text available
The increasing global population accelerates world food demand with limited land resources. It shifts the research towards higher productivity with higher fertilizer use on large scale but with high economic inputs. This promotes the use of Nanotechnology in fertilizer industries which offers higher production with the desired customization in nutrient values, high reactivity, changeable surface area, high nutrient use efficiency because of its different physic-chemical properties. Nanoparticles facilitate a smart delivery system of nutrients with the targeted cellular approach in plants as well as in the rhizosphere. The nanopolymers and nano fertilizers also benefit the plant in stress resistance, crop nutrient quality and improve water use efficiency. However, the behavior of nanoparticles to surpass the food chain, its concentration and toxicity in edible products is still a topic of research. The present chapter deals with their mechanisms, controlled release pattern, particle morphology, chemical kinetics, interaction with soil colloids as well as the effect on the microbiome with lesser amount application in the field and proves to replace the current conventional fertilizers with sustainability and minimal environmental risks.
... The development of particular molecules of the herbicides encapsulated with NPs aims to target receptors in the weed roots, which penetrates the weed roots and achieves sections that prevent the glycolysis process in roots, hence causing the death of specific weeds [205]. Long-term overuse of herbicides can leave their remains in soils and inhibit the growth of subsequent crops, so detoxification of herbicide remains is essential for sustainable development [206]. The detoxification rate of carboxymethyl cellulose NPs to atrazine herbicides is as high as 88% [207]. ...
Article
Full-text available
With the rapidly changing global climate, the agricultural systems are confronted with more unpredictable and harsh environmental conditions than before which lead to compromised food production. Thus, to ensure safer and sustainable crop production, the use of advanced nanotechnological approaches in plants (phytonanotechnology) is of great significance. In this review, we summarize recent advances in phytonanotechnology in agricultural systems that can assist to meet ever-growing demands of food sustainability. The application of phytonanotechnology can change traditional agricultural systems, allowing the target-specific delivery of biomolecules (such as nucleotides and proteins) and cater the organized release of agrochemicals (such as pesticides and fertilizers). An amended comprehension of the communications between crops and nanoparticles (NPs) can improve the production of crops by enhancing tolerance towards environmental stresses and optimizing the utilization of nutrients. Besides, approaches like nanoliposomes, nanoemulsions, edible coatings, and other kinds of NPs offer numerous selections in the postharvest preservation of crops for minimizing food spoilage and thus establishing phtonanotechnology as a sustainable tool to architect modern agricultural practices. Graphical Abstract
... Modern biological methods, such as the use of nanotechnology, also include a new boom, but they remain limited in use due to their high cost (Chinnamuthu and Boopathi, 2009). The treatment of stored seeds with fungicides was found to be more beneficial by eliminating pests and fungi in storage to maintain better seed quality for a limited period not exceeding one year in onion seed yield (Santavec and Kocjanacko, 2011). ...
... Ancient methods of applying fertilizer cause losses of macronutrients and micronutrients, due to which very minute concentration reach to target sites and about 40-70% N, 80-90% P, and 50-90% potassium of conventionally applied fertilizers are lost in the environment (Tilman et al. 2002). Nanomaterial supplies single or various nutrients to plants ensuring better yield of crops and reduced environmental degradation (Liu and Lal 2015) (Chinnamuthu and Boopathi 2009). Encapsulation of nanofertilizer is ensured by three ways: (1) nanoporous materials, (2) film polymer, and (3) nanoparticle or nanoemulsions. ...
Chapter
Microorganisms are ubiquitous and diverse microbes inhabit low-temperature niches. More than three quarters of the Earth’s surface is either occasionally cold or permanently frozen, making it a predominant habitat in the world. Despite such hostile conditions, these organisms flourish because of certain structural, physiological, and molecular variations that are associated with it. Adaptations related to the cell membrane, enzymes, transporters, chaperones, antifreeze proteins, osmolytes, and cold- and heat-shock proteins help the organisms in thriving under such situations. In the present chapter, we discussed various microbial adaptations in detail to throw light on the lifestyle microorganisms thriving under low temperature. Understanding such adaptations may assist us with investigating the prospects for advancement in various novel biotechnological applications.
... Ancient methods of applying fertilizer cause losses of macronutrients and micronutrients, due to which very minute concentration reach to target sites and about 40-70% N, 80-90% P, and 50-90% potassium of conventionally applied fertilizers are lost in the environment (Tilman et al. 2002). Nanomaterial supplies single or various nutrients to plants ensuring better yield of crops and reduced environmental degradation (Liu and Lal 2015) (Chinnamuthu and Boopathi 2009). Encapsulation of nanofertilizer is ensured by three ways: (1) nanoporous materials, (2) film polymer, and (3) nanoparticle or nanoemulsions. ...
Chapter
Full-text available
The versatility displayed by kingdom Fungi in terms of physiological, genomic and metabolic complexities has ensured their presence in all major ecosystems. Given that 85% of the Earth experiences cold temperatures of below 5 °C, either seasonally or permanently, there is no shortage of cold environments resulting in global distribution of psychrophilic and psychrotrophic fungi. The cold-adapted extremophilic fungi possess molecular adaptations to persist and proliferate against harsh conditions exerted on them by their environment such as multiple freeze-thaw cycles, desiccation, low water activity, high exposure to harmful UV radiation or complete absence, high hydrostatic pressure and low nutrient availability. Cold habitats include polar regions such Antarctica and the Arctic as well as non-polar regions such as the deep seas and alpine regions. These regions offer a broad spectrum of niches for colonization of fungi including but not limited to rocks, ice sheets, snow cover, glaciers, cold soils, frozen seas, freshwater ice and permafrost, with varying levels of abundance and diversity.
