Factors Affecting Customer Satisfaction

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Abstract
Factors affecting customer satisfaction is of worth importance in order to know the reasons or the factors which are responsible to create satisfaction among customers for a particular brand. Customer satisfaction is established when brand fulfills the needs and desires of customers. In this research study, the subscribers of telecom sector or the mobile service providers like Ufone, Mobilink, Telenor etc operating in Pakistan were targeted as the population while Price Fairness and customer services were the taken as predicting variables towards customer satisfaction as criterion variable. The results showed that both the factors significantly contributed to explain customer satisfaction but comparatively price fairness had the larger impact on customer satisfaction than customer services. Conclusion and implications of the study are also discussed based on the analysis.
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International Research Journal of Finance and Economics
ISSN 1450-2887 Issue 60 (2010)
© EuroJournals Publishing, Inc. 2010
http://www.eurojournals.com/finance.htm
Factors Affecting Customer Satisfaction
Muzammil Hanif
Department of Management Science
Army public college of Management Sciences Rawalpindi, Pakistan
E-mail: muzi29_hanif@yahoo.com
Sehrish Hafeez
Department of Management Science
Army public college of Management Sciences Rawalpindi, Pakistan
E-mail: shuush989@live.com
Adnan Riaz
Lecturer, Department of Business Administration
Allama Iqbal Open University Islamabad Pakistan
E-mail: adnan_riaz@aiou.edu.pk
Abstract
Factors affecting customer satisfaction is of worth importance in order to know the
reasons or the factors which are responsible to create satisfaction among customers for a
particular brand. Customer satisfaction is established when brand fulfills the needs and
desires of customers. In this research study, the subscribers of telecom sector or the mobile
service providers like Ufone, Mobilink, Telenor etc operating in Pakistan were targeted as
the population while Price Fairness and customer services were the taken as predicting
variables towards customer satisfaction as criterion variable. The results showed that both
the factors significantly contributed to explain customer satisfaction but comparatively
price fairness had the larger impact on customer satisfaction than customer services.
Conclusion and implications of the study are also discussed based on the analysis.
Keywords: Customer satisfaction, price fairness and customer service
1. Introduction
The origin of telecommunication services in Pakistan can be traced back to 1947 that was followed by
a major change in 1962 when telegraph and telephone services were separated by the establishment of
independent T & T and postal department. Later on developments were made in the provision of
telecommunication services to the customer on consistent basis but from the last two decades
revolutionary changes in the telecom sector have taken place with the introduction of mobile
telephony. This shift brought Pakistan telecommunication sector into a new era of growth and progress
that had a great impact on its subscribers who became more sensitive about the service quality, pricing
and switching barriers.
Telecommunication is the dominant industry from the last decade comparing others in Pakistan
on account of substantial contribution to the national exchequer. Not only national but international
companies started operations in Pakistan and created stiff competition nation wide. This competitive
International Research Journal of Finance and Economics - Issue 60 (2010) 45
environment caused brand consciousness among subscribers and potential buyers. Researches show
that various factors impart in creating the awareness, satisfaction, loyalty, and sense of belongingness
toward brands of any kind but sometimes customers themselves are unaware of the reasons for the
brand preferences.
In the contemporary environment the only constant is change. Therefore, businesses have to
develop different strategies in order to survive in long run. One of the best strategies is about satisfying
the customers that ensure a long term growth of business. Nowadays organizations are well aware of
the benefits lies with retaining customer and strive to know the reasons in black box of customer that
have impact on the brand choice to reduce the turn over rate.
Since satisfied customer is the core concern of any organization therefore they pay close
attention toward the factors that influence a customer’s decision towards brand. The main purpose of
this research study was to investigate the key variables that are having strong influence on customer
satisfaction in telecom sector and influence purchasing decision of customers. This study has
considered the two main important factors as pricing and customer’s services to know its effects on
customer satisfaction. Factors affecting customer satisfaction are key concern for any organization,
department or country because through customer satisfaction any business can establish long term
profitable relationship with customer. The reason behind is once a firm loses its loyal customers it has
to incur a cost of acquiring them again in addition to acquiring the new ones.
