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Capt. R. A. Cole (1868) the Forgotten Archaeological Investigator of the Megalithic Iron Age of the Coorg

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Abstract

The contribution of colonial officers in India especially from second half of 18th century to first half of the 20th century C.E, in the field of archaeological study of ours is notable. They were not the researchers appointed to do research on the past Indian material culture rather they were administrators, military officers, geologists, surveyors and engineers, who studied the past material culture in the regions of their jurisdiction. In the course of their official duty, as a matter of their innate attention, curiosity and observation lead to determining of academic research of ours. The long episode of Indian Prehistoric study includes in its gamut the tough personalities of second half of 19th century like Alexander Cunningham, Medows Taylor, Robert Bruce Foote, James Burgess, and Lord Curzon etc. This paper attempts to map the contribution of such colonial officer The development of Indian Archeological study, Superintendent Captain R.A. Cole in Coorg (presently district in Karnataka) and his fellow officers in 1868 present us an episode of the study of Megaliths in the Coorg region. About seven megalithic burial sites studied & documented by him. In the course of an episode that illustrates a very solemn administrative as well as academic conversation among the colonial administrators or researchers in India and among the peer, juniors of that Indian time scale. The way the local officer report to government and the way they approach to get finance to undertake excavations, the way the very ideas exchanged among scholars. This episode also illustrates their understanding or Perception of the past culture of the region. Searching for the answers to the questions like what were these structures. Who and when it were build, which tribes once came to the past, Locating the significance that once given to the disposal of the dead etc. It is to be reminding that the very ideas of such application of questions were indeed still fresh in our country. European scholars had better understanding of their Megaliths; it was the time where our Megaliths were studied in reference to the European Megaliths. The intense study and the application of such questions on our Megaliths held sway to the better understanding of regional variations answering to the abstract questions; Capt. Cole makes such attempts in understanding the regional variations in the region of Coorg, who undertook the typological analysis of these burials by opening some of them.
Capt. R. A. Cole (1868) the Forgotten Archaeological
Investigator of the Megalithic Iron Age Of the Coorg
Abstract: The contribution of colonial officers in India especially from second half of 18th century to first half
of the 20th century C.E, in the field of archaeological study of ours is notable. They were not the researchers
appointed to do research on the past Indian material culture rather they were administrators, military
officers, geologists, surveyors and engineers, who studied the past material culture in the regions of their
jurisdiction. In the course of their official duty, as a matter of their innate attention, curiosity and observation
lead to determining of academic research of ours. The long episode of Indian Prehistoric study includes in its
gamut the tough personalities of second half of 19th century like Alexander Cunningham, Medows Taylor,
Robert Bruce Foote, James Burgess, and Lord Curzon etc.
This paper attempts to map the contribution of such colonial officer The development of Indian Archeological
study, Superintendent Captain R.A. Cole in Coorg (presently district in Karnataka) and his fellow officers in
1868 present us an episode of the study of Megaliths in the Coorg region. About seven megalithic burial sites
studied & documented by him. In the course of an episode that illustrates a very solemn administrative as well
as academic conversation among the colonial administrators or researchers in India and among the peer,
juniors of that Indian time scale. The way the local officer report to government and the way they approach
to get finance to undertake excavations, the way the very ideas exchanged among scholars. This episode also
illustrates their understanding or Perception of the past culture of the region. Searching for the answers to
the questions like what were these structures. Who and when it were build, which tribes once came to the past,
Locating the significance that once given to the disposal of the dead etc. It is to be reminding that the very
ideas of such application of questions were indeed still fresh in our country. European scholars had better
understanding of their Megaliths; it was the time where our Megaliths were studied in reference to the
European Megaliths. The intense study and the application of such questions on our Megaliths held sway to
the better understanding of regional variations answering to the abstract questions; Capt. Cole makes such
attempts in understanding the regional variations in the region of Coorg, who undertook the typological
analysis of these burials by opening some of them.
Keywords: Coorge, Cromlech, Culture, Excavation, Megaliths, Ragi.
Arjun R.
Post Graduate, M.Phil
Project fellow UGC- UPE focus area II
Vighnan Bhavan, Manasagangotri campus,
University of Mysore
Mysore, Karnataka
ISSN 2319-9725
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1. Introduction:
Capt. R. A. Cole who was appointed as superintendent of Coorg region, district of Karnataka,
India, under the jurisdiction of Madras Presidency in 1860’s, neither nothing known about
his biography and his resume but he begins to become known in 1868- 1869 and go in
gloomy by 1870’s. He became known withholding the lamp, which is the part of our past
material culture that was about 2000 to 2300 year old, by officially writing letter to Sir B-.