... Ancient methods of applying fertilizer cause losses of macronutrients and micronutrients, due to which very minute concentration reach to target sites and about 40-70% N, 80-90% P, and 50-90% potassium of conventionally applied fertilizers are lost in the environment (Tilman et al. 2002). Nanomaterial supplies single or various nutrients to plants ensuring better yield of crops and reduced environmental degradation (Liu and Lal 2015) (Chinnamuthu and Boopathi 2009). Encapsulation of nanofertilizer is ensured by three ways: (1) nanoporous materials, (2) film polymer, and (3) nanoparticle or nanoemulsions. ...
Chapter
Nanotechnology provides answer for sustainable agriculture by enhancing nutrient utilization efficacy, improving efficiency of pest control, mitigating impact of climate change, and reducing harmful environmental impacts of agriculture food production. A lot of auspicious nanotechnologies have been anticipated and needed to be checked for their beneficial role. Here we explore nanotechnology in relation to agriculture and environmental aspects. We have discussed how nanotechnology can be applied to enhance plant growth and development, and provided comprehensive overview about nanofertilizers, nano-pesticide, and applications in field of food sector.
... Herbicide encapsulation in polymeric nanoparticles also results in protection for the environment over a longer period of time; excessive use of herbicides leaves residues in the soil that cause damage to successive crops. Nanoherbicides solve the issue of weed resistance to herbicides as well (Chinnamuthu and Boopathi, 2009). Pesticide nanoformulations or nanopesticides must have a wide range of benefits (including improved efficacy and sustainability, good dispersion and wettability, ability to biodegrade in soil and atmosphere, lack of toxicity, photogenerative nature) and have a reduced number of active ingredients (AIs) with convenient pesticide properties so that they can be used effectively to protect crops again. ...
Chapter
Organic nano carriers (e.g. polymeric micelles and vesicles, liposomes, dendrimers, and hydrogels) and inorganic nano carriers (e.g. quantum dots, gold and mesoporous silica nanoparticles) used in therapy are designed to show enhanced pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profiles and reduced side effects over conventional formulations due to their nanoscale size and precise physicochemical characteristics. Nanomaterials that interact with different ligands can predictably target cancer cells and effectively deliver encapsulated payloads. The engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) could be built as 'magic bullets' to deliver agrochemicals in a very controlled manner to specific tissues. The agronomic use of nanotechnology in plants (phytonanotechnology) has the ability to modify traditional plant production processes, enabling the controlled release of agrochemicals (e.g. fertilizers, pesticides and herbicides) and the targeted delivery of biomolecules (e.g. nucleotides, proteins and activators). Better understanding of the interactions between nanoparticles (NPs) and plant responses, as well as their uptake, location and behavior, might revolutionize crop production through improved disease resistance, utilization of nutrients, and crop yield. The utilization of nanoparticles as fertilizers can enable the vegetation to use nutrients effectively and thereby increase food supply. The main objective of this chapter is to discuss target specific delivery of nanoparticle encapsulated payload substances in a safe and reproducible manner at the proper time to promote plant growth, disease control, plant breeding and post-harvest quality control and controlled release of fertilizer and pesticide.
... 1, colloid generation; 2, engineered nanomaterial leaching from biosolids; 3, homoaggregation; 4, fragmentation; 5, sedimentation; 6, heteroaggregation; 7, size exclusion; 8, straining; 9, deposition; 10, convective transport [92]. researchers [100] discovered that the honeycomb-like layered crystal network slowly released nutritional ions "on demand." ...
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Most of the early uses of nanotechnology have come from material sciences, although applications in agriculture are still expanding. Due to a few comprehensive reviews, we described application of nanomaterials along with their fate in soil and interaction with soil and plant system. From synthesis to metabolism, nano-fertilizers like zinc, silver, selenium, titanium oxide have enhanced the physio-chemical characteristics of crop plants in every manner conceivable. On the other hand, it has the potential to minimize pesticide use by boosting reactivity and surface area of nanoparticles. Nanotechnology in pesticides will, without a doubt, replace the current way of pesticide application because of its efficacy. Nano-based approaches can readily overcome the constraints of conventional soil remediation technologies. While soil nanomaterials mobility has been investigated in a limited number of research studies, it's likely the most critical gap in knowing the real risk of their transport. As well as enhancing plant nutrient absorption, nanomaterials may also be used to regulate soil microbial activity and stimulate plant defenses. When it comes to shipping food, nanotechnology has made things easier by extending the shelf life of most foods. While it offers tremendous potential for agricultural applications, the health effects of nanoparticles on plants, animals, and humans must be thoroughly investigated.
... Nanoherbicides are less toxic to environment i.e., these herbicides are safely encapsulated in nature friendly polymeric nanoparticles, so this polymeric coating naturally degraded substance no harmful effect to environment and at the same time require quantity of herbicide release slowly in the soil (Kumar et al., 2015). Herbicides used in excess over prolonged periods of time leave residues in the soil, causing damage to subsequent crops (Chinnamuthu and Boopathi, 2009). ...
