The Effects of Interleukin-10 on the Development of Epileptiform Activity in the Hippocampus Induced by Transient Hypoxia, Bicuculline, and Electrical Kindling

ArticleinNeuroscience and Behavioral Physiology 39(7):625-31 · October 2009with3 Reads
DOI: 10.1007/s11055-009-9187-6 · Source: PubMed
Abstract
The comparative effects of the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-10 on the development of epileptiform activity were studied in hippocampal field CA1 neurons in different models of epileptogenesis not accompanied by visible morphological lesions in brain cells: 1) a model of hypoxic kindling in rat hippocampal slices; 2) a disinhibitory model of epileptogenesis in rat hippocampal slices using the GABAA receptor blocker bicuculline; and 3) a partial electrical kindling model in intact rats. Interleukin-10 (1 ng/ml) blocked the development of post-hypoxic hyperexcitability of field CA1 pyramidal neurons in hippocampal slices, decreasing the effectiveness of hypoxia in suppressing neuron activity during the hypoxic episode. Interleukin-10 had no effect on the initiation of epileptiform activity in pyramidal neurons induced by the proconvulsant bicuculline. Single intrahippocampal injections of interleukin-10 at a dose of 1 ng in 5 microl suppressed the development of focal convulsions ("ictal" discharges) at the stimulation site in partial kindling in freely moving animals for several hours after administration. However, this cytokine had no effect on the duration of the "interictal" component of focal afterdischarges or on the severity of behavioral seizures. These results show that the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-10, at the concentrations used here, has not only antihypoxic activity, but also a protective effect in relation to the initiation of the "ictal," but not the "interictal" component of epileptiform activity in hippocampal neurons.
    • "Emerging clinical and experimental evidence indicates that neuroinflammation with activated microglia and increased production of proinflammatory cytokines is involved in the pathophysiology of epilepsy123456. Not only neuroinflammation is a shared feature of epileptic foci in the human brain and animal models1234, conditions that induce neuroinflammation and cytokine production facilitate seizure acquisition and epileptogenesis [5, 6] . Tissue oxidative stress, resultant from an imbalance between production over degradation of the reactive oxygen species (ROS), is another confounding factor in epilepsy [7, 8]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Neuroinflammation with activation of microglia and production of proinflammatory cytokines in the brain plays an active role in epileptic disorders. Brain oxidative stress has also been implicated in the pathogenesis of epilepsy. Damage in the hippocampus is associated with temporal lobe epilepsy, a common form of epilepsy in human. Peripheral inflammation may exacerbate neuroinflammation and brain oxidative stress. This study examined the impact of peripheral inflammation on seizure susceptibility and the involvement of neuroinflammation and oxidative stress in the hippocampus. In male, adult Sprague-Dawley rats, peripheral inflammation was induced by the infusion of Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 2.5 mg/kg/day) into the peritoneal cavity for 7 days via an osmotic minipump. Pharmacological agents were delivered via intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) infusion with an osmotic minipump. The level of cytokine in plasma or hippocampus was analyzed by ELISA. Redox-related protein expression in hippocampus was evaluated by Western blot. Seizure susceptibility was tested by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of kainic acid (KA, 10 mg/kg). We found that i.p. infusion of LPS for 7 days induced peripheral inflammation characterized by the increases in plasma levels of interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). This is associated with a significant increase in number of the activated microglia (Iba-1(+) cells), enhanced production of proinflammatory cytokines (including IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α), and tissue oxidative stress (upregulations of the NADPH oxidase subunits) in the hippocampus. These cellular and molecular responses to peripheral inflammation were notably blunted by i.c.v. infusion of a cycloxygenase-2 inhibitor, NS398 (5 μg/μl/h). The i.c.v. infusion of tempol (2.5 μg/μl/h), a reactive oxygen species scavenger, protected the hippocampus from oxidative damage with no apparent effect on microglia activation or cytokine production after peripheral inflammation. In the KA-induced seizure model, i.c.v. infusion of both NS398 and tempol ameliorated the increase in seizure susceptibility in animals succumbed to the LPS-induced peripheral inflammation. Together these results indicated that LPS-induced peripheral inflammation evoked neuroinflammation and the subsequent oxidative stress in the hippocampus, resulting in the increase in KA-induced seizure susceptibility. Moreover, protection from neuroinflammation and oxidative stress in the hippocampus exerted beneficial effect on seizure susceptibility following peripheral inflammation.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2015