2. Literature Review
2.1. Customer Satisfaction
Customer satisfaction is defined as an "evaluation of the perceived discrepancy between prior
expectations and the actual performance of the product" (Tse and Wilton, 1988, Oliver 1999).
Satisfaction of customers with products and services of a company is considered as most important
factor leading toward competitiveness and success (Hennig-Thurau and Klee, 1997). Customer
satisfaction is actually how customer evaluates the ongoing performance (Gustafsson, Johnson and
Roos, 2005). According to Kim, Park and Jeong (2004) customer satisfaction is customer’s reaction to
the state of satisfaction, and customer’s judgment of satisfaction level. Customer satisfaction is very
important in today’s business world as according to Deng et al., (2009) the ability of a service provider
to create high degree of satisfaction is crucial for product differentiation and developing strong
relationship with customers.
Customer satisfaction makes the customers loyal to one telecommunication service provider.
Previous researchers have found that satisfaction of the customers can help the brands to build long and
profitable relationships with their customers (Eshghi, Haughton and Topi, 2007). Though it is costly to
generate satisfied and loyal customers but that would prove profitable in a long run for a firm
(Anderson, Fornell and Mazvancheryl, 2004). Therefore a firm should concentrate on the improvement
of service quality and charge appropriate fair price in order to satisfy their customers which would
ultimately help the firm to retain its customers (Gustafsson, Johnson and Roos, 2005).
It is a common phenomenon that the services a brand offers and the price it charges actually
determine the level of satisfaction among its customers, than any other measure (Turel et al. 2006).
Customer’s involvement is also important as when buyer consider the product important and invests
time to seek information then it ultimately enhances the satisfaction level (Russell-Bennett, McColl-
Kennedy and Coote, 2007). This satisfaction may influence the concerned company by repurchase,
purchase of more products, positive word of mouth and willingness of customer to pay more for the
particular brand. Any business is likely to lose market share, customers and investors if it fails to
satisfy customers as effectively and efficiently as its competitors is doing (Anderson, Fornell, and
Mazvancheryl, 2004).
46 International Research Journal of Finance and Economics - Issue 60 (2010)
2.2. Customer Services
Customer service is a system of activities that comprises customer support systems, complaint
processing, speed of complaint processing, ease of reporting complaint and friendliness when reporting
complaint (Kim, Park and Jeong, 2004). Customer services are the opportunities for telecom service
providers that are added to mobile network other than voice services in which contents are either self
produced by service provider or provided through strategic compliance with service provider (Kuo, Wu
and Deng, 2009). The improved customer services are the focal point of the telecom service providers
for social as well as for economic reasons. From a social point of view, services should be available to
the customers on reasonable terms. As far as economic factor is concerned, services should satisfy the
needs of the customers (Turel and Serenko, 2006; Melody, 1997).
For developing satisfaction among customers, the telecom service providers need to be extra
careful for the customer services they provide. Satisfaction of customer is determined by his evaluation
of service provided by a brand (Gustafsson, Johnson and Roos, 2005). The study of Ahn, Han and Lee
(2006) shows that when the customers, do not get their complaints considered properly, they start
looking for other brands. It happens because either the customer service centers do not handle the
complaints or the customers are not able to address them properly. Sometimes, telecom service
providers take considerably longer time to resolve the problems like network coverage or call quality,
the customers do not wait for long and hence they lose satisfaction with that particular brand (Ahn,
Han and Lee, 2006).
Furthermore, the friendly attitude and courteous behavior of the service workers at service
firms leaves a positive impression on the customer which lead towards customer satisfaction
(Soderlund and Rosengren, 2008). On the other hand, if a telecom service provider lacks in providing
services (call drops) to its customers it experiences customer churn. Kim, Park and Jeong (2004)
argued that service provider should provide customer oriented services in order to heighten up
customer satisfaction. It was also found that the customers get satisfied to a brand more if they get all
the needed services accumulated in that very brand (Ahn, Han and Lee, 2006).