Article
Full-text available
Now a day due to increase in the population and climate changes nanotechnology is the best option, because nanoparticles have distinctive physical, chemical and biological traits. Nanoparticles contain herbicides, pesticides, fertilizers, which act as ‘magic bullets’, these are target specific in nature and release their content slowly based on crop requirement. Nanotechnology is using different fields moreover in this study of agriculture is the most useful to the future increasing population. The current review underlines the application of nanotechnology in nano-fertilizers, Nanoherbicides, nano pesticides. Nanotechnology usedin vegetables and in management of plant pathogen and also introduction of biosensors to detect nutrients and contaminants.
... In recent years, consumer awareness of the health hazard from residual toxicity and the growing problem of insect resistance to these conventional insecticides have led the researchers to look for alternative strategies for stored grains protection. Nanoparticles represent a new generation of environmental remediation technologies that could provide a cost-effective solution to some of the most challenging environmental clean-up problems (Chinnamuthu and Murugesa 2009). ...
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Corcyra cephalonica (S.) commonly called rice meal moth or rice moth is an important stored-product pest all over the world. The larvae feed on broken grains of cereal, pulses, oilseeds, dried fruits, nuts, and spices by constructing the silken webs. The excessive use of pesticides and chemical compounds used for the management of this pest led to the development of resistance and also harms the environment. To overcome these problems in the recent years, green nanotechnology has emerged as a promising tool for pest control. The present study of the experiment was conducted at the Centre for Nanotechnology Laboratory, UAS, Raichur. The green nanoparticles of zinc, copper, and silica were biosynthesized from Spinach leaves; tulasi leaves and paddy husk respectively, and these nanoparticles were characterized by Zetasizer, UV–Vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Scanning electron microscope (SEM). The biophysical characterization revealed that the zinc, copper, and silica nanoparticle has Spindle, spherical, and agglomerated spindle-shaped with a mean particle size of 87.94, 84.15 and 23.65 d. nm respectively. The pesticidal effects of these green nanoparticles were used as stored product insect protectants compared to malathion as a standard reference. Data obtained from different concentrations (250, 500, 750, 1000, 1250, and 1500 ppm) of zinc, copper, and silica green nanoparticles indicated that the increase in concentration and exposure period resulted in increase in larval mortality, pupal mortality and adult deformity. Among the different concentrations, 1500 ppm of zinc, copper, and silica nanoparticles proved to be superior. Similarly, of the different nanoparticles, silica nanoparticles excelled followed by zinc and copper nanoparticles.
... The nanofertilizers are generally referred as smart fertilizers which are made up of nanomaterials which provide several nutrients to the plants for better growth, development, and yield of crops (Liu and Lal 2015). Nanofertilizer is one of the products usually in nanoscale level that provides nutrients to particular target sites and helps in the enhancement of nutrient usage efficiency and reduces the environmental contamination (Chinnamuthu and Boopathi 2009). Generally the encapsulation of fertilizers is done in three methods. ...
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This book introduces the principles and mechanisms of the biological synthesis of nanoparticles from microorganisms, including bacteria, fungi, viruses, algae, and protozoans. It presents optimization processes for synthesis of microbes-mediated nanoparticles. The book also reviews the industrial and agricultural applications of microbially-synthesized nanoparticles. It also presents the medical applications of green nanoparticles, such as treating multidrug-resistant pathogens and cancer treatment. Further, it examines the advantages and prospects for the synthesis of nanoparticles by microorganisms. Lastly, it also presents the utilization of microbial-synthesized nanoparticles in the bioremediation of heavy metals.
... The nanofertilizers are generally referred as smart fertilizers which are made up of nanomaterials which provide several nutrients to the plants for better growth, development, and yield of crops (Liu and Lal 2015). Nanofertilizer is one of the products usually in nanoscale level that provides nutrients to particular target sites and helps in the enhancement of nutrient usage efficiency and reduces the environmental contamination (Chinnamuthu and Boopathi 2009). Generally the encapsulation of fertilizers is done in three methods. ...
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Nanotechnology is considered as one of the significant tools in the present agriculture scenario and it becoming a driving force in the future for agri - food nanotechnology mainly focus on the theme of sustainable agriculture and production of food for both humans and animals. Nanotechnology provides the novel agrochemical agents to improved the crop productivity by reducing the usage of pesticide. The exploitation of natural sources like microorganisms and plants in synthesis of various kinds of nanoparticles has becoming more important in present agriculture sector. The natural amalgamation of micro-organisms creates a vital potential to encourage the synthesis of nanoparticles devoid of usage of harmful and expensive chemicals generally used as the part of nanoparticles synthesis forms. The synthesis of nanoparticles using the microorganism has often provided new insights in the field of nanotechnology. The amalgamation of nanoparticles using the microorganisms has generated a new area of research across the global level. Presently diverse microorganism has been used for the synthesis of nanoparticles thereby generating the different size and morphology of nanoparticles and they are used in the field of agriculture.
... The nanofertilizers are generally referred as smart fertilizers which are made up of nanomaterials which provide several nutrients to the plants for better growth, development, and yield of crops (Liu and Lal 2015). Nanofertilizer is one of the products usually in nanoscale level that provides nutrients to particular target sites and helps in the enhancement of nutrient usage efficiency and reduces the environmental contamination (Chinnamuthu and Boopathi 2009). Generally the encapsulation of fertilizers is done in three methods. ...
