Effects of hypoxia on blood pressure regulation: Interval hypoxic training as compared to obstructive sleep apnea - The other side of the coin?

Journal of Hypertension (Impact Factor: 4.72). 09/2009; 27(8):1527-32. DOI: 10.1097/HJH.0b013e3283300d6d
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Available from: Juan E Ochoa, Jan 08, 2014
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction Exposures to natural and simulated altitudes entail reduced oxygen availability and thus hypoxia. Depending on the level of hypoxia, the duration of exposure, the individual susceptibility, and preexisting diseases, health problems of variable severity may arise. Although millions of people are regularly or occasionally performing mountain sport activities, are transported by airplanes, and are more and more frequently exposed to short-term hypoxia in athletic training facilities or at their workplace, e.g., with fire control systems, there is no clear consensus on the level of hypoxia which is generally well tolerated by human beings when acutely exposed for short durations (hours to several days). Conclusions Available data from peer-reviewed literature report adaptive responses even to altitudes below 2,000 m or corresponding normobaric hypoxia (FiO2 > 16.4%), but they also suggest that most of exposed subjects without severe preexisting diseases can tolerate altitudes up to 3,000 m (FiO2 > 14.5%) well. However, physical activity and unusual environmental conditions may increase the risk to get sick. Large interindividual variations of responses to hypoxia have to be expected, especially in persons with preexisting diseases. Thus, the assessment of those responses by hypoxic challenge testing may be helpful whenever possible.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2011 · Sleep And Breathing
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    ABSTRACT: Baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) is reduced in humans during snoring, however the mechanisms are unknown. We used an anaesthetised rabbit induced snoring (IS) model, to test: (1) whether IS was associated with reduced BRS; and (2) if snoring related vibration transmission to peri-carotid tissues influenced BRS levels. BRS was quantified using the spontaneous sequence technique. During IS, BRS fell by 40%, without any associated change in blood pressure (BP) but accompanied by an increase in heart rate (HR). Direct application of a snore frequency and intensity matched vibratory stimulus to the peri-carotid tissues of non-snoring tracheostomised rabbits had no effect on BRS, HR or BP. In conclusion, IS induced depression of BRS is likely mediated via a HR driven change in BRS operating point that is unrelated to snoring-related vibration transmission to carotid baroreceptors. The anaesthetised IS rabbit provides a model in which mechanistic interactions between snoring and BRS can be further explored.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2012 · Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
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    ABSTRACT: Baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) is reduced during snoring in humans and animal models. We utilised our rabbit model to examine the contribution of increased upper airway resistance to baroreflex resetting during snoring, by comparing BRS and baroreflex operating point (OP) values during IS to those obtained during tracheostomised breathing through an external resistive load (RL) titrated to match IS levels of peak inspiratory pleural pressure (Ppl). During both IS and RL, BRS decreased by 45% and 49% .There was a linear relationship between the change in Ppl and the decrease in BRS, which was similar for IS and RL. During both RL and IS, there was a shift in OP driven by ∼16% increase in HR and no change in arterial pressure. Snoring related depression of BRS is likely mediated via a HR driven change in OP, which itself may be the outcome of negative intra-thoracic pressure mediated effects on right atrial wall stretch reflex control of heart rate.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2012 · Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology