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Energy Use of Households in Apartment Complexes with Different Service Life

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... The notion of a 'smart home' concerns residential spaces where smart technologies are embedded in physical objects and the environment to support residents' daily life [1]. It is a promising field that was initially developed for home automation and networking technologies that connected electrical appliances and services for remote control [23]. By tagging everyday objects with sensors, intelligence has recently started to become augmented and pervasive [4]. ...
... Many studies have argued that residents' behavior regarding energy conservation in the household sector might play a prominent role in the reduction of energy consumption [16,[20][21][22]. Through previous research [23], we also identified that energy conservation behaviors have a heavy impact on energy consumption. With this result, we argued that publicity about energy conservation should be introduced to encourage residents to be conscious of the value of energy saving. ...
... In addition, considerable research has demonstrated that clear feedback on energy consumption is necessary in learning how to control energy use more effectively, and that instantaneous feedback combined with billing is needed for sustained demand reduction [70,71]. This research is more interested in the energy-consumption indicators associated with inhabitants' energy-related behavior, which was motivated by our previous research on energy consumption in households [23]. Darby [72] reviewed what is known about the effectiveness of feedback to households with a focus on how people change their behavior, and found that feedback is useful as a self-teaching tool, in achieving better understanding and control of energy use. ...
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Health smart homes would enable people suffering from various diseases and handicaps to live an autonomous lifestyle in their own residences. The concept of the health smart home emphasizes ‘aging in place’, where residents enjoy a healthy independent life in their own homes as they become older. While energy saving is one of the crucial issues to be addressed in domestic buildings, there is little research into household energy consumption in health smart homes. This paper identifies each variable’s implications for health smart home services and highlights its application to energy consumption awareness. We also introduce Mobile Augmented Reality (MAR) to simulate energy consumption awareness in health smart homes. Firstly, the research proposes a framework for constructing health smart home services with a focus on the practicability of each variable from the perspective of supporting user experience in home settings. Rather than address each variable in isolation, we consider comprehensive issues in terms of service effectiveness in supporting a healthy life at home. Additionally, the innovative MAR application associated with energy use is presented as a new solution for household energy consumption awareness. The proposed application will be a basis for the perspectives of future research directions on health smart home services.
... Old buildings consume an excessive amount of energy [61]. However, research [62] contradicts this finding for China. Studies also confirm the existence of a relationship in residential buildings between energy and various design variables [63]. ...
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Energy plays a crucial role in the modern world. The acquisition and consumption of energy is unfortunately associated not only with economic development or the facilitation of everyday life, but also with a negative impact on the environment. To prevent these, measures are being taken which are part of a broad programme referred to as sustainable energy development (SED). A special place among energy consumers is occupied by households, as access to energy is a fundamental factor affecting the quality of life. The aim of this paper is to look at and assess the current situation of the household sector in the EU energy market in the context of SED and to point out similarities and differences between EU countries. The analysis considers factors based on SED indicators: final energy consumption per capita, energy prices offered to households, and the share of renewable energy in household energy consumption. The k-means method was used as a research tool. The results obtained indicate first of all that the EU countries are highly differentiated in terms of the analysed factors. It can be said that these differences result not only from the wealth of a given country, geographical location, or natural possibilities to use renewable energy sources, but mainly from the energy policies implemented in individual countries.
... However, 25 works (20% of the whole sample) give information about more than one category of recipients. For example, data used in [60] are given by 6400 individuals from 3474 families; [61] considered 20 households in 2 apartment complexes. For this reason, the number of cases reported in figure 3 exceeds the number of the analysed studies. ...
