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Music and Consumer Behavior

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Abstract

This chapter opens with a brief account of three meta-analyses of studies of the effects of background music, one of which looks specifically at its effects in retail settings. It next outlines the main theoretical explanations of these effects, namely the effects of music on physiological arousal, on the priming of certain thoughts and associations, and on its influence through its emotional effects. It also considers a fourth mechanism identified in some of the authors’ own recent research on the effects of the listener’s degree of dominance and control over the music. The remainder of the chapter is a brief review, largely based on the authors’ own work, of three main areas of research on music and consumer behavior, namely that on the perception of the commercial environment, on product choice and musical fit, and on the speed of activity and time perception.
... While not covered here, we acknowledge other bodies of literature that examine either the influence of music on nonmusic-related decisions (e.g., North et al., 2016;Palazzi ...
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Music-related decision making encompasses a wide range of behaviours including those associated with composition and performance, listening choices, and decisions involving music education and therapy. Although research programmes in psychology and economics have contributed to an improved understanding of music-related behaviour, historically these disciplines have been unconnected. Recently however, researchers have begun to bridge this gap by employing tools from behavioural economics. This paper contributes to the literature by providing a discussion about the benefits of using behavioural economics in music-decision research. We achieve this in two ways. First, through a systematic review, we identify the current state of the literature within four key areas of behavioural economics – heuristics and biases, social decision making, behavioural time preferences, and dual-process theory. Second, taking findings of the literature as a starting point, we demonstrate how behavioural economics can inform future research. Based on this, we propose the Behavioural Economics of Music (BEM), an integrated research programme that aims to break new ground by stimulating interdisciplinary research in the intersection between music, psychology, and economics.
... Music is a ubiquitous aspect of human society and accompanies many of our daily social and work-related activities, even without our awareness (Juslin & Laukka, 2004;Kämpfe et al., 2011). The influence of music on behavior (Bruner, 1990;Garlin & Owen, 2006;Hargreaves & Krause, 2016;Spence, 2020), cognitive performance (Lehmann & Seufert, 2017;Proverbio et al., 2015;Schellenberg & Weiss, 2013), and emotional responses (Juslin, 2013;Juslin & Laukka, 2004;Juslin & Västfjäll, 2008;Saarikallio, 2011) have been the subject of extensive investigation. Research generally indicates that background music can modulate perceptions, actions, judgments, and emotional experiences in various everyday contexts (Juslin & Laukka, 2004;Kämpfe et al., 2011;Spence, 2020;Steffens, 2020). ...
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Aesthetic evaluations can be highly influenced by a myriad of individual and situational factors. Interestingly, little is yet known about the possible effects of background music on the aesthetic experience of visual art. Here, we examined whether musical emotions would influence different dimensions of the aesthetic experience of a visual artwork displayed in a naturalistic environment. A total of 142 visitors of a contemporary art museum appreciated an abstract painting by Wassily Kandinsky while listening to background music conveying different emotions (happy, sad, peaceful, scary) or silence. Our findings suggest that music valence significantly influenced participants’ judgment of the pleasantness of the painting. In addition, music likability had a significant effect on participants’ judgments of the artwork’s valence, beauty, and liking. Specifically, participants who liked the background music rated these dimensions of the artwork aesthetic experience significantly more positively than those who disliked the music. Overall, these results suggest that aspects associated with the aesthetic experience of music may influence the aesthetic experience of visual art, opening new avenues for the investigation of cognitive processes underlying the aesthetic experience induced by objects across different media.
... One particular application of music that has been the subject of some study has been the effects of background music. This is particularly wellstudied in commercial shopping settings (Hargreaves & Krause, 2016), where it has been found that classical music can create an impression of a more sophisticated atmosphere, which in turn can increase listener spending, and that louder and faster music leads to consumers acting more quickly and spending less time in a venue. ...
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Objective We aim to review existing literature on the effects of background music in waiting rooms on patients. Furthermore, we examine existing neurobiological research for potential mechanisms by which music may affect patients. Background Music has been studied in healthcare in various forms, from formal interventions such as music therapy to passive listening as therapy. However, music is also present in the healthcare environment in the form of background music in waiting rooms. There has been interest in whether background music in such a setting may have beneficial effects on patient anxiety in order to potentially inform healthcare workers whether and what type of music may be suitable for waiting rooms. Methods We reviewed existing literature on music in healthcare waiting rooms and the neurobiological mechanisms by which music affects anxiety. Results We located several small studies performed in a range of settings, including physician office waiting rooms and preoperative waiting areas. The studies generally reported that most patients viewed music in these areas positively; some, but not all, studies showed positive effects on patient anxiety. A variety of theories by which music may impact patient anxiety was noted. Conclusions We conclude that there exists some evidence to support an anxiety-reducing effect of background music on patients, though studies vary widely in methodology and music selection. A small amount of neurobiological research into the pertinent mechanisms has been conducted, but further research will be required to elucidate the exact mechanisms by which this intervention may reduce anxiety.
... Music is an ambient factor that influences customers' organismic reactions and behavioral responses, making it one of the most important (Allan, 2008;Bruner, 1990;Jain & Bagdare, 2011;Oakes, 2000) and studied (Turley & Milliman, 2000) atmospheric variables. However, findings from the considerable body of research conflict in terms of their statistical significance, direction, and strength of the relationships tested (Krause et al., 2016). These discrepancies create uncertainty about the true effects of music on customers and how practitioners can employ music to enhance their service offerings. ...