Chapter
Nanotechnology is one of the most fascinating and rapidly advanced science technologies which play an effective role in the improvement of agricultural crop yield. Microbial nanoparticles are cost effective, non-toxic, and hence are effective in the management of plant fungal diseases. A large number of nanoparticles have been synthesized from the microbes including bacteria and fungi. These nanoparticles showed strong antifungal activity against different pathogenic fungi and increased resistance in plants by controlling the infection level caused by these fungal pathogens. Overall, this book chapter suggested the use of microbial nanoparticles as a source of alternatives in controlling different plant fungal diseases.
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Volume 3: Trends, Nanomaterials and Food Delivery provides an overview of the current trends in nanotechnology for food applications and food delivery systems. Topics include a collection of chapters on diverse topics, including the stability of nanoparticles in food, nanobiosensing for the detection of food contaminants, nanotechnology applications in agriculture, the role of nanotechnology in nutrient delivery, how nanotechnology is applied in dairy products, biofunctional magnetic nanoparticles in food safety, the development of nutraceuticals using nanotechnological tools, and more.
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Quantum dots (QDs) are nanometer-sized fragments with unique properties, which make them as a new class of rising nanomaterials and has potentially evolved candidates for different applications such as diagnostics and therapeutic purposes because of their unique properties. Therefore, it develops into important for researchers to elucidate and the adverse effects of QDs. This review presents the quantum dots and their applications, risks and ecotoxicology, policies and public issues, and legal concerns. A specific application of quantum dots is vital in determining its impact on society and the environment.
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Due to the deterioration of natural resources, low agricultural production, significant postharvest losses, no value addition, and a rapid increase in population, the enhancement of food security and safety in underdeveloped countries is becoming extremely tough. Efforts to incorporate the latest technology are now emanating from scientists globally in order to boost supply and subsequently reduce differences between the demand and the supply chain for food production. Nanotechnology is a unique technology that might increase agricultural output by developing nanofertilizers, employing active pesticides and herbicides, regulating soil features, managing wastewater and detecting pathogens. It is also suitable for processing food, as it boosts food production with high market value, improves its nutrient content and sensory properties, increases its safety, and improves its protection from pathogens. Nanotechnology can also be beneficial to farmers by assisting them in decreasing postharvest losses through the extension of the shelf life of food crops using nanoparticles. This review presents current data on the impact of nanotechnology in enhancing food security and reducing postharvest losses alongside the constraints confronting its application. More research is needed to resolve this technology’s health and safety issues.
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Spodoptera litura, one of the polyphagous pests, causes huge economical lose and use of chemical pesticide causes impact to the environmental. The present study deals with the use of cell- free supernatant of bacteria Xenorhabdus nematophila NP-1 strain for synthesizing silver nanoparticles and analyzing its larvicidal ability against Spodoptera litura. Color change from yellow to dark brown specifies the synthesis of AgNPs. UV–Vis spec indicates the presences of AgNPs at 440 nm λmax and functional groups; alcohols, carboxylic acids, aromatics, alkylhalides, ethers and phenols were confirmed by FTIR. SEM revealed the synthesized AgNPs is in spherical shape, EDaX confirms the elemental composition and the crystalline nature were observed using XRD. GC–MS analysis showed presence of Benzencepropanoic acid, 1, 3, 5 Trichloropent-2-ene, 1,1-Dichloro-2,3- dicmethycycloprone and 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid bioactive compounds some of which may be responsible for insecticidal and antibacterial activity. The antibacterial activity against S. aureus, B. subtilis and K. pneumoniae showed maximum zone of inhibition at 100 µL/mL. Larvicidal activity of S. litura shows highest mortality at 48 h. In potted plant experiment, AgNPs treated plants showed less damage, with less leaf consumption by S. litura larvae. Further, the synthesis of AgNPs were targeted to zebrafish embryos (non- target organism) and it didn’t exhibit any toxic effect even at higher concentration. Our experiment concludes that, AgNPs synthesized using NP-1 strain has highest antimicrobial and insecticidal activity, which can be used in biomedical and biopesticides.
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Herbicides are chemicals that are toxic for plants and are mainly used to destroy unwanted plants like weeds in the crop. Herbicides have got immense importance in the agriculture sector and production of it is one of the biggest business industries. Nanoherbicides are formed by nano-based particles used for the synthesis of herbicides and, on the other hand, by effective application for synthesis of herbicide through nano particles-based delivery system. Advantages of nanoherbicides are reduction in the quantity of synthetic chemicals, effective delivery system, the safety of personals, and effective reaction time. Nanoherbicides are novel technology to address all the shortcomings of traditional herbicides. One of the biggest problems that conventional herbicides are facing is resistance developed in weeds which requires strategic planning for its complete removal. Nanoherbicides with properties like high penetration capacity and an effective delivery system can be helpful to solve such problems. This chapter aims to pitch lights on nanoherbicides and its application in agriculture.
