Dermoscopy and entomology (entomodermoscopy)
Although dermoscopy has been primarily designed for aiding the in vivo diagnosis of skin tumors, recent advances indicate it is also useful in the diagnosis of common skin infections and infestations. As such, dermoscopy connects the research fields of dermatology and entomology into one field of "entomodermoscopy". In this article we give an overview on the current applications of entomodermoscopy.
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Available from: Ijaz Hussain
Available from: cellbiolint.org
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ABSTRACT: Urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA), a serine proteinase, is important in the development and epidermal wound healing, and seems to play a regulatory role in the proliferation of mouse epidermal keratinocytes (KC). In the present study, we found detectable uPA expression in outer root sheath (ORS) KC in the early anagen phase in mouse vibrissa follicles, but not in the late anagen or in the telogen and categen phases. uPA was also detected in ORS KC cultured from neonatal mice vibrissa. Specific exogenous inhibitors of uPA, amiloride and uPA antibody, significantly reduced the proliferation of ORS KC. Thus uPA is consistently elevated in the hyperproliferative hair follicle KC, and inhibition of the enzyme decreases hair follicle KC proliferation. We deduce that uPA is a very important mediator of the hair follicle cycle because its activity correlates with ORS KC proliferation.
Available from: Harald Kittler
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ABSTRACT: It is unknown whether dermatoscopy improves the diagnostic accuracy for all types of pigmented skin lesions or only for those that are melanocytic.
We sought to assess if the addition of dermatoscopy to clinical examination with the unaided eye improves diagnostic accuracy for all types of pigmented lesions.
We analyzed 463 consecutively excised pigmented skin lesions collected during a period of 30 months in a primary care skin cancer practice in Queensland, Australia.
Of 463 lesions, 217 (46.9%) were nonmelanocytic. Overall 30% (n = 138) were malignant including 29 melanomas, 72 basal cell carcinomas, and 37 squamous cell carcinomas. The diagnostic accuracy for malignant neoplasms measured as area under receiver operating characteristic curves was 0.89 with dermatoscopy and 0.83 without it (P < .001). Given a fixed specificity of 80%, the corresponding sensitivity was 82.6% with dermatoscopy and 70.5% without it. The improvement achieved by dermatoscopy was higher for nonmelanocytic lesions than for melanocytic lesions. A short algorithm based on pattern analysis reached a sensitivity of 98.6% for basal cell carcinoma, 86.5% for pigmented squamous cell carcinoma, and 79.3% for melanoma. Among benign conditions, the highest false-positive rate (90.5%) was observed for lichen planus-like keratosis.
Estimates of diagnostic accuracy are influenced by verification bias.
Dermatoscopy improves the diagnostic accuracy for nonmelanocytic lesions. A simple algorithm based on pattern analysis is suitable for the detection of melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancer.
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