Temple, Foreign Secretary to Government of India dated Merkara, 10 March 1868, says.
I have the honor to report the discovery of a large number of Cromlechs or Cairns on some
bane or grasslands about a mile to the west of the town of Veerajpett in South Coorg.
Figure 1
He brought to light three megalithic sites and excavated them, Muribetta, Virajpete and
Fraserpett (koppa village) which are great important site in the category of megalithic culture
in southwestern Karnataka, the latter most considered as one of the largest megalithic burial
site of peninsular India. His correspondences with higher officers, his communication for
clarifications for better understanding of these burials with the contemporary colonial
research scholars , who were working on such burials of our country, shows his few innate
character or attitude, that led sway to his discovery and research.
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2. His Sense Of Time Being:
On reporting of discovery of cultural material by his Assistant Lieutenant J. S. F. Mackenzie,
he directed not to dismantle the stone that were needed for bridge construction rather he was
quick enough to comprehend the non-intrinsic value of the material culture and directed for
the preservation of the site which is the most important step that we today fell short of.
“On communicating this most interesting archaeological discovery to me, I at once forbad
the removal of any more stones from the locality, and directed the shrubwood and earth
around the Cromlechto be removed, so as to lay bare the whole structure to its
base.Lieutenant W. Freeth, the Assistant Superintendent of the RevenueSurvey, then kindly
undertook to make drawings and plansof this double Cromlech and of two others, and I have
now thepleasure of forwarding, for submission to His Excellency the Viceroyand Governor-
G-eneral of India” (him addressing about site located a mile to the west of the town of
Veerajpett in South Coorg.)
3. His Goodness Of Being Honest/ Acknowledgeable To His Junior Officers:
I have the honor to report the discovery of a large number of Cromlechs or Cairns on some
bane or grasslands about a mile to the west of the town of Veerajpett in South Coorg. The
discovery was made by my Assistant, Lieutenant J. S. F. Mackenzie, in January last, in the
following manner :A quantity of stones was required for certain bridges and other works in
Veerajenderpett, and one of the native merchants offered to get the stones if Mr. Mackenzie
would allow him to remove them from the bane in question. Mr. Mackenzie inspected the
locality and found the remains of a great number of Cromlechs, the stones of which had
evidently been split up and removed at different periods by the Wuddars, a tribe of stone-
hewers. The bane in question is much grown over with low brushwood; and on pushing
Further on, Mr. Mackenzie hit upon a fine large double Cromlech. On communicating this
most interesting archaeological discovery to me”
4. His Innate Curiosity Of Examining What He Is Coming Across:
1. Recording: clearing the vegetation to get a bare look of the site and subjecting the burials
to drawings and plans
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I at once forbad the removal of any more stones from thelocality, and directed the
shrubwood and earth around the Cromlechto be removed, so as to lay bare the whole
structure to its base.Lieutenant W. Freeth, the Assistant Superintendent of the
RevenueSurvey, then kindly undertook to make drawings and plansof this double Cromlech
and of two others, and I have now thePleasure of forwarding, for submission to His
Excellency the Viceroyand Governor- G-eneral of India, three colored drawings* of these
Cromlechs,as also 20 copies of plans of the same lithographed at theMerkara Sudder Jail
Press from drawings by Mr. Freeth.”
2. Measurements and his capacity of giving description: the narrative documentation of the
structure
“The double Cromlech, (Plate 2.) is formed by six large (unhewn) stones, surmounted by one
large flat stone, 13 feet long, by 9 feet 9inches broad, and about 7 or 8 inches thick. This top
stone had been apparently not long ago chiseled and split open right across the centre from
each side, so as to form four blocks, but most fortunately had not been removed, except a
small piece at the back and to the left, looking at the Cromlechs. The back is also formed by
one large slab, as also each side. The front slabs are smaller and divided by the large centre
slab, which forms the enclosure into two compartments. These front stones have each a
peculiar aperture of an irregular Segmental form, about 1 foot 11 inches by 1 foot 8 inches,
at the top and immediately below the superincumbent stone. The stones at these apertures are
sharp on the inside, and present a bevilled appearance outside. The inner rim is so sharp as
to lead to the conclusion that these apertures could not have been used for ingress and
egress. The centre stone projects to the front 2 feet 8 inches and the top flag projects over the
left compartment to such an extent as to afford shelter like a verandah.This was doubtless
accidental, but it is a curious fact that this shelter is so afforded on. The side, away from
exposure to the monsoons, which now prevail. The interior measurements of
thecompartments are also given in the plans by which it will be seen that each compartment
was about 7 feet long, 3 feet 9 inches broad, and 4 feet high. Each compartment was flagged
by a large stone in each. These compartments were nearly full of earth, but nothing was
found in them.”