Article
The paper presents a review of the literature on the use of the questionnaire as a tool for collecting energy data in residential buildings. Numerous studies used the questionnaire to gather necessary information for different purposes. However, even using the same tool, the procedures differ in terms of distribution and compilation, contact with the interviewees and type of proposed questions. One hundred thirty-seven studies were considered in the review, including both scientific articles and surveys reports. The available works were analysed and classified according to the geographical origin, period, sample size, sample structure, data collection methods, response rate, data processing, and objectives of the investigation. In the 80% of the selected studies, the questionnaire is used as unique tool for data collection, albeit cases in which the questionnaire is coupled with other survey techniques, such as field measurements and time use surveys, have also been recorded. The in-person interview is the most common completion option in the sample and it is also the method that produces the highest response rate (77.6%). Generally, the collected data are subjected to statistical processing (over 80% of the cases). Regarding the objective of the surveys, the questionnaire is mainly employed for investigations on energy consumption and occupants’ behaviour, but also other purposes were identified. Overall, the revised sample and the experiences reported are largely varied and heterogeneous. The lack of a homogeneous methodology appears in the use of an extremely diversified terminology. Therefore, the codification of a reference method and the standardisation of the nomenclature would be desirable. It would be useful to define general guidelines to be followed when designing surveys by using questionnaires. The review provides some suggestions and guidance on the use of questionnaire, highlighting strengths and weaknesses, and represents a source of information for future researches focused on the energy performance of buildings.
... A research analysing the influence of individual approaches to refurbishment, such as improving the thermal envelope of the existing multi-family building, installing a ventilation device and a new heating system, points to the fact that in the climate zone of the north of China major energy savings are gained by means of faç ade insulation and window replacement [12]. Ten Seoul-based households located in a multi-family building dating from 1987 along with another ten from a building constructed in 2000 were included in the analysis of the dwellers' habits exerting influence on the annual use of energy [13]. The observed habits of using energy for heating, cooling, hot water supply, cooking, lighting, ventilation and household appliances led to the following findings: there was almost no difference in the use of energy in both residential buildings; all the households demonstrated equal usage except for the energy for heating and cooling. ...
Article
The current research study presents two possible approaches to energy-efficient refurbishment of the existing energy-inefficient multi-family buildings. The first involves individual renovation phases, their combinations and a complex energy-efficient refurbishment of the existing multi-family buildings. The second approach analyses the effect on the multi-family building's annual energy need for heating and cooling produced by a timber-glass upgrade module with the optimal glazing size in its south-oriented façade which is installed onto the multi-family building. For the purpose of its applicability, the study involves upgrade modules of various shapes and net floor areas, with the optimal glazing size in the south-oriented façade defined for each of the module shapes. The optimal glazing size of the module is determined by the glazing-to-wall area ratio where the sum total of the annual energy need for heating and cooling of the module is minimal. The study is based on two existing energy-inefficient multi-family buildings with different floor plans on top of which four upgrade modules are installed. The presented results show a possible positive impact the installation of an upgrade module with the optimal glazing size in south-oriented façade has on energy savings of the building. Within the energy refurbishment process the study offers a possibility of selecting various module shapes and even a different number of upgrade modules with appropriately selected parameters.
... Jeong Kim Mi et al. had researches of some apartments with different ages and found that the results were different from what they expected, the 33-year-old apartments didn't consume more energy than 11year-old apartments. Compared to the age of the apartment, residential behaviors were the more important reason for energy consumption [4]. Shuwen Niu et al. surveyed the household energy consumption of Lanzhou, the northwest city of China, in 2009, the annual average energy consumption was 1598.61kgce and per-capita energy consumption was 490.37kgce [5]. ...
Article
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Based on the investigation of residential building energy consumption in 500 households for 4 months in Hangzhou, and this paper selected 50 typical households to measure for 12 months. The results showed that there were still many residents lacked the consciousness of low-carbon consumption in Hangzhou, but many people would follow the government’s policies or others to adjust their behaviors and habits. Therefore, in addition to optimizing thermal insulation performance of building envelopes, it was necessary to study the concept of energy use and popularize the low-carbon lifestyles with regional characteristics, meanwhile, the family population, family income and building area should not be considered to the main factors when we took energy-saving measures in the hot summer and cold winter region.