2.3. Price Fairness
According to Kotler and Armstrong (2010) price is the amount of money charged for a product or
service, or the sum of the values that customers exchange for the benefits of having or using the
product or service while Stanton, Michael and Bruce (1994) defined price as the amount of money or
goods needed to acquire some combination of another goods and its companying services. But the
marketing literature showed researchers’ inclination towards price fairness in relation with customer
satisfaction (Hermann et al., 2007; Kukar-Kinney, Xia and Monroe, 2007; Martin-Consuegra, Molina
and Esteban, 2007). Price fairness refers to consumers’ assessments of whether a seller’s price is
reasonable, acceptable or justifiable (Xia et al., 2004; Kukar-Kinney, Xia and Monroe, 2007). Price
fairness is a very important issue that leads toward satisfaction. Charging fair price helps to develop
customer satisfaction and loyalty. Research has shown that customer’s decision to accept particular
price has a direct bearing at satisfaction level and loyalty and indirectly (Martin-Consuegra, Molina
and Esteban, 2007). In another study of Herrmann et al., (2007), it was concluded that customer
satisfaction is directly influenced by price perceptions while indirectly through the perception of price
fairness. The price fairness itself and the way it is fixed and offered have a great impact on satisfaction.
According to Lommeruda and Sørgard (2003), telecommunication services are like undifferentiated
products therefore, customers are not price sensitive all the times and sometimes brand loyalty takes
part in brand preferences. This is the reason; some consumers are retained with old monopolists.
Literature explored showed substantive role of price fairness and quality service with customer
satisfaction, therefore, this study also comprised these two factors and their effects at customer
satisfaction in the telecom sector of Pakistan were evaluated.
International Research Journal of Finance and Economics - Issue 60 (2010) 47
3. Methodology
3.1. Population
General public within Rawalpindi city of Pakistan were treated as the population of this study. Survey
was targeted to the user of GSM telecommunication services and all the GSM mobile phone operators
such as U-fone, Telenor, Mobilink, Warid or Zong were taken aboard.
3.2. Procedure
It was decided to collect at least 150 questionnaires to well support to come at reasonable conclusion
therefore, 250 questionnaires were floated among subjects using non-probability convenience sampling
method. The respondents were asked to apprise about their feelings or emotional bonding with
preferred mobile phone operator / brand. In most of the cases self administered approach was used to
solicit factual responses in timely manner. Data obtained in this regard was punched and analyzed
through SPSS 15.0.
3.3. Measures
Questionnaire as an instrument was used for this study which contained brief description about the
purpose and the significance of the study. The first part was consisting of eight items to know the
demography of the customer such as age, gender, type of connection, network using and years with
their respective network. This section was based on nominal scales like check boxes and dichotomous
scale.
Table 1: Cronbach’s Alpha Reliability Coefficient
Reliability Statistics
Constructs Cronbach's Alpha N of Items
Satisfaction with the network 0.88 10
Price fairness 0.65 8
Customer services 0.75 9
Overall 0.87 27
Second part was based on 27 items to measure customer satisfaction, fairness price and service
quality. Customer satisfaction was measured with 10 items, price fairness with 8 and customer service
with 9. All the items were supported with 5 point Likert scale ranging from 1. Strongly Disagree to 5.
Strongly Agree. The questionnaire was self-developed however some items regarding customer
satisfaction were taken from the study of (Sweeney and Swait, 2008). Cronbach’s Alpha values in
respect of each variables are given in table-I. Respondents were also ensured about the confidentiality
as information shared in this regard would be used for the academic and research purposes.
4. Theoretical Framework and Research Model
48 International Research Journal of Finance and Economics - Issue 60 (2010)
4.1. Hypothesis
In order to check the relationship between the independent and dependent variables, two hypotheses
were developed.
H1 : When increases in the price fairness by a brand are high that would lead to decreased
customer satisfaction.