3. His awareness in the scholarly field.
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“Dr. Shortt of Madras, who has opened many cairns on the JSTilgiris and other parts of the
Madras Presidency, informed me that he had never seen or heard of a double Cromlech of
this description. This would add to the value of the present discovery.”
4. His ability of subjecting the artifact to the archaeological investigation. He was very clear
that the archaeological evidence that he found was of no modern authorship rather it belong
to the past and he foresee the importance of conservation of discovered artifacts. He was very
keen in excavating these burials for further investigations and looks forward for permission to
excavate
This bangle and fragments of earthen vessels were sent in to the Commissioner, and are now
in the museum at Bangalore, but I would beg to suggest that they should be sent on to the
Government with this report. The bangle is evidently of no modern date; but as the top stone
of this Cromlech had been removed, and Wuddars had evidently been at work in the locality
during the past 50 to 100 years, it is possible that the bangle had once belonged to some
dusky beauty of that tribe. It was found also only about a foot and a half below the surface of
the mound and just within the stone cist. I have failed to discover any of those concentric
rows of upright stones which have generally been found with such Cromlechs in cairns
elsewhere, but the fact of the Wuddars having been so long at working these localities would
account for the disappearance of these stones Which were probably first discovered and
removed. It is worthy of note that these structures all face east and west. Very few of these
Cromlechs would appear to have had the segmental apertures found in the double Cromlech,
and in fact most of those now visible are much smaller and would appear to be more like
those short stone cists containing cinerary urns, which have generally been found in the
sepulchral mounds both in Asia and in Europe, and even in Central America.”
“It is in such alone that we may expect to find still more interesting relics of this almost
unknown past period of the history of the world and of our species, and I would earnestly
request permission to push on these excavations. Some of these tumuli would appear to run
parallel with each other, so that, when uncovered, these stone chambers would present the
appearance of streets”
In this regard, Cole gets an accent for his further investigation
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“4. As regards the proposal of Captain Cole to carry out further excavations, the Financial
Department will be requested to place a sum of Rs. 300 at the disposal of that officer for the
work in question”.
5. Him examining or validating the arguments of the modern archaeologist/ his contemporary
fellows.
“The discovery of pieces of charcoal and Fragments of apparently cinerary urns would tend
to show that the conclusions drawn by modern archaeologists were correct, viz. that these
stone chambers were only used as sepulchral monuments. But my assistant, Mr. Mackenzie,
has suggested that it is an extraordinary fact that, when such durable and lasting monuments
to the dead are to be found, no remains of the dwellings of these ancient Providian races are
visible in the same localities so as to throw still greater light on the ethnical records of the
past”.
6. Captain R .A. Cole the Archeological excavator. He submits the exaction report of
Veerajenedrpette excavation to Under-Secretary to the Government of India, forwarding
further report on the Cromlechs of Coorg dated Coorg, 22nd May, 1868 In continuation of
his letter No. 3301 of the 4th March last.
6. a. Excavations at Veerajenderpette.
4. ' I am glad to be able to state that the excavations resulted in the discovery of several
antique-shaped urns and pots, composed of thick red and black pottery, apparently highly
glazed, some of which are on four feet, and some are tripods. Lieutenant W. Freeth, the
Assistant Superintendent of the Revenue Survey, has kindly sketched and lithographed group
of these urns, and his lithographed copies will convey a better description of these antique
vessels than anywords of mine can do. (Copy of these drawings is given, Plate 3.)They are all
full of hard earth, apparently well rammed in by therein-fall of successive monsoons. I had
some of the damaged vessels broken up, and the contents carefully sifted, but could not
discover any traces of bones, whether calcined or not. This would lead to the belief that these
vessels had not been used as cinerary urns. The small fragments of charcoal were generally
found in the earth inside the Cromlechs and smaller cists.
5. ' Below the sketch of the urns, Mr. Freeth has drawn some of the pieces of iron weapons
found in these Cromlechs. The large one would appear to have been a spear or large javelin,
and the others arrows and hilts of daggers.'