... Balaras et al. in 2005 [18] (heating energy consumption of European residential buildings); Choi et al. in 2012 [19] (comparison of energy consumption according to building shape and utilization) as well as Kyrö et al. in 2011 <ref type="bibr" target="#b18" coords="1;360.444;64.6303;554.2916;72.58446">[20]</ref> and Kim et al. in 2011 [21] (the impacts of residents' behaviour on building's energy consumption). Studies on the reduction of buildings' energy consumption through renovations have been published by e.g. ...
... In Korea, the number of residential buildings has increased sharply due to the fast development and urbanization over the past decade. Overall, more than two-thirds of Korea's buildings are used for residential purposes, and residential building energy consumption has become a major concern in total energy consumption [3][4][5] . Reinforced concrete (RC) structures and masonry structures are widely used as building structures. ...
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Cross-laminated timber (CLT) is a potential option to achieve reductions in carbon emissions and energy consumption. CLT construction systems are environmentally friendly compared to more energy-intensive materials. In this study, the mid-rise apartments with CLT proposed by ASHRAE 90.1 were analyzed for energy consumption. First, the energy consumption of CLT buildings during heating and cooling was analyzed using four types of insulation. For CLT buildings, the airtightness was approximately 0.61 ac/h, (about 0.2 ac/h lower than that of the steel-frame buildings), suggesting that air-tight performance can reduce energy consumption. Energy-saving technology packages were applied to CLT buildings using rock wool insulation, which showed the highest total energy savings of 82.71 MWh, indicating economically advantageous hybrid-insulation. After the analysis of energy consumption according to the type of insulation, the energy retrofit was applied. Second, five energy-saving packages (including energy-saving, heating and cooling, and renewable energy technologies) were applied to two selected CLT buildings to further study energy consumption and energy efficiency. For CLT building using hybrid insulation, Package 3 reduced the total energy consumption by 14.14%, while for CLT building using rock wool insulation, Package 3 had the highest total energy consumption at 12.81%.
... Accounting for more than half of buildings in South Korea (hereafter Korea), residential buildings have consumed a significant amount of energy and it has rapidly increased [1]. Specifically, more than half of the total building energy consumption was used by residential buildings, which was about 60% [2,3]. ...
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Accounting for more than half of buildings in South Korea, the energy consumed by residential buildings has become a main concern and the cooing demand has rapidly increased. To reduce energy consumption, several passive and active design strategies have generally been applied. However, there has been an increasing demand for high window-to-wall ratios in residential buildings, it is imperative to block sunlight into a building effectively. Focusing on the reduction of cooling energy consumption in a residential building, the present study assessed the daylight and energy performance of shading devices. Among various types of shading devices, the Venetian blind, horizontal louver, light shelf, and egg-crate were selected. The illuminance levels in three different areas in a building were measured. In addition, the annual cooling energy consumption by these shading devices was investigated. As a result, both daylight and energy performance varied with different design options of these shading devices. Because of the slight performance difference among shading devices, the artificial loads of two best shading devices were compared. In sum, the egg-crate shading was the most proper shading device to block sunlight as well as reduce the cooling energy consumption effectively.
... While the energy consumption for cooling has been recently increased, a significant amount of energy still has used for heating in residential buildings [5,6]. Accordingly, there are several types of heating methods available including central gas heating, district heating, and individual gas heating. ...
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In South Korea, radiant floor heating has been used from old housing to the recently constructed residential buildings, which is called “Ondol”. The Ondol system is generally a water-based system and it uses hot water as a heat medium provided by boilers fueled by natural gas. With great effort to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, electric Ondol panels have been increasingly applied to the recent residential buildings for floor heating. While the prefab electric Ondol panels were developed with the demand for dry construction method, the information about the prefab electric Ondol system is not sufficient. For the present study, the thermal performance of the prefab electric Ondol panels was investigated through field measurement. In addition, the heating energy and economic performance of the electric panel were compared with the conventional Ondol system. As a result, a significant surface temperature difference was observed. Moreover, the heating cost for the prefab electric Ondol system was more expensive than the conventional system, even though a heat loss was observed by the operation of the conventional system.
