The Effect of a Volleyball Practice on Anabolic Hormones and Inflammatory Markers in Elite Male and Female Adolescent Players

Pediatric Department, Child Health and Sport Center, Meir Medical Center, Sackler School of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv, Israel.
The Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research (Impact Factor: 2.08). 09/2009; 23(5):1553-9. DOI: 10.1519/JSC.0b013e3181aa1bcb
Source: PubMed


The effect of a single exercise as well as exercise training on the growth hormone (GH)-insulin-like growth factor (IGF-I) axis and inflammatory cytokines was studied mainly in adults participating in individualized endurance-type sports. The gender-specific effect of exercise on these systems in adolescents is unknown. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of a typical volleyball practice on anabolic (GH, IGF-I, and testosterone) and catabolic hormones (cortisol) and inflammatory mediators (interleukin-6 [IL-6]) in elite, national team level, male (n = 14) and female (n = 13) adolescent volleyball players (13-18 years, Tanner stage 4-5). Exercise consisted of a typical 1-hour volleyball practice. Blood samples were collected before and immediately after the practice. Exercise led to significant increases in GH (0.2 +/- 0.1 to 2.7 +/- 0.7 and 1.7 +/- 0.5 to 6.4 +/- 1.4 ng x mL, in men and women, respectively, p < 0.05 for both), testosterone (6.1 +/- 0.9 to 7.3 +/- 1.0 and 2.4 +/- 0.6 to 3.3 +/- 0.7 ng x mL, in men and women, respectively, p < 0.05 for both), and IL-6 (1.1 +/- 0.6 to 3.1 +/- 1.5 and 1.2 +/- 0.5 to 2.5 +/- 1.1 pg x mL, in men and women, respectively, p < 0.002 for both). Exercise had no significant effect on IGF-I, insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3, and cortisol levels. There were no gender differences in the hormonal response to training. Changes in GH and testosterone after the volleyball practice suggest exercise-related anabolic adaptations. The increase in IL-6 may indicate its important role in muscle tissue repair. These changes may serve as an objective quantitative tool to monitor training intensity in unique occasions in team sports.

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    • "Only a few studies featuring individual sport modalities have looked at the effects of different periods of training periodisation on immunological adaptations over an entire season (Henson, Nieman, & Kernodle, 2001; Nemet, Pontello, Rose-Gottron, & Cooper, 2004). Moreover, the immunological responses for different training periods in adolescent athletes engaged in team sports, which are very popular in these age groups (Eliakim et al., 2009), have not been studied thoroughly. Furthermore, studies have suggested that the incidence of upper respiratory symptoms, which are often thought to be a marker of early stages of overtraining syndrome, were related to excursions above individually identifiable thresholds of training strain and monotony (Foster, 1998; Plutur et al., 2004). "

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    • "Copeland and colleagues (Copeland , Consitt, & Tremblay, 2002) found that physical exercise increased concentrations of testosterone in 19-year-old females. Similarly, Eliakim et al. (2009) reported increased testosterone concentrations in elite female adolescent players following one hour of volleyball practice. Kochan´ska- Dziurowicz and colleagues (Kochan´ska-Dziurowicz, Gawel-Szostek, Gabrys´, & Kmita, 2001) examined the testosterone responses of sportswomen aged 15– 19 years and found a significant increase in testosterone concentration following an incremental cycle test. "
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to examine the effect of supra-maximal exercise on circulating concentrations of salivary testosterone, salivary cortisol, and salivary immunoglobulin A in female adolescents. Nineteen apparently healthy females aged 15-16 years participated in this study. All participants completed 668 s sprints, interspersed with 30 s recovery intervals on a cycle ergometer. Salivary testosterone, cortisol, and immunoglobulin A samples were taken before and 5 min after exercise. Experimental procedures continued over two mornings, at least 3 h after a light breakfast. Participants refrained from performing any strenuous physical activity for at least 24 h prior to the exercise test. None of the participants were engaged in a structured training programme. The group mean (± s) for peak power output was 562 ± 113.0 W. Female adolescents recruited for this study showed no changes in salivary testosterone, cortisol or immunoglobulin A following repeated bouts of supra-maximal cycling (P > 0.05). To date, there has been a paucity of information concerning adolescents' hormonal and mucosal immune function responses to supra-maximal exercise. Our data provide further guidance with regard to physical activities and sports prescription for female adolescents. Further research, on a larger sample of females, is required to elucidate the physiological significance of these findings.
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    ABSTRACT: Physical activity plays an important role in tissue anabolism, growth and development, but the mechanisms that link patterns of exercise with tissue anabolism are not completely understood. The effectiveness of physical training depends on the training load and on the individual ability to tolerate it, and an imbalance between the two may lead to under or over-training. Therefore, many efforts have been made to find objective parameters to quantify the balance between training load and the athlete's tolerance. One of the unique features of exercise is that it leads to a simultaneous increase of antagonistic mediators. On the one hand, exercise stimulates anabolic components of the growth hormone (GH) → IGF-1 (insulin-like growth factor-1) axis. On the other hand, exercise elevates catabolic pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-1 and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). This emphasizes probably the importance of optimal adaptation to exercise in particularly during adolescence. The very fine balance between the anabolic and inflammatory/catabolic response to exercise will determine the effectiveness of exercise training and the health consequences of exercise. If the anabolic response is stronger, exercise will probably lead ultimately to increased muscle mass and improved fitness. A greater catabolic response, in particularly if persists for long duration, may lead to overtraining. Therefore, changes in the anabolic-catabolic hormonal balance and in circulating inflammatory cytokines can be used by adolescent athletes and/or their coaches to gauge the training intensity in individual and team sports.
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