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Globally, corn is the most economically important crop, surpassing other cereals of economic importance. However, the tillage methods, monoculture and the abuse of synthetic agrochemicals used in Mexico have led to the loss of fertility and soil yield. In this sense, the application of alternative fertilization methods based on chemical fertilizer, organic matter and biofertilizer, applied alone or in combination, can stimulate the defense systems of corn plants and increase their yield. Therefore, in this research, some fertilization schemes were tested on purple corn plants of the Kculli race through the evaluation of some growth and yield variables, as well as the subsequent evaluation of the chemical characteristics of the corn grain produced in each fertilization scheme. The results indicate highly significant differences (p ≤ 0.05) between treatments, for the different growth and yield variables studied. Of all the fertilization schemes evaluated, treatment T7 obtained the best grain yield of 6.19 ± 0.07 t ha−1, with respect to treatment T1 of 1.02 ± 0.01 t ha−1, as well as the highest protein content and starch quality. Being clear the positive effect of the adequate contribution of the macro and micronutrients used exerts on the corn crop in each of the fertilization schemes studied. On the other hand, the analysis carried out on the grains was found within the values reported by other authors.
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Nanotechnology is a transformative technology with great potential for world food production and security. Recently, the use of nanoparticles in agriculture has exponentially increased in the form of nanofertilizers and nanopesticides as there has been increasing evidence of disadvantages of chemical fertilizers and pesticides to the ecosystem and associated health hazards. Additionally, the rising demand of consumers for safe, high quality, and eco-friendly food products has shifted the paradigm towards novel technologies with nanotechnology being an emerging one. The development of nanofertilizers and nanopesticides are playing amazing roles and has opened new doors for fulfilling the nutrient demands and combating abiotic as well as biotic stress of horticultural crops. The present chapter highlights the major characteristics of nanomaterials, their interactions with plant systems, green synthesis of nanoparticles, and status of nanotechnology in horticultural system as well as in research and development.
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Since green revolution crop fertilization has become one of the major components for crop production. The major drawbacks with conventional fertilizers are that they were highly prone to losses, low nutrient use efficiency and causes environmental pollution. Efforts to increase NUE of conventional fertilizers have not shown any considerable outcome. So, there is a need to intervene with alternate technology, among them nanofertilizers have the potential to increase NUE. Synthesis and application of macroutrient nanofertilizers at reduced recommendation enhances nutrient release pattern and increases the growth, yield and NUE of crops. Similarly, Seed treatment and foliar application of micronutrient nanofertilizers enhances crop nutrient uptake that leads to increased yield and NUE of crops. It also enhances quality parameters of the crops. Nanomaterial enhanced fertilizers loaded with plant nutrients enhanced nutrient release pattern and increasing plant uptake efficiency and reduce the adverse impacts of fertilization application.
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Silicon (Si) is abundant in soils and an essential element for the growth, development, and stress control of several plant species. Nanotechnology comprises nanoscale size particles and represents a novel approach to overcome challenges in the agriculture and food industry. In this context, nano-silicon has been explored as a new tool for quality enrichment of crop production due to its higher specificity, reactivity, bioactivity, and adherence than bulk silicon. Nano-silicon (NSi) is eco-friendly and promises to reduce impacts and increase plant tolerance to abiotic and biotic stresses. It acts as a fertilizer, pesticide, and delivery system for molecules to plants. Moreover, NSi can be a component in biofertilizer formulations to improve plant growth-promoting bacteria activity in the field. Therefore NSi emerges as a step toward technology that can generate gains for the agriculture sector and address global food demand.
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We are pleased to present this book entitled “Recent Advances in Agricultural Science and Technology for Sustainable India”. Ratnesh Kumar Rao, Secretary, Mahima Research Foundation and Social Welfare are not new to Agriculture students. With his vast experience in Academic activities, he has dealt this complex subject and edited, with practical approach and simple language, to meet the requirement of the students and teachers of Agriculture. The large gap between potential and current crop yields makes increased food production attainable. India’s low agricultural productivity has many causes, including scarce and scant knowledge of improved practices, low use of improved seed, low fertilizer use, inadequate irrigation, conflict, absence of strong institutions, ineffective policies, lack of incentives and prevalence of diseases. Climate change could substantially reduce yields from rainfed agriculture in some countries. With scarcity of land, water, energy, and other natural resources, meeting the demands for food and fiber will require increases in productivity. Though this book is mainly deals with the agriculture research and education, it will also be very handy for those who desire to start Agricultural Research in Science and Technology. We are sure this will be accepted very much by the students, teachers, scientists and Stakeholders of Agriculture all over the India. We solicit your encouragement in this endeavour.
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Sugar beet (B. vulgaris), a root crop grown in Europe, North America, the Middle East, Egypt, India, Chile, Japan, and China, is an important source of sugar. In temperate climates, sugar beet is the sole sucrose-storing crop. It produces approximately a third of the world's yearly sugar, with pulp and molasses being utilised for animal feed and methane production. Sugar beets are typically planted in the spring and harvested in the vegetative stage before the winter season. Because of the pre-winter development and increased growth in spring, cultivating sugar beet as a winter crop, by sowing in October and harvesting the following year, might enhance beet yields by up to 26%. (Jaggard and Werker, 1999; Hoffmann and Kluge-Severin, 2011). Winter beets have progressed to the point where they can be harvested and beet campaigns can begin early. As a result, one of the primary goals of sugar beet breeding is to produce winter beets. The control of bolting after the winter is a challenge in winter agriculture.