... In addition to the physical characteristics of buildings (e.g. their forms and shapes) and thermal properties of their envelopes (e.g. the level of thermal insulation and mass), the life style and behaviour of occupants have profound effects on the overall performance of dwellings [20]. These inputs rely considerably on assumptions, which are often unknown or uncertain at the design stages [21]. ...
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This paper reviews the national house rating tools in the UK and Australia, evaluates the energy performance of eight different case study houses, and quantifies the magnitude of the performance gap between as-designed energy performance and as-occupied (actual) energy use. To identify contributing factors to the performance gap, post-occupancy evaluations were conducted, and all case study houses were monitored over two years. It was observed that there are performance gaps in all case study houses, however, the gap can be negative (i.e. more actual energy use than simulated) or positive (i.e. less actual energy use than simulated). Results show that the actual heating loads were less than simulated in 5 of the 8 houses (2 UK and 3 AU), and only 1 house (AU) had an actual cooling load more than simulated. The heating discrepancies ranged from 73% to 180% for the UK houses, and 19% to 172% for the AU houses. For the cooling loads, actual energy use in the AU house was up to 4.8 times higher than the simulated. To understand the underlying causes, several influencing factors (including internal temperature conditions, climate, house form and urban context, construction quality, and processes and assumptions of national house rating tools) were analysed. It was found that a key challenge relates to a limited definition of the energy system (household energy use), focusing on technical issues and largely ignoring or simplifying existing and changing socio-cultural issues. Additionally, the paper argues for the need for extending the system boundary beyond individual buildings to neighbourhood, community and city scales. At both a building scale and community scale, deeper understandings of socio-cultural issues that impact on, and are impacted by, energy metabolism, are required.
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This paper presents evidence for the role of building energy certificates as a behaviour change tool that drives improvements in the energy performance of public buildings. Findings are presented from an evaluation of a large-scale voluntary building labelling campaign, CYBER Display®. Energy-Cities, the European association of local authorities, launched its Display® Campaign in 2001 aimed at encouraging authorities to publicly display the energy and environmental performances of their buildings. Over 500 local and regional authorities in Europe participated in producing over 22,000 certificates. The database contains over 10,000 buildings and provides an excellent opportunity to produce an overview of the broad energy performance trends of buildings in Europe. Common technical factors are identified that lead to improved energy performance. Evidence from a comprehensive survey also reveals a further set of common factors in terms of communication activities that appear to lead to improved energy performance. The paper concludes that whilst building energy certificates are no panacea for the problem of increased emissions from public buildings, producing and displaying building energy certificates such as the Display® Poster can act as a catalyst for behaviour change.
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Presents a social-psychological model of energy-use behavior that draws on behavioral and social research to explain influence processes and behavioral change related to energy conservation behavior. The model consists of 2 interacting sets of factors: psychological factors that refer to how information is processed by individual decision makers and positional factors that relate to characteristics of the decision makers' situations that support or constrain action. Suggestions for maximizing the effectiveness of informational appeals to conserve energy by convincing the consumer that a pay-off will result from the use of energy conserving devices are discussed. It is suggested that the adoption of a conservatory attitude is influenced by the vividness of the argument to conserve energy, the credibility of the source, the understanding and retention of the message, and the degree to which an individual is able and willing to install conservation devices in his/her home. Alternatives to informational appeals through mass media to encourage energy conservation are proposed. (47 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Thesis
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Humans in households use energy for their activities. This use is both direct, for example electricity and natural gas, but also indirect, for the production, transport and trade of other goods and services. The main objective of this thesis is to gain insight into the energy requirement associated with household consumption patterns. The analyses in this thesis should be helpful in exploring the feasibility of the option to reduce or limit the energy requirement of society by changing consumption patterns. Chapter 2 describes a hybrid method for energy analysis, which is found to be suitable for rapidly and accurately calculating the direct and indirect energy requirement associated with the purchase and use of large numbers of consumption goods. The aim of Chapter 3 is to examine how households can reduce their primary energy requirement for the gift functions provided by cut flowers. The calculations suggest that if all the energy reduction options discussed in Chapter 3 