H2: Good customer services increase the number of satisfied customers and hence, enhance
customer satisfaction.
5. Data Analysis
Collected data was analyzed to determine how the sample of the research responds to the items under
investigation. Descriptive statistics, correlation and regression methods were employed to analyze the
collected data.
Demographical analysis shows that out of sample of 150, 79 are women and 71 are men and
most of them are young students of graduate program. Majority of them are using the network of U-
fone. Out of 150, almost 71 respondents are frequent users of this network. 83 respondents have
experience of 1 to 5 years with their network and 30 respondents have more than 5 years of experience
with particular network and rest of them are new users with experience less then 1 year. Connection
type that most of them are using was prepaid and only 24 respondents are using post paid connections.
Table 2: Demographical Analysis
Measures Items Frequency Percentage
Age
20 or above 46 31%
21 to 25 82 55%
26 to 30 8 5%
31 to 35 3 2%
36 to 40 2 1%
41 or above 9 6%
Gender Male 71 47%
Female 79 53%
Type of Connection Postpaid 24 16%
Prepaid 126 84%
Network
Mobilink 24 16%
U-fone 71 47%
Telenor 30 20%
Others 25 17%
Experience with
network
More then 5 years 30 20%
1 to 5 years 83 55%
Less then 1 year 37 25%
Descriptive statistics is used to determine the main features of the collected data in quantitative
terms. It is used to examine the central tendency of the data in terms of mean, median, mode and
standard deviation. All the items used in the instrument (questionnaire), were based on 5-point Likert
scale therefore, the mean values greater than 3.00 for all the three variables (customer satisfaction,
Price Fairness and customer services) are showing the significant positive trend. The result shows the
intensity and strength variables which are negatively skewed.
Standard deviation is also very important as it indicates the deviation from the mean value.
Here standard deviation varies from 0.51 to 0.66 which shows that most of the observations fall around
the mean value for all the variables.
The correlation analysis is used to find the strength of the relationship between several
variables. Correlation analysis results show that price fairness is positively correlated with the
customer satisfaction. A correlation value of 0.51 between price fairness and customer satisfaction is
International Research Journal of Finance and Economics - Issue 60 (2010) 49
indicating strong positive relationship. The correlation value between customer services and customer
satisfaction is calculated as 0.50 which also shows significantly high association between these two
variables.
Table 3: Descriptive and Correlation Results
Mean Std. Deviation Satisfaction with
the network
Price
Fairness
Customer
services
Satisfaction with the network 3.78 0.66 (0.88)
Price Fairness 3.51 0.51 .512(**) (0.65)
Customer services 3.54 0.55 .499(**) .323(**) (0.75)
** Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).
Note: Internal reliability (Cronbach's alpha) estimate shown on diagonal.
The regression analysis is used to determine the dependence of customer satisfaction upon the
independent variables i.e. price fairness and customer services. The results showed that up to 37.8% of
the variation in criterion variable (customer satisfaction) is explained by two of the predicting variables
i.e. price fairness and customer services. The values of coefficients of coefficients were found as 0.507
and 0.447 for price fairness and customer services respectively. Hence, the results found that up to
37.8% of customer satisfaction depends on price fairness and customer services whereas; the rest of the
62.2% depends on other factors or variables which were not taken in this research study.
Table 4: Regression Results
Dependent
Variable
Independent
Variables
Adjusted
R Square β t Stat P-value
Satisfaction with
the network
Price
Fairness 0.378 0.5070 5.7370 0.0000
Customer
Services 0.4470 5.4490 0.0000
6. Discussions and Findings
Customer satisfaction is very important because that would create sense of belongingness, emotional
binding and brand loyalty among customers. Satisfaction was operationalized as “if needs or demands
of customers are fulfilled through particular product or service” or if customer feels that he gets the
desired benefits from the goods or services for which they have paid to a particular firm. The main
motive of this study was to check that how factors of customer services and price fairness add value
toward creating satisfied customers or otherwise. Results show that all the factors selected affect the
customer satisfaction to great extent. Customer service is the most powerful stimulant of brand loyalty.