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Ensuring food security in developing countries is highly challenging due to low productivity of the agriculture sector, degradation of natural resources, high post farming losses, less or no value addition, and high population growth. Researchers are striving to adopt newer technologies to enhance supply to narrow the food demand gap. Nanotechnology is one of the promising technologies that could improve agricultural productivity via nano fertilizers, use of efficient herbicides and pesticides, soil feature regulation, wastewater management, and pathogen detection. It is equally beneficial for industrial food processing with enhanced food production with excellent market value, elevated nutritional and sensing property, improved safety, and better antimicrobial protection. Nanotechnology can also reduce post-farming losses by increasing the shelf life with the aid of nanoparticles. However, further investigation is required to solve the safety and health risks associated with the technology.
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The unprecedented setbacks and environmental complications, faced by global agro-farming industry, have led to the advent of nanotechnology in agriculture, which has been recognized as a novel and innovative approach in development of sustainable farming practices. The agricultural regimen is the “head honcho” of the world, however presently certain approaches have been imposing grave danger to the environment and human civilization. The nano-farming paradigm has successfully elevated the growth and development of plants, parallel to the production, quality, germination/transpiration index, photosynthetic machinery, genetic progression, and so on. This has optimized the traditional farming into precision farming, utilising nano-based sensors and nanobionics, smart delivery tools, nanotech facets in plant disease management, nanofertilizers, enhancement of plant adaptive potential to external stress, role in bioenergy conservation and so on. These applications portray nanorevolution as “the big cheese” of global agriculture, mitigating the bottlenecks of conventional practices. Besides the applications of nanotechnology, the review identifies the limitations, like possible harmful impact on environment, mankind and plants, as the “Achilles heel” in agro-industry, aiming to establish its defined role in agriculture, while simultaneously considering the risks, in order to resolve them, thus abiding by “technology-yes, but safety-must”. The authors aim to provide a significant opportunity to the nanotech researchers, Botanists and environmentalists, to promote judicial use of nanoparticles and establish a secure and safe environment.
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The largest and oldest agricultural industry at present is facing multifold problems. There are expectations of the ever-increasing food and grains stipulate due to the rising universal populace and at the same time, resources are depleting. This triggered the omnipresent utilization of synthetic fertilizers increasing the cost involved in farming. The use of low-quality less efficient synthetic fertilizers has only made things difficult leading to negative impacts. Nanotechnology has shown capabilities to uphold sustainable agriculture by tailor fertilizer production working wonders as a boon. Nanofertilizers are used to improve plant nutrition, increase nutrient efficiency, and also improve soil fertility. The genetic, physiological, and morphological changes exhibit an effect on soil microbiological symbiosis, physicochemical properties. This article critically reviews the preparation, properties, and applications including future routes identified to promote the research based nano-enabled smart and clear-cut use of bio-nanofertilizers. The use of nanoscale active ingredients, promising features like the controlled release, and targeted delivery of nanofertilizers enhancement in the crop yield, crop quality, and various environmental effects involved also highlighted.
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Nanoencapsulation technology is a promising tool for improving the functionality of various bioactive compounds. It envelops the labile bioactive within a protective covering for its protection against harsh environmental conditions and for its targeted delivery at specific sites. Number of newly emerged nanoencapsulation technologies, such as homogenization, ultrasonication, microfuidization, phase inversion, spontaneous emulsification, supercritical fluid technique, nanoprecipitation, electrospinning etc., has been discussed briefly in this chapter. Various characterization methods to assess the properties of encapsulated bioactives have also been explored. This chapter also provides an insight of the systematic and comprehensive review of the studies pertaining to the nanoencapsulation of numerous bioactives conducted in the recent years. Latest safety and regulatory concerns related to different nanoencapsulated bioactives have also been covered in the chapter.
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Conventional agriculture often depends on massive dosages of fertilizers and pesticides that have harmful effects on the existing living beings and the ecosystems. As a simple view of sustainable agriculture, the least amounts of agrochemicals should be applied so that the environment can be secure and various species can be conserved. The primary goal of sustainable agriculture is to meet current societal demands, such as food and textiles, without jeopardizing future generations' ability to fulfill their own requirements. Agricultural activities like geoinformatics, nanoparticles, all contribute to long‐term increases in agricultural output, poverty reduction, and food security (Chen and Yada 2011). The detection of soil type and architecture is aided by geoinformatics approaches. Nano fertilizers and nano pesticides to trace products and nutrient levels to increase productivity without soil decontamination, water, and security against a variety of insect pests and microbial diseases are specific applications that provide significant benefits of using nanotechnology in agriculture. Using nanotechnology in agriculture can considerably increase the effectiveness of agricultural activities, suggesting that nanoparticles could be an important strategy for ensuring agroecosystems' long‐term development. Nanobionics as fertilizer, herbicide, fungicides, insecticides, pesticides, and sensors can assist in the determination and diagnosis of crops requirement and their health in real‐time (Di Giacomo et al. 2015). Hence, this chapter is aimed to critically highlight points toward the use of geoinformatics, nanoparticles, and nanobionics as emerging tools for sustainable agriculture.
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A weed is considered an undesirable plant at a certain place and it causes extensive direct and indirect losses by interfering in crop cultivation, biodiversity loss, and available water reduction in water bodies. Chemical control is a frequently used effective option but it is restricted by environmental degradation, evolution of herbicide resistance in weeds, and health hazards. It requires replacement of present strategy that is based on chemicals to some holistic eco-friendly weed management contrivance, which is not only viable, feasible, and efficient but also sustainable. Therefore, all the economically and ecologically feasible methods should be merged in an overarching way for effective management of weeds. Weeds are constantly evolving and accordingly newer technology should also be evolved. Nanotechnology is playing a crucial role in getting more effective and targeted application of herbicides. As smart delivery system nano-herbicides provide an approach that is environment friendly through lowering inputs of the herbicide, as well as imparting control over release of an active ingredient. Additionally, “Control through utilization strategy” should also be welcomed whereby developing some use of the weed, economic earnings can also be gained along with control of the weed. This chapter will provide information about recent environmentally sustainable approaches used for management of weeds.