are applied to a substantial extent, the cumulative energy required for flowers purchased by an average Dutch household can be halved. Chapter 4 gives an overview of the energy requirement of households. In 1990 the total average energy requirement per household in the Netherlands was 240 GJ, of which 54% was indirect. The net income was found to have the most important relationship with the total energy requirement. However, the spread in energy requirement of households within the same socio-economic situation was found to be large. Large differences were found between the energy intensities of consumption categories. The aim of Chapter 5 is to examine whether there is a relationship between the total household energy requirement, on one hand, and value patterns, the motivation to save energy or the problem perception of climate change, on the other. No differences were found in the energy requirement of groups of households with different value patterns, taking into account the differences in the socio-economic situation of households. The aim of Chapter 6 is to analyse changes in the consumption patterns of Dutch households in the period between 1948 and 1996. The rise in consumption has caused the total household energy requirement per capita to increase by an average of 2.4% per year over a period of 48 years. No substantial trend towards a less energy intensive consumption pattern has been found. The aim of chapter 7 is to estimate the consumption pattern and the accompanying energy requirement for the year 2030. The calculations suggest that, in the future, an autonomous substantial reduction of the energy intensity will occur, but the ongoing economic growth will still lead to a higher energy requirement per capita. The results in the Chapters 3 and 4 indicate that changing consumption patterns can reduce or limit the energy requirement of society. The results in the Chapters 6 and 7 indicate that a change in consumption patterns (to reduce or limit the energy requirement of society), will not occur autonomously. These findings are combined with the lack of any influence of values, problem perception and motivation on the household energy requirement, as found in Chapter 5. Then, it is clear that it will not be easy to reduce household energy requirements. A really strong policy that solves the social dilemma aspect of the problem, for instance, via pricing or regulation, will be necessary to achieve a reduction in the energy requirement of society through changes in household consumption patterns.
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A big amount of final energy in Europe is used in buildings (about 50%). Thermo insulating investments in the building sector can have a great impact on the improvement of the energetic efficiency of buildings and the reduction of the use of final energy in this sector. In the paper there were presented properly modified indicators for the economic assessment of the investments which is based on the thermal insulation of external walls of the building, such as: net present value, profitability indicator and payback period. For the ecological assessment the following indicators were introduced: ecological net present value, ecological indicator of profitability and ecological payback period. LCA technique was used in ecological indicators. For different variants of external walls, sources of heat and thermo insulating materials, the assessment of investments due to economic and ecological indicators was conducted. Ecological payback periods were obtained within 0–6 years.
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Optimal shading systems should increase daylight levels while controlling the amount of excessive sunlight and reducing discomfort and glare for the occupants. To eliminate the effect of absorbing solar heat, shading systems should be located in the external part of the window. An external shading device requires many design consideration such as solar geometry, physical dimension of the elements, materials, finishes, control strategies, and aesthetics. This study proposes an experimental configuration of an external shading device can be applied to apartment houses in South Korea. To verify the advantage of the external device, conventional daylighting devices have been examined and compared in terms of energy savings for heating and cooling. A series of simulations by an energy analysis program, IES_VE, has revealed that the experimental shading device promises the most efficient performance with various adjustments of the slat angle. A secondary advantage is that it also provides better views for occupants.
Article
This paper presents an investigation of the influence of local insulated roofing materials used in Burkina Faso on air conditioning loads of typical individual houses located in dry tropical climates. The walls are made of a composite clay–straw mixture whereas the insulated materials are made of red wood, white wood, and two assembled insulated panels. The thermophysical properties of the insulating materials as well as the clay–straw composite have been studied, utilizing an experimental apparatus based on the hot plate method. The values of the thermophysical properties obtained are in the same range as those published in the literature. Afterward, the house has been modeled using TRNSYS together with the climatic data of Ouagadougou. This simulation shows that the clay–straw mixture reduces the air conditioning load by about 8% compared to clay walled houses. As for the roof, the study indicates the influence of the insulated materials on the air conditioning load. Hence, a 1.5 cm thick insulator made of red wood induces a saving of energy about 6.2% and 12.1% for an insulation panel made of natural fiber and a lime–cement mixture on the air conditioning load.