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His excavations took a very prominent role in the scholarly India in two ways; one, making
the megalithic burial types the socio-techno artifacts of the region familiar to the world.
Second, the artifacts leading to the understanding of ethno archaeology of megalithic culture,
which resulted as the exquisite contribution to the Indian archaeology by Cole’s excavation.
The President, in inviting the remarks of the Members on this Communication, said: “It was
one of the most interesting discoveries of the kind, which had yet been recorded in India.”
The ground plans, the style and the execution of stones for the burials were studied in-depth
across the country. Based on the artifacts; the pottery, weapons and tools were subjected to a
very prolonged examination, discussions and regional comparisons in regard to description,
manufacturing technique, the raw materials, character and shape, climate factors etc were
studied.
Here we have to understand that the investigations on such antiquity or past material culture
were afresh in our country. Here we were still in an antecedent stage in studying this culture.
The dates, the interpretation of the ideology or practices of the culture were not discussed. It
was a time of documentation. Discovery and description must be greatly acknowledged.
6. b. Excavations at Fraserpett.
1. The following is the result of further excavations made near Fraserpett. My first
researches were made on some high ground, partly covered with bamboos and scrub jungle
&c, situated to the right of the road leading to Mysore, and about half a mile from the bridge
across the river Kaveri (koppa). There were about 500 Cromlechs, occupying a distance of
nearly half a mile, showing that there had been a large settlement of the mysterious race of
man (of pre-historio man at any rate, as regards our knowledge), regarding whom all our
researches and conjectures have been as yet futile.
Excavations at Fraserpett(kushalnagara, koppa site) is considered as one of the largest
megalithic burial site of peninsular India. Cole’s contribution lies in the fact that his extensive
investigation here in this site is notable compare with his work in other sites. He seems very
scientifically choose 17 burials out of 500 for excavation. He recorded length, depth and
breadth. He exposed the most imperative archeo-botanical discovery; he reported paddy husk
and ragi in burials.
9. One of the urns found in the Cromlechs at Fraserpett was full
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of paddy, the husk of which was in perfect preservation, whilst the
grain itself had completely disappeared. In others, I found ragi.
6. c. investigations at about a mile to the north of Fraserpett, on the road to Sommarpett, At
Ramasawmi Kunne, about 5 miles to the north of Fraserpett, Further from Ramasawmi
Kunne, and about half way to Sommarpett,
6. At Ramasawmi Kunne, about 5 miles to the north of Fraserpett,I found a number of these
rude structures,and had four of them excavated.In all these Cromlechs I found similar
remains of antique pottery, bones,and pieces of iron. Some of the urns are unique and really
beautifulin shape. Mr. Richter has also photographed* groups of the urns,vases, &c.
Lieutenant W. Freeth, Assistant Superintendent of theRevenue Survey in Coorg, has also
taken drawings of these vessels,and kindly given a sketch-lithogram of them. In the
lithograms,submitted with this memorandum, some of the vessels are those foundin the
Cromlechs situated beyond the bridge, others those which werefound near Ramasawmi
Kunne. Some of these deserve special notice.The smaller goglets are composed of beautiful
black pottery highlyglazed or polished. A large round pot with three small tubes,would
clearly indicate, that the process of distillation was known tothe original constructors of
these mysterious structures, or, that thesestructures have been used by subsequent and
different races.
5. Capability Of Subjecting The Discovery To Cultural Theory And Understanding
The Regional Variations In The Region Of Coorg:
1. Cole left us an astonishing archeo-botanical discovery in his excavation of burials; even
today in the study of megalithic culture of peninsular India, it plays a great reference for
understating their diet and agricultural practices. He started to describe the authors based on
their diet
9. One of the urns found in the Cromlechs at Fraserpett was full
of paddy, the husk of which was in perfect preservation, whilst the
grain itself had completely disappeared. In others, I found ragi.
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Mr. II. F. Blanford has shewn in his interesting lecture onpre-historic man, that the pottery of
the stone-age was rude in formand in material and, that having been moulded by hand,
without theaid of the potter's wheel, it was of irregular form and unequal thickness ;but the
vessels found in the Cromlechs of Coorg are well, some beautifully,shaped and of equal
thickness throughout, which would showthat they are of a more modern period.