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pl (A.R.) † These authors have contributed equally to the work. Abstract: The advancement in nanotechnology has brought numerous benefits for humans in diverse areas including industry, medicine, and agriculture. The demand in the application of nano-materials can result in the release of these anthropogenic materials into soil and water that can potentially harm the environment by affecting water and soil properties (e.g., soil texture, pH, organic matter, and water content), plants, animals, and subsequently human health. The properties of na-noparticles including their size, surface area, and reactivity affect their fate in the environment and can potentially result in their toxicological effects in the ecosystem and on living organisms. There is extensive research on the application of nano-based materials and the consequences of their release into the environment. However, there is little information about environmentally friendly approaches for removing nanomaterials from the environment. This article provides insight into the application of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), as one of the most commonly used nanomaterials, their toxicological effects, their impacts on plants and microorganisms, and briefly reviews the possibility of remediation of these metabolites using phytotechnology approaches. This article provides invaluable information to better understand the fate of nanomaterials in the environment and strategies in removing them from the environment. Citation: Ihtisham, M.; Noori, A.; Yadav, S.; Sarraf, M.; Kumari, P.; Brestic, M.; Imran, M.; Jiang, F.; Yan, X.; Rastogi, A. Silver Nanoparticle's Toxicological Effects and Phytoremediation.
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Both synchrotron radiation based soft-X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and resonant soft-X-ray emission spectroscopy (XES) on a variety of nano-structured systems has yielded characteristic fingerprints. With high-resolution monochromatized synchrotron radiation excitation, resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS) has emerged as a new source of information about electronic structure and excitation dynamics of nanomaterials. The selectivity of the excitation, in terms of energy and polarization, has also facilitated studies of emission anisotropy. Various features observed in resonant emission spectra have been identified and studied.
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We synthesized multimetal microrods intrinsically encoded with submicrometer stripes. Complex striping patterns are readily prepared by sequential electrochemical deposition of metal ions into templates with uniformly sized pores. The differential reflectivity of adjacent stripes enables identification of the striping patterns by conventional light microscopy. This readout mechanism does not interfere with the use of fluorescence for detection of analytes bound to particles by affinity capture, as demonstrated by DNA and protein bioassays.
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Fundamentals of Weed Science, Fifth Edition, provides the latest information on this constantly advancing area of study. Placing weed management in the largest context of weed research and science, the book presents the latest advances in the role, control and potential uses of weed plants. From the emergence and genetic foundation of weeds, to the latest means of control and environmental impact, the book uses an ecological framework to explore the role of responsible and effective weed control in agriculture. In addition, users will find discussions of related areas where research is needed for additional understanding. Explored topics include the roles of culture, economics and politics in weed management, all areas that enable scientists and students to further understand the larger effects on society. Completely revised with 35% new content Contains expanded coverage of ethnobotany, the specific identity and role of invasive weed species, organic agriculture, and herbicide resistance in GM crops Includes an emphasis on herbicide resistance and molecular biology, both of which have come to dominate weed science research Covers all traditional aspects of weed science as well as current research Provides broad coverage, including relevant related subjects like weed ecology and weed population genetics.
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The implementation of nanotechnology in food science is discussed. The developments include the incorporation of miniscule carbon nanotubes into polymer substrates developed into electrically conductive membranes that can minimize the energy losses that occur when the feedstock is heated, and limit the detrimental effects of prolonged heating on the nutritional and sensory properties of the food. Chip-based sensing for rapid detection of biological pathogens is another new area with potential for application in food handling, processing, and in early warning regarding exposure to bacteria, viruses and other antigens. The applications of atomic force microscopy in nondestructive topographical analysis of delicate biomaterials are also elaborated.
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A bird's eye review was tried to select the bio-rational targets from known and novel plant-specific ones for the molecular design of modern herbicides, which exhibit efficient phytotoxicity at a low-use rate and preserve a good environment in the 21st century. In phytotoxic sites in the photosynthetic electron transport (PET) system discussed in the present article (Part 1), the generally called bleaching herbicides interfering with the biosynthesis of photosynthetic pigments, chlorophylls and carotenoids, and the biosynthesis of plastoquinone, were considered to be good models for the molecular design of modern herbicides. The PET itself was still considered as an interesting target site for new herbicides, although they need to exert their action in all green leaves of weeds to achieve herbicidal efficacy. Because these herbicides never form a tight binding with D1-protein, their use-rate cannot be expected to be as low as the herbicides inhibiting chlorophyll or branched amino-acid biosynthesis. Other herbicidal targets found in chloroplasts, namely ATP and NADPH formations, have already been omitted from the worldwide biorational molecular design program of herbicides targeting the PET system.