Article
Occupants of buildings consciously interact with environmental systems to satisfy their specific needs for comfort. Field investigations have indicated that this adaptive behaviour of the occupants is a key factor in affecting the energy consumption of buildings and can change the energy use of similar buildings by a factor of 2. This study aims to reveal the factors in determining lighting energy consumption of open plan offices with the emphasis on the roles of occupant adaptive actions. Field investigations of open plan offices in Seoul, Korea were conducted from 20 July to 29 September. Internal and external illuminance and the use of lighting were monitored at ten minute intervals. Seventy seven office workers filled in the questionnaire survey forms five times a day for 40 days. Results reveal that there were close relationships between prevailing illuminance levels on the work plane and luminous comfort. This study presents the hourly profiles of both lighting use patterns and lighting energy consumption, and investigates the lighting energy consumption of open plan offices in relation to internal illuminance, visual comfort and lighting system use patterns.
Article
Indoor air quality is important to occupant health. Ventilation is a widely used technique for improving indoor air quality. However, improper ventilation results in heat losses up to 70.0% and is often the source of energy usage problems. According to the final report of the HOPE [11], the simultaneous assurance of ventilation, energy reduction and occupant health remains a design challenge. In addition, CO2 is a pollutant which is largely impacted by air exchange, the effects of which cannot be neglected in indoor air quality. Therefore, this study focuses on levels of CO2 and calculates the makeup air rate and recirculation air rate of indoor spaces. The optimum ratio of makeup air and recirculation air is evaluated in Korea to maintain acceptable indoor air quality and to save energy.
Article
Energy management for housing, which is responsible for 70% of the energy consumption by buildings, is increasing in importance. This study identified the characteristics of energy consumption in high-rise apartment buildings through a series of case studies and resident surveys. The results were as follows: (1) high-rise apartment buildings can be classified according to whether they are mixed-use or general residential buildings and according to the building shape. (2) In the evaluation of the characteristics of electrical energy consumption according to building use, residents in the mixed-use apartments showed higher behavior of active heating management and more actively adjusted their indoor stay, but they consumed more electricity, particularly in summer, than those living in general residential apartments. (3) For the electric energy consumption characteristics according to the building shape, plate-type buildings consumed less energy than tower-type buildings. And the latter consumed 1.48 times more energy than the former in the electricity for common areas. (4) When evaluating the characteristics of liquefied natural gas consumption according to the building shape, it can be seen that plate-type buildings consumed 10% more gas than tower-type buildings. (5) CO2 emissions in mixed-use buildings were found to be higher than those in general residential buildings.
Article
As a consequence of the improved quality of thermal properties of buildings due to energy regulations, overall energy use associated with building characteristics is decreasing, making the role of the occupant more important. Studies have shown that occupant behaviour might play a prominent role in the variation in energy consumption in different households but the extent of such influence is unknown. The impact of the building's thermal characteristics on space heating demand has been well studied. There is however, little work done that incorporates the impact of consumer behaviour. This study aims to gain greater insight into the effect of occupant behaviour on energy consumption for space heating by determining its effect on the variation of energy consumption in dwellings while controlling for building characteristics. The KWR database from the Ministry of Housing in the Netherlands was used. This study showed that occupant characteristics and behaviour significantly affect energy use (4.2%), but building characteristics still determine a large part of the energy use in a dwelling (42%). Further analysis showed that some occupant behaviour is determined by the type of dwelling or HVAC systems and, therefore, the effect of occupant characteristics might be larger than expected, since these determine the type of dwelling.
