The Effects of Interleukin-10 on the Development of Epileptiform Activity in the Hippocampus Induced by Transient Hypoxia, Bicuculline, and Electrical Kindling
The comparative effects of the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-10 on the development of epileptiform activity were studied in hippocampal field CA1 neurons in different models of epileptogenesis not accompanied by visible morphological lesions in brain cells: 1) a model of hypoxic kindling in rat hippocampal slices; 2) a disinhibitory model of epileptogenesis in rat hippocampal slices using the GABAA receptor blocker bicuculline; and 3) a partial electrical kindling model in intact rats. Interleukin-10 (1 ng/ml) blocked the development of post-hypoxic hyperexcitability of field CA1 pyramidal neurons in hippocampal slices, decreasing the effectiveness of hypoxia in suppressing neuron activity during the hypoxic episode. Interleukin-10 had no effect on the initiation of epileptiform activity in pyramidal neurons induced by the proconvulsant bicuculline. Single intrahippocampal injections of interleukin-10 at a dose of 1 ng in 5 microl suppressed the development of focal convulsions ("ictal" discharges) at the stimulation site in partial kindling in freely moving animals for several hours after administration. However, this cytokine had no effect on the duration of the "interictal" component of focal afterdischarges or on the severity of behavioral seizures. These results show that the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-10, at the concentrations used here, has not only antihypoxic activity, but also a protective effect in relation to the initiation of the "ictal," but not the "interictal" component of epileptiform activity in hippocampal neurons.