The results of the study focusing at customers of telecommunication companies shows that if a
brand is fulfilling its promises, it would enhance customer satisfaction and create a feeling in customer
that he has chosen one of the best brand. This paper has taken into account all the dimensions that
would be accounted for customer satisfaction like coverage quality, over all experience and fulfillment
of communication needs. Research has shown that customer satisfaction is created once the primary
needs of customer are met by the brand.
Descriptive results shed light on the positive trend of each of the variables selected for the
study. Especially the results highlighted the satisfaction of mobile subscribers with their respective
networks. They expressed high level of allegiance with their current brands on account of good
coverage quality. Furthermore, they claimed the tariff rates of their network operator are reasonable
and comparatively low. Moreover, in case of any problem customer service centers located nationwide
are accessible and actively responsive.
50 International Research Journal of Finance and Economics - Issue 60 (2010)
Price fairness also plays a major role. If a brand is providing compatible price and increase in
price are fair then customer takes it positively which create a sense of satisfaction among customers
and vice versa. In Pakistan most of the customers are price sensitive so price fairness of any brand is a
major deriver of repurchase decision. Telecommunication is almost homogenous in Pakistan so even a
small difference in price would influence customer behavior. Consequently, it can be deduced that that
price fairness is a major contributor towards creating customer satisfaction. Our research study has
shown that most of the customers are influenced by the call charges and sms packages and if they feel
that price are fair and brand is providing worth giving packages, it would help in making customers
more satisfied and even in long-term retention in future.
Customer satisfaction and customer services are found having positive relationship. Now a
day’s relational marketing is considered very important on the realization of the fact that customer
satisfaction is quite essential for the lasting relationship between service organization and customer. As
in telecommunication service industry a special care is taken to develop good relationship. This study
also validates this notion as if customers feel valued then they make a long term relationship with
brand. Valued doesn’t mean that they are just welcomed at the time of purchase. It means they are
given importance even in case they are not satisfied with the services of network or their complaints
regarding cellular services are given due importance and solved timely. So when customer services are
good enough to make customer feel that they are important to the organization and the organization
cares about them, then all it would lead to positive image toward a brand and eventually customer
satisfaction would be enhanced.
We argued that both customer services and price fairness are important in creating customer
satisfaction. These factors also influence each other in one regard or the other. Customer satisfaction
and price fairness has strong relationship, if price fairness exist then it would add to customer
satisfaction. Similarly customer services and customer satisfaction also have great link, good services
would make customers feel more satisfied though price fairness. These independent variables do not
only influence dependent variable but also have strong relationship with each other. Price fairness and
customer services also complement each other if customers services are good then customers are
willing to pay more for the product or service.
Regression analysis showed that if customer service officers are responsive to fix the
customer’s problems in timely manner and tariff rates are comparative then all it lead towards customer
satisfaction. Providing better packages may cause long term association with existing networks,
therefore mobile operators may enjoy long term relations with their current subscribers due to price
fairness and courteous customer services.
7. Conclusion
The research study has shown that independent variables that are customer services and price fairness
play a very important role in making customer satisfied. Each independent variable not only influences
dependent variable but complement each other as well.
Customer satisfaction is very important as satisfied customer would add value to the brand and
spread a positive word of mouth and help in making good reputation of brand. Satisfied customers
would be able to make long term profitable relationship with brand.
There is significant effect of price fairness on customer satisfaction. If tariff rates charged are
fair and affordable to customers then they use telecom services of that brand for longer period of time
which consistently satisfy their all communication needs.
Similarly if customers are provided with good services such as courteous behavior of sales
person or complaint officer then they feel emotional attachment with their brand of cellular company.
Similarly if thier complaints are solved promptly and commitments are fulfilled then it would provide a
sense of belongingness to the brand. It can be concluded that if any firm wants to be successful over
longer period of time then it has to make its customers satisfied through charging fair tariffs and
memorable customer services so that they can reign over the market.