3. Tracing the origin from the nomenclature and ethno archeology.
13. It might be interesting and of use to trace the names by which these monuments of an
unknown race and of pre-historic times are known in different parts of India. In Coorg they
are called Pandupdrre, or the stone of the Pdndus, and also Pundera maneor house of the
Pdndus. These two words must not be confoundedwith each other. The Pdndus are the
descendants of the celebrated five brothers, whilst the Punddrus are a legendary pigmy race,
who are popularly supposed to have occupied these rude structures. In the Malayalum
language, which bears a strong affinity to the Coorg dialect, the term used is Panduporre,
though suchstructures have not been found in the Malayalum country. The wordpovve means
a small hut ; in Tamil pore also means a large stone.In the Canarese language these antique
structures are often called Manddvdra mane, derived from the Sanscrit, and signifying the
houses of the dead.
6. The Colonial Understanding Of The Authorship And Ideology Of These
Megalithic Burials:
The Coorgs are absolutely ignorant of any past history attaching to these singular structures,
but it must be remembered that their own annals do not reach further back than the time,
when the first of the Haleri dynasty, who were Lingayuts of the Nugur Division of Mysore
and not true Coorgs, began to rule the Province ; 250 years ago. It is indeed probable that the
Coorgs were themselves invaders and came from the Malabar side, as I imagine that their
habits resemble those of the Nairs of that country. The aborigines were probably the low
castes, who still form the mass of the population, over whom the true Coorgs rule in a
paternally despotic fashion, which formerly was simple slavery. It is impossible to form an
accurate judgment whether the structures in question were dwelling-places or cemeteries. The
people think they were the former, but there is not the slightest trace of smoke on the roofs,
which would, I apprehend, have been the case, had they been lived in ; on the other hand, no
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skeletons, or jars containing colored ashes, have been found, such pots as have been
discovered containing only earth.
Captain R.A Cole extensively investigated many sites in the region of coorg, his
identification, documentation; reporting and recording are very much acknowledgeable due
to two facts. One, the investigations added better understanding of our past extinct culture in
the academic or scholarly debate, they were fresh findings in our country, and for which the
documentation work was done thoroughly, which may be preserved for posterity. Second,
today if we do field work in the sites where they worked 140-142 years back, due to
encroachment for land and material gain, what is left for now is hardly 5-10% evidence. The
importance of their investigation lies in the fact that at least now we have records to identify
the potentiality of these sites. Now we are left only with records that illustrates our past
nativity. Based on these reports app. After 100-110 years, later archeologists have searched
for these sites, explored and conducted excavations in these areas, compared to Cole’s
discovery nothing much interesting was found but the investigative method differed at large
extent. Post independence Indian archaeologist adopted more scientific way of excavation
because of which they retrieved the artifacts with care and preserved but on the other hand,
compared to Cole’s report we have very precise report on these investigations.
Finally we have tendency or proved facts in some of the cases that when it is deal with
wealth, attributing the colonial officers with words like ‘plundering’ ‘transporting the bounty’
etc, now the question is to which category R.A Cole belong to ? What was his superior’s
interest in encouraging for opening of these burials? These factors are difficult to see, but
what is evidently seen from the past is the theoretical or non-intrinsic contribution of
Superintendent Captain R.A. Cole, Lieutenant W. Freeth, the Assistant Superintendent of the
Revenue Survey, Assistant, Lieutenant J. S. F. Mackenzie in coorg, on the study of
megalithic culture of our country is notable and acknowledgeable.
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Reference:
1. Cole, R.A.1869.Memorandum on the Cromlechs in Coorg. Proceedings of Asiatic
Society of Bengal.
2. Gururaja Rao, B.K. 1972.Megalithic Culture of South India. Mysore: Prasaranga
University of Mysore.
3. Kajjale, M.D. 1997. Evidence of Rice from Koppa, Megalithic Sites in Karnataka,
Man and Environment XXII (1).
4. Moorti, U.S. 1994.Megalithic Cultures of South India: Socio-Economic Perspectives.
Varanasi: Ganga Kaveri Publishing House.
5. Proceedings of Asiatic Society of Bengal. 1868. Lewis, Baptist Mission
Press.Calcutta.1868
6. Proceedings of Asiatic Society of Bengal. 1869. Lewis, Baptist Mission
Press.Calcutta.1869
7. Sundara, A.1973. The Early Chamber Tombs of South India: A Study of the Iron Age
Megalithic Monuments of North Karnataka. New Delhi: University Publishers.
8. Vekatasubbhaiah, P.C, Ravi Korisetter and Dorian Q. Fuller. Brahmagiri and Beyond:
The Archaeology of the Southern Neolithic. Indian Archaeology in Retrospect Vol. I
Prehistory Archaeology of South Asia. New Delhi: Indian Council of Historical
Research.