Article
The “Solar Complex of Plan-les-Ouates” is a traditional multifamily building with some commercial and administrative areas. It was designed to consume a minimum amount of thermal energy by combining several renewable energy systems (1400m2 of solar roof, buried pipe and exhausted air heat exchangers) with an optimised envelope and electrical equipment. Initially predicted to consume 160MJ/m2 per year of gas, a gas energy use index (per unit heated floor area) of 246MJ/m2 per year was measured. The energy analysis of the building, based on a 3-year period of monitoring, brought up the most relevant points that explain this difference: the real conditions of utilisation (such as the interior temperature) and the real performance of the complete technical system are not taken into account in the theoretical value. Both technical and economical aspects of the renewable energy systems were analysed in detail. An important lesson learned from this experiment is that the energy concept of buildings must be simple and consistent and the complexity of the technical installations must be carefully managed from the design-stage to the exploitation. Detailed monitoring of innovative low-energy buildings is recommended to understand the possible discrepancies between theoretical and real heat consumption and to improve the transfer of new energy technologies to large-scale real constructions.
Article
The construction industry requires significant materials and energy, and has some of the most pressing needs for energy-saving initiatives to support sustainable development. This paper studies energy efficiency during the construction of structural systems for multi-residential apartment buildings using composite structural systems. For this purpose, nine linear-shaped apartment buildings originally designed as bearing wall systems were designed as flat slabs and hybrid composite frames to study the energy consumptions of such buildings during the construction phase. The energy consumptions were then compared in terms of structural system, number of floors, and area. The energy-efficient hybrid frame used structural steel, cast-in-place concrete, and precast concrete. The structural system proposed in this paper is intended to reduce energy consumption through the proper combination of structural steel, cast-in-place concrete, and precast concrete. It was found that a multi-residential apartment building constructed with an energy-efficient hybrid composite frame could save approximately 20% of the construction phase energy used in the conventional bearing wall system. This energy savings was made possible by the reduced use of form-work resulting from the utilization of precast members, and the reduced consumptions of steel and concrete resulting from the enhanced structural performance of the hybrid composite system. The energy-efficient hybrid structural system is expected to be an alternative for future multi-residential apartment buildings.
Article
The New Ecological Paradigm (NEP) scale is the most frequently used measure of environmental concern, but it has not been placed in the context of a social-psychological theory of attitude formation or attitude-behavior relationships. Using data from a northern Virginia sample, this study examines NEP in relation to the variables in a theoretical model of environmental concern. We found that the NEP is indistinguishable from a scale of awareness of consequences (AC) of general environmental conditions, both psychometrically and in terms of its relations to behavioral intentions, but somewhat different in its relations to basic value orientations and sociodemographic variables. We conclude that both NEP and AC measure generalized beliefs about the nature of human-environment interactions-or "folk ecology"—a set of beliefs that may be influenced by social structure and values and that influence attitudes, beliefs, and behavioral intentions regarding specific environmental conditions.
Article
Psychological research in the 1970s and early 1980s contributed to understanding the determinants of energy use and energy conservation, particularly in households. This article reviews these contributions and sketches some implications for research in the 1990s. Psychological studies show that information and money, 2 of the major policy tools for conservation, are more complex and multidimensional than standard technical economic policy analysis assumes and that money is not the only important motive for conservation. These insights can be used to improve the implementation of energy conservation programs, but to have their insights applied, psychologists will need to communicate them in language familiar to policymakers. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Examined the interactive effects of economic, demographic, structural, and psychological variables on 4 behaviorally distinct types of reported conservation response involving energy efficiency improvements or curtailment of the services that energy provides, using data collected from 478 residential customers in 1980. The causal model assumed that contextual variables (i.e., demographic, economic, and structural) may affect behavior indirectly through personal variables (e.g., attitudes, beliefs, norms) and that between personal variables, causality moves from the general through the specific to reported behavior. A path analysis incorporating these assumptions suggested that although behaviors that are relatively unconstrained for most households (such as temperature settings) are strongly influenced by norms, personal variables have much less influence on more constrained actions (such as major insulation activity). The effect of high and rising fuel prices was stronger in producing economic sacrifice than in producing energy savings. The 15 variables used in analysis and their intercorrelations are appended. (32 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Surveys have been conducted to obtain information about the building design and energy end-use characteristics of high-rise residential buildings in Hong Kong. The building design characteristics data obtained include the floor areas of residential flats, the ratios of the areas of bedrooms and living and dining rooms to the total flat area, the window-to-wall area ratios, the types of fenestration, and the external-shading devices in facades of residential buildings. The energy data obtained include the household energy and electricity uses, and the type and quantity of appliances used in residential units. The saturation rates of various domestic appliances and their utilisation patterns, and the annual energy use for air-conditioning and water heating in residential units in Hong Kong have been estimated based on the collected data.