International Research Journal of Finance and Economics - Issue 60 (2010) 51
8. Recommendations
In this research study, customer satisfaction has been taken into account which is a very important
element for the success of any business. Our study can practically be used by telecommunication
sectors in creating customer satisfaction.
1. We suggest that by making customers feel satisfied, by establishing good relationship with
customers through efficient customer services would lead toward brand loyalty and simply by
keeping the price fairness of services compatible a firm can establish long term profitable
relationship with customers.
2. Our findings can be practically implemented on service firms and apart from that those business
which give due importance to relational marketing. We suggest managers of such firms to have
belief in “best customer services and price fairness” for success and growth of business or in
making customer satisfied.
3. Our framework suggest the central importance of customer satisfaction in telecommunication
sector that how it should be created among customers and how to get benefits out of it. That
would practically help out telecom sector for making customer satisfied, happy and loyal by
making customer feel valued.
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  • ... The telecommunication services in Pakistan originated back in 1947. However, major changes took place in 1962 when the telegraph and telephone (T&T) services were split into specialized units by the formation of autonomous T & T and postal departments (Hanif, Hafeez, & Riaz, 2010). Now, the telecom industry is an amalgamation of all the companies that provide phone services, internet and entertainment services, to domestic and commercial users in Pakistan (Bhatti, 2009). ...
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  • ... According to the picture above, it describes that the ways to enhance the customer's experience and it would be a second attempt to effectively manage customer expectations by reducing the desired level. Customer satisfaction makes the customers loyal to one telecommunication service provider and it concentrates on the improvement of service quality and changed an appropriate in order to be systematic output that customer used it (Hanif, et al., 2010). According to the customer dissatisfaction, it occurred either the customer service center unable to record the necessary information or the customer are not able to address them properly that faced by communicating through telecommunication (OLUBUSOLA, 2015). ...
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  • ... Hence, the service providers in particular in the telecommunication industry need to be innovative and do their best to achieve customer satisfaction (Zhang & Feng, 2009), since it makes the customer loyal towards one service provider (Hanif et al., 2010). Thus the study specifically tries to analyze the relationship between customer satisfaction and customer loyalty. ...
  • ... [7] also explained the opinion users are crucial in investigating the performance of buildings in meeting occupants' needs and expectations. [8] explained that satisfaction act as a subjective evaluation of the performance of products or services for the anticipation of users or customers. Therefore, the importance of housing to the user needs to be taken seriously as the performance of housing measured in achieving the standard of user satisfaction. ...
  • ... On the contrary, some studies see sights that customer satisfaction plays an effective work between customers and organizations to improve and sustain long-term profitable relationship (Haq & Amin, 2009). Subsequently, customer leads satisfaction towards long-term profitable relationship with the brand, it also gives value to the brand and extending affirmative word of mouth marketing to build a good brand reputation (Hanif, 2010). Previous studies showed that customer loyalty can be enhanced through customer satisfaction, trust and reputation of the company. ...
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  • ... Empirical research has confirmed that customer satisfaction with the products and services of a firm is among the most important factors in efforts to achieve competitiveness and business excellence (Dubrovski, 2001;Hanif et al, 2010). Firms also use customer satisfaction as a performance measurement of both success and competitive position when benchmarking with competitors (Sun and Kim, 2013). ...
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  • ... Customer loyalty reflects people's attitudes and behaviors towards services and their repeat usage. It is important for an organization to increase the numbers of loyal customers since it is easier and more profitable to retain current customers than to attract new ones (Alexandris, Dimitriadis, & Markata, 2002;Hanif, Hafeez, & Riaz, 2010). ...
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  • ... Price is a critical element that assists in predicting customer behaviors before, during, and after using a product or service. Price is defined as the amount of money that a business charges or the sum of values that customers pay for the benefits of having or using a product/service (Hanif, Hafeez, & Riaz, 2010). Perceived price is described as an individual customer's judgment regarding product/service and an average price by comparing competitors (Keaveney, 1995). ...
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