... Before Brahmagiri, many megaliths were opened (Taylor, 1841(Taylor, , 1851Cole, 1869;Babington, 1823;Branfill, 1881); nevertheless, nothing like the Brahmagiri cist burials on a unique architectural form are found so far. Stone structured burials became surface markers with sub-varieties in their types across south India and Vidarbha; such as dolmen, dolemnoid cists, stone circle over urn/cist chambered burials and menhirs from the use of very small-sized field boulders to large-sized rocks weighing in tons became a widespread tradition (Arjun, 2014. The megalithic burials were of sepulchral Fig. 2. Ashokan rock edict sites in South India: 1) Brahmagiri, 2) Siddapura, 3) Jattinga-Rameshwara, 4) Gavimath, 5) Palkigundu, 6) Udegolam, 7) Nittur, 8) Maski, 9) Sannati, 10) Rajulamandaragi, 11) Erragudi. ...
... Iron objects such as daggers, flat axe, arrows & spearheads and swords were repositories. The iron objects helped in understanding the science of metallurgy (Possehl and Gullapalli, 1999) and helped to develop theories centring on chiefdom-based politics (Mohanty and Selvakumar, 2002) and economically stratified societies (Moorti, 1994; ) engaged in power conflicts and iron trade (Arjun, 2014;Arjun and Jadhav, 2016;Arjun et al., 2019). Wheeler (1948) at Brahmagiri correlated the burial materials with the similar cultural materials found in the settlements and explained the typo-technological association between the Iron Age and megalithic assemblages. ...
... As there are multiple megalithic clusters located across the Brahmagiri Hill, slab extraction might have been one of the emerged occupations during the Iron Age. Rock quarrying was perhaps a significant industrial activity of the Iron Age megalithic culture (Arjun and Jadhav, 2014;Arjun, 2014). Later, rock quarrying continues to be a primary source of the economy during the historical period for the construction of temples and forts. ...
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In 1868 Capt. R.A Cole count about 500 Megalithic burials at Koppa and he open up 17 burials and other 26 were exposed during three seasonal excavations conducted in 1975-76, 1976-77 and 1983-84. There are around 6 different types of Burial Architecture. These evidences of the past are thought to be completely washed away from the site but in the extreme south-west there are 60 stone circles. Literally speaking what is left today are Capt. Cole’s investigation accounts and three seasonal excavated artifacts in the museum. The remaining stone circles in the field what is surviving may not survive long enough due to the village expansion. This paper attempts not only to bring forward what is alarmingly left today and studying the current state of preservation. On the other hand though it is one of the largest Megalithic sites in south Asia, neither the both Capt. Cole and the excavators of the latest of the three seasons were not able to identify the habitation area. This paper followed by field work has made an attempt to identify the habitation area by collecting fresh evidences like microliths of agate and potsherd belonging to iron age- Early Historic Period outside the burial.
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Architecture is a created or organised or planned usage of space as a result of manual labour which symbolise the abstract or concrete utility. The abstract or concrete utility has changed in its character in the light of establishment and advancement in social and political structure that are controlled by fear- beliefs- customs- religion in the line of Cultural Revolution that led to the Evolution of Civilization. In this regard, in the light of structural evidences unearthed during Archaeological Excavations, Excavation reports, Inscriptions and Standing Monuments this paper attempts to trace the antiquity of architecture in Karnataka to southern Neolithic period. It may be secular or socio-custom burial or religious in character, speaking from different form of primary evidences or sources found in Karnataka it can be understood that the Hindu and Jaina religious architecture is not older then the Buddhist structures. The Buddhist structures had appeared in the lower Deccan i.e. north Karnataka by 2nd centaury B.C.E. on the other hand the architecture that had blossomed widespread in the form of burial memorials/ monuments during the megalithic period c.1000 B.C.E to 200 C.E (unsettled date) is older than the religious architecture that enshrined the relics of divinity. The practice of ritual to dead member and erecting monuments over them came out from the hut floors or habitation floors of Neolithic folks (upper Neolithic period c. 1700 – 1000 B.C.E tentatively placed). Hence in order to draw a line of transformation, from shelter or secular - customs or rituals - religious architecture, the evidence from Tekkalakota one of the earliest prehistoric site that substantiated structural evidence in Karnataka to one of the ancient historical period site Pattadkal, where the religious structure that were experimented to the peak and achieved a standard form is the study area.
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