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The effect of recombinant aminopeptidase A (APA) on hypertension in pregnant spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs)

Department of Medical Science of Proteases, Nagoya University School of Medicine, Showa-ku, Nagoya, Japan.
Early human development (Impact Factor: 1.79). 07/2009; 85(9):589-94. DOI: 10.1016/j.earlhumdev.2009.06.005
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

We have tested the effects of aminopeptidase A (APA), MgSO(4) and various conventional antihypertensive drugs on hypertension in pregnant spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) and examined the effects on both fetal heart and kidney.
We used recombinant human APA, which has been recently shown to work as an antihypertensive agent in SHRs (n=5). Each drug was administered from gestational day 10 to day 20 and each dose was increased daily up to 10 fold until the end of treatment except for MgSO(4) (n=5 per each group). Blood pressure (BP) was monitored and fetal kidneys and heart were histologically examined.
The antihypertensive effects of the drugs were in the following order: hydralazine>aminopeptidase A and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), candesartan>MgSO(4) and methyldopa. Microscopic examination showed that fetal exposure to candesartan is associated with poor proximal tubular differentiation in the kidney and that to MgSO(4) is associated with poor blood vessel formation in the heart, respectively.
Our present study showed that APA is one of the candidates for antihypertensive agents in hypertension during pregnancy.

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    • "Recently, we have found that the administration of preeclampsia doses of magnesium sulfate to pregnant spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) was associated with delayed cardiovascular vessel formation, suggesting adverse effects on the fetal heart [17]. It is known that idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy in children results in a high rate of mortality. "
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    ABSTRACT: Preeclampsia and preterm delivery are important potential complications in pregnancy and represent the leading causes for maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. The mechanisms underlying both diseases remain unknown, thus available treatments (beta2-stimulants and magnesium sulfate) are essentially symptomatic. Both molecules have molecular weights less than 5-8 ‚ÄČkDa, cross the placental barrier, and thus exert their effects on the fetus. The fetus produces peptides that are highly vasoactive and uterotonic and increase in response to maternal stress and with continued development. Fetal peptides are also small molecules that inevitably leak across into the maternal circulation. Aminopeptidases such as placental leucine aminopeptidase (P-LAP) and aminopeptidase A (APA) are large molecules that do not cross the placental barrier. We have shown that APA acts as an antihypertensive agent in the pregnant spontaneously hypertensive rat by degrading vasoactive peptides and as a result returns the animal to a normotensive state. P-LAP also acts as an antiuterotonic agent by degrading uterotonic peptides and thus prolongs gestation in the pregnant mouse. Given the ever increasing worldwide incidences of preeclampsia and preterm labor, it is imperative that new agents be developed to safely prolong gestation. We believe that the use of aminopeptidases hold promise in this regard.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2011 · BioMed Research International
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    • "However, the administration of conventional antihypertensive agents to the mother is detrimental to the fetus. Using animal models we have shown that the antihypertensive effect of APA is similar to that of candesartan in pregnant SHRs (Ishii et al., 2009a). "
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    ABSTRACT: Both preeclampsia and preterm delivery are important complications in pregnancy and are leading causes for maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. The underlying molecular mechanisms of both diseases remain unknown, thus treatments (beta2-stimulants and magnesium sulfate) are essentially symptomatic. Both molecules have molecular weights less than 5-8 kDa and cross the placental barrier thus exerting their effects on the fetus. In addition, the fetus produces peptide hormones that are highly vasoactive and uterotonic and increase in response to maternal stress and with continued development. Fetal peptides are also small molecules that inevitably leak across into the maternal circulation. Aminopeptidases such as placental leucine aminopeptidase (P-LAP) and aminopeptidase A (APA) are large molecules that do not cross the placental barrier. We have shown that APA acts as an antihypertensive agent in the pregnant spontaneously hypertensive rat by degrading vasoactive peptides and as a result returns the animal to a normotensive state. We have also noted that P-LAP acts as an anti-uterotonic agent by degrading uterotonic peptides, and as a result prolongs gestation in the pregnant mouse. Thus, P-LAP and APA represent promising agents for the treatment of preeclampsia and preterm labor by degrading bioactive hormones derived from the feto-placental circulation.
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