Article
To a large extent our work has grown out of the remote sensing technology and conceptual framework developed by geologists. For example the drive to look at the physics of reflectance and atmospheric corrections is rooted in work done in the early 1980s by the United States Geological Survey and NASA. Our work on emissivity and thermal behavior of plants pulls on research done using the Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner, an instrument originally conceived for geologic applications. Even our ability to geometrically map the airborne imagery onto the globe was explicitly developed because of need to map sediment flow patterns in along the coast of Louisiana. Growing from this base we have learned much in the last few years and believe our integration of geologic remote sensing with the other fields of expertise was a wise investment. Clearly none of the specialties alone could develop, let alone test, the basic approach we are now finding so powerful. This is the path that will ultimately give the information needed by the farmer. We also recognize how small a portion of the total problem has been solved. Having developed the basic logic, built proto-type tools and performed initial tests everything else remains to be done. And problems, scientific and practical, are everywhere. We have not established sensitivities. We have not robustly segregated the contributions of crop residue, soil moisture, shadows, plant and soil to the energy leaving the surface. What we do is extremely expensive and difficult. It is experimental in methodology and uses research oriented tools. We are constantly alive to the practicality of moving our results into commercial applications. We know another airborne instrument will have to be available. Atmospheric parameters will have to be measured automatically. The software will have to be re-written for speed. At times the list of problems seems endless. But the potential is also enormous. Agriculture is a huge portion of our economy. Just a one percent increase in efficiency is a $2,000,000 change. We all depend on farmers, literally for the bread we eat. No other activity of man even has an impact on the land that farming has. If application of precision agriculture can nelp farmers manage their land better, we all may benefit.
Article
Cells represent the minimum functional and integrating communicable unit of living systems. Cultured cells both transduce and transmit a variety of chemical and physical signals, i.e., production of specific substances and proteins, throughout their life cycle within specific tissues and organs. Such cellular responses might be usefully employed as parameters to obtain chemical information for both pharmaceutical and chemical safety, and drug efficacy profiles in vitro as a screening tool. However, such cellular signals are very weak and not easily detected with conventional analytical methods. By using micro- and nanobiotechnology methods integrated on-chip, a higher sensitivity and signal amplification has been developed for cellular biosensing. Micro- and nanotechnology is rapidly evolving to open new combinations of methods with improved technical performance, helping to resolve challenging bioanalytical problems including sensitivity, signal resolution and specificity by interfacing these technologies in small volumes in order to confirm specific cellular signals. Integration of cell signals in both rapid time and small space, and importantly, between different cell populations (communication and systems modeling) will permit many more valuable measurements of the dynamic aspects of cell responses to various chosen stimuli and their feedback. This represents the future for cell-based biosensing.
Article
Nanotechnology extends the limits of molecular diagnostics to the nanoscale. Nanotechnology-on-a-chip is one more dimension of microfluidic/lab-on-a-chip technology. Biological tests measuring the presence or activity of selected substances become quicker, more sensitive and more flexible when certain nanoscale particles are put to work as tags or labels. Magnetic nanoparticles, bound to a suitable antibody, are used to label specific molecules, structures or microorganisms. Magnetic immunoassay techniques have been developed in which the magnetic field generated by the magnetically labeled targets is detected directly with a sensitive magnetometer. Gold nanoparticles tagged with short segments of DNA can be used for detection of genetic sequence in a sample. Multicolor optical coding for biological assays has been achieved by embedding different-sized quantum dots into polymeric microbeads. Nanopore technology for analysis of nucleic acids converts strings of nucleotides directly into electronic signatures. DNA nanomachines can function as biomolecular detectors for homogeneous assays. Nanobarcodes, submicrometer metallic barcodes with striping patterns prepared by sequential electrochemical depositon of metal, show differential reflectivity of adjacent stripes enabling identification of the striping patterns by conventional light microscopy. All this has applications in population diagnostics and in point-of-care hand-held devices.
Article
A sensitive, specific, and rapid method for the detection of E. coli O157:H7 was demonstrated using quantum dots (QDs) as a fluorescence marker coupled with immunomagnetic separation. Magnetic beads coated with anti-E. coli O157 antibodies were employed to selectively capture the target bacteria, and biotin-conjugated anti-E. coli antibodies were added to form sandwich immuno complexes. After magnetic separation, the immuno complexes were labeled with QDs via biotin-streptavidin conjugation. This was followed by a fluorescence measurement using a laptop-controlled portable device, which consisted of a blue LED and a CCD-array spectrometer. The peak intensity of the fluorescence emission was proportional to the initial cell concentration of E. coli O157:H7 in the range of 10(3)-10(7) CFU/mL with a detection limit at least 100 times lower than that of the FITC-based method. The total detection time was less than 2 h. Neither E. coli K12 nor Salmonella typhimurium interfered with the detection of E. coli O157:H7.
Article
Gains from trade come from a certain degree of specialization among trade partners. Specialization in the case of an agriculture-based developing country might be feared to imply a higher reliance than ever on low skill labor. Trade might thus be seen as a step away from the much awaited structural transformation of the economy, which can only come with increases in productivity. In this paper, we suggest that it needs not be the case. We show, within a dynamic general equilibrium model, that trade openness can in fact trigger the structural transformation of such an agrarian society. It can induce a higher reliance on human capital accumulation and produce the necessary productivity gains for an economy to pick up. Our model provides an illustration of the mechanics behind such structural transformation.
Securely wrapped: Science for a Better Life
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Livestock's long shadow
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Can nanotechnology provide the innovations for a second green revolution in Indian agriculture?
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