Article
Music is a key and heavily researched stimulus in tourism and hospitality service settings. However, the growing body of research has produced contradictory results in terms of direction, strength, and statistical significance, rendering conclusions and evidence-based decisions questionable and precarious. This meta-analysis of 56 studies and 209 effects quantitatively synthesizes empirical evidence of the influence of music in tourism and hospitality service settings. We consider five dimensions of music and assess their effects on a wide range of customers’ organismic reactions and behavioral responses. The results indicate that it is not so much the presence as the design of music that influences customers. In addition, the preferential dimensions of music have a much stronger influence on customers than the physical dimensions of music. The large number of relationships examined offers practical guidance to professionals on the effective use of music in tourism and hospitality settings.
... The overall analysis highlights the significant role of acoustic driving mechanism based on entrainment process which is intentionally used by audiomarketing service providers to manage the flow of customers (in daily, weekly and annual cycles). The possible role of entrainment mechanism in induction of more advanced cognitive and behavioral responses will be discussed through the prism of psychobiological theory of musical preference (Berlyne, 1971;North & Hargreaves, 2008;North, Hargreaves & Krause, 2018). On the other hand, the special attention will be paid to the problem of autobiographical complexity of listener responses to music (observed in the present research). ...
... Several studies have tried to link emotion to emotional behavior in one way or the other. Examples include; eating behavior (Heatherton et al. 1998;Willner et al. (1998), creative behavior (Adaman & Blaney, 1995), aggressive behavior/challenge (Durand and Mapstone, 1998), helping (North, Tarrant & Hargreaves, 2004), consumption (Bruner, 1990;Gardner, 1985 andHargreaves, 1997). A fundamental problem with behavior as of emotion is that is often not reliable or predictable (in that the same emotional state may cause different behavior both within the same person across situations and between people). ...
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Accession Number: 2010-02543-010. First Author & Affiliation: Västfjäll, Daniel. Translated Book Series Title: Series in affective science. Release Date: 20100531. Correction Date: 20110912. Publication Type: Book, (0200); Edited Book, (0280); . Media Covered: Print. Document Type: Chapter. Book Type: Handbook/Manual. ISBN: 0-19-923014-5, Hardcover, 0199230145; 978-0-19-923014-3, Hardcover, 9780199230143. Language: English. Major Descriptor: Emotional Responses; Emotions; Measurement; Music. Minor Descriptor: Behavioral Assessment; Cognitive Assessment; Emotional States; Perceptual Measures. Classification: Personality Scales & Inventories (2223) Motivation & Emotion (2360) . Population: Human (10); . Intended Audience: Psychology: Professional & Research (PS) . References Available: Y.. Page Count: 23.
Chapter
Aesthetic incongruence describes when assumptions, values, and ideologies associated with music are perceived as incongruent with filmic images or narrative. Influenced by individual and societally shaped attitudes, such judgements echo those frequently made about the (in)appropriateness of music in various everyday contexts. A sequence from The Shawshank Redemption in which an operatic aria is played over the prison intercom is used to further explore these issues. Intradomain incongruities between this sustained diegetic presentation of classical music and the rest of the film’s soundtrack are discussed. The benefits of reframing the characters’ responses and existing analyses of this presentation of music in a seemingly atypical context as aesthetically incongruent are considered. Empirical data demonstrate the varied interpretations and potential perceptual implications of this audiovisual pairing.
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The aim of this paper was to investigate if a general consensus could be established for the term “musician.” Research papers (N = 730) published between 2011 and 2017 were searched. Of these, 95 papers were identified as investigating relationships of any sort connected with a musician-like category (e.g., comparison of musically trained vs. non-musically trained people), of which 39 papers detailing comparative studies exclusively between musicians and non-musicians were analyzed. Within this literature, a variety of musical expertise criteria were used to define musicians, with years of music training (51% of papers) and years of music lessons (13% of papers) being the most commonly used criteria. Findings confirm a general consensus in the literature, namely, that a musician, whether or not selected a priori, has at least six years of musical expertise (IQR = 4.0–10.0 years). Other factors such as practice time and recruiting location of musicians were also analyzed, as well as the implications of how this definition fits in relation to the complexities surrounding the construct of the musician. The “six-year rule,” however, was robust overall.
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Der Einsatz von Musik in auditiver und audiovisueller Werbung hat in den letzten 30 Jahren in einem Ausmaß zugenommen, dass mittlerweile nahezu jeder Werbespot mit musikalischen Elementen arbeitet. Bei der Konzeption der Werbespots vertraut die Werbebranche mehr auf ihre Erfahrungswerte und das Bauchgefühl der Kreativen, weniger auf die Erkenntnisse aus den betroffenen Wissenschaftsdisziplinen. Blickt man auf den derzeitigen Stand der Forschung, ist dies jedoch nur allzu verständlich. Obwohl sowohl die Kommunikationswissenschaft, Wirtschaftswissenschaft und Musikwissenschaft Studien zur Wirkung von Musik in der Werbung vorweisen kann, ist die Gesamtanzahl an Studien und damit auch an Erkenntnissen überschaubar. Da sich die Wissenschaftsdisziplinen nur bedingt gegenseitig wahrnehmen, stehen die Forschungsansätze und Erkenntnisse meist unverbunden nebeneinander. Von einem kohärenten, in sich geschlossenen Forschungsfeld kann also keine Rede sein. Dennoch gibt es Ansätze und Untersuchungen, die die Diskussion geprägt haben. Nach einer Darstellung der Einsatzmöglichkeiten für Musik in der Werbung, werden die drei dominierenden Erklärungsansätze für die Wirkung von Werbemusik angerissen. Anschließend folgt ein systematischer Forschungsüberblick über die musikalischen Faktoren und Aspekte, die in den verschiedensten Studien die Wirkung von Musik in der Werbung beeinflusst haben. Zuletzt folgt ein Ausblick auf zukünftig wünschenswerte Forschung.
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