    • "BDNF also plays a role in the pathogenesis of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) by enhancing neuronal outgrowth and mossy fiber sprouting [43]. IL10 prevents neuronal damage caused by excess of excitatory neurotransmitters and reduces the harmful effects of hypoxia as well [80]. Our results show a significant decrease in c-fos transcription in larvae treated with ar-turmerone and exposed to PTZ. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In a previous study, we uncovered the anticonvulsant properties of turmeric oil and its sesquiterpenoids (ar-turmerone, α-, β-turmerone and α-atlantone) in both zebrafish and mouse models of chemically-induced seizures using pentylenetetrazole (PTZ). In this follow-up study, we aimed at evaluating the anticonvulsant activity of ar-turmerone further. A more in-depth anticonvulsant evaluation of ar-turmerone was therefore carried out in the i.v. PTZ and 6-Hz mouse models. The potential toxic effects of ar-turmerone were evaluated using the beam walking test to assess mouse motor function and balance. In addition, determination of the concentration-time profile of ar-turmerone was carried out for a more extended evaluation of its bioavailability in the mouse brain. Ar-turmerone displayed anticonvulsant properties in both acute seizure models in mice and modulated the expression patterns of two seizure-related genes (c-fos and brain-derived neurotrophic factor [bdnf]) in zebrafish. Importantly, no effects on motor function and balance were observed in mice after treatment with ar-turmerone even after administering a dose 500-fold higher than the effective dose in the 6-Hz model. In addition, quantification of its concentration in mouse brains revealed rapid absorption after i.p. administration, capacity to cross the BBB and long-term brain residence. Hence, our results provide additional information on the anticonvulsant properties of ar-turmerone and support further evaluation towards elucidating its mechanism of action, bioavailability, toxicity and potential clinical application.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2013
    • "Inhibitors of IL-1- converting enzyme/Caspase-1 and antagonists of IL-1β receptors showed strong anticonvulsant activity in seizure models [142], while exogenous IL-1β has pro-convulsive properties. Drugs that block the IL-1β actions had entered clinical trials as potential therapeutics for autoimmune and inflammatory pathologies, and may also have therapeutic potential in epilepsies associated with pro-inflammatory processes in the brain [143, 144]. Resveratrol, a TLR3 antagonist, reduced the frequency of video-monitored spontaneous seizures in rats after daily administration from day1 to day10 after KA-induced SE [145]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Until recently, epilepsy medical therapy is usually limited to anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs). However, approximately 1/3 of epilepsy patients, described as drug-resistant epilepsy (DRE) patients, still suffer from continuous frequent seizures despite receiving adequate AEDs treatment of sufficient duration. More recently, with the remarkable progress of immunology, immunity and inflammation are considered to be key elements of the pathobiology of epilepsy. Activation of inflammatory processes in brain tissue has been observed in both experimental seizure animal models and epilepsy patients. Anti-inflammatory and immunotherapies also showed significant anticonvulsant properties both in clinical and in experimental settings. The above emerging evidence indicates that modulation of immunity and inflammatory processes could serve as novel specific targets to achieve potential anticonvulsant effects for the patients with epilepsy, especially DRE. Herein we review the recent evidence supporting the role of inflammation in the development and perpetuation of seizures, and also discuss the recent achievements in modulation of inflammation and immunotherapy applied to the treatment of epilepsy. Apart from medical therapy, we also discuss the influences of surgery, ketogenic diet, and electroconvulsive therapy on immunity and inflammation in DRE patients. Taken together, a promising perspective is suggested for future immunomodulatory therapies in the treatment of patients with DRE.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2013
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