Article
In this paper, we appraise sustainable household consumption from a global perspective. Using per capita energy requirements as an indicator of environmental pressure, we focus on the importance of income growth in a cross-country analysis. Our analysis is supported by a detailed within-country analysis encompassing five countries, in which we assess the importance of various socioeconomic-demographic characteristics of household energy requirements. We bring together family expenditure survey data, input–output tables, and energy statistics in a multivariate analysis. Instead of a uniform Kuznet's curve, we find that the effect of increasing income varies considerably across countries, even when controlling for socioeconomic and demographic variations. The latter variables show similar influences, but differing importance across countries.
Article
The extent to which United States consumers have taken lifestyle cutbacks in eleven expenditure areas as a result of higher energy prices is examined. Data are from a general population sample survey of 8,392 households in ten western states, covering approximately 24 percent of all U.S. households. It was found that an index summarizing the extent to which respondents had taken lifestyle cutbacks was somewhat related in a positive direction to making temporary home adjustments to save energy, but was not related to taking permanent home-related energy conservation actions. The findings bring into question whether a market-oriented conservation policy will increase the taking of conservation actions, but also raise a disturbing question about existing tax credit programs.
Article
Thermal insulation studies for a private residence, built before the enactment of the Thermal Insulation Code in Greece, is described in this paper. Various insulation protection approaches for the same building envelop, which is situated in the city of Kavala in Northern part of Greece, are investigated. A performance comparison of these technical approaches, concerning cost and energy saving issues, is given. The cost estimation is performed as a function of insulation material used, the labour and insurance cost. The energy saving is evaluated by comparing the energy consumption (in kW h) for space heating before and after the application of thermal insulation in the structure envelop. Finally, useful conclusions were also drawn regarding further steps towards the rational use and energy save in newly erected buildings.
Article
Panel data covering the period 1984–1995 on energy consumption and technical characteristics of apartment blocks from Denmark are analysed in order to measure effects of policy measures aimed at reducing the consumption of energy for space heating. Results indicate that building regulations have been important in reducing energy consumption in new buildings. Furthermore, conditional price responses are estimated to be relatively small or non-existent, indicating small short-run effects of fuel taxes on energy consumption in apartment blocks. Finally, a consultancy scheme implemented with the purpose of improving knowledge about the potential for energy savings is found to have had moderate effects.
Article
This paper examines the conceptual divide between energy saving behaviours in the home, relating to purchase-oriented behaviours and habitual action to conserve energy. Considerable empirical research indicates that this divide is of utility when characterising energy saving behaviour. However, little attention has been focused around the association between energy saving behaviours and other environmental actions. Accordingly, this paper examines the structural bases of energy conservation behaviours in the wider context of environmental behaviour. These findings are then used to examine the characteristics of energy savers as they relate to other environmental actions. Using cluster analysis, the paper defines a range of behavioural characteristics that transcend energy saving and other environmental actions. The use of such an approach to policy makers seeking to encourage energy conservation practices is discussed at the end of the paper.
Case Study of Energy-saving Effect Though Renovation of Old Apartment Building, Korean Institute of Architectural Sustainable Environment and Building Systems
  • J.-W Seo
  • J.-H Lim
  • S.-Y. Song
J.-W. Seo, J.-H. Lim, S.-Y. Song, Case Study of Energy-saving Effect Though Renovation of Old Apartment Building, Korean Institute of Architectural Sustainable Environment and Building Systems, Seoul, 2011, pp. 59-62.
A Study on the Characteristic of Energy Consumption in Apartments
  • B Lee
B. Lee, A Study on the Characteristic of Energy Consumption in Apartments, Department of Architecture, Ajou University, Suwon, 2011, Thesis.