Volatile Constituents throughout Brassica oleracea L. Var. acephala Germination

REQUIMTE/Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Porto University, R. Anibal Cunha, 164, 4050-047 Porto, Portugal.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry (Impact Factor: 2.91). 08/2009; 57(15):6795-802. DOI: 10.1021/jf901532m
Source: PubMed


In this work, the volatile composition of kale ( Brassica oleracea L. var. acephala) and its variation during germination were monitored during the first 9 days of seedling development by headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) combined with gas chromatography/ion trap-mass spectrometry (GC/IT-MS). Differences were found among the materials in the distinct analyzed periods. A total of 66 volatile compounds, distributed in several chemical classes, were determined: alcohols, carbonyl compounds (ketones, aldehydes, and esters), norisoprenoids, and terpenes, among others, sulfur compounds being the most abundant group in seeds and sprouts that exhibited allyl isothiocyanate as the major compound. Leaves of fully developed ground plant had the highest content of norisoprenoids, alcohols, and carbonyl compounds; in opposition, they showed lower levels of sulfur compounds, suggesting that these are important molecules for the development of kale, whereas the others are produced mainly during its growth.

10 Reads
  • Source
    • "Leaves of Brassica vegetables are commonly consumed worldwide because of the considerable health and nutritional benefits associated with their consumption (Fernandes and others 2009). Kale (Brassica oleracea L. var. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This study evaluated the efficacy of individual treatments (thermosonication [TS+DW] and slightly acidic electrolyzed water [SAcEW]) and their combination on reducing Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, and spoilage microorganisms (total bacterial counts [TBC], Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonas spp., and yeast and mold counts [YMC]) on fresh-cut kale. For comparison, the antimicrobial efficacies of sodium chlorite (SC; 100 mg/L) and sodium hypochlorite (SH; 100 mg/L) were also evaluated. Each 10 g sample of kale leaves was inoculated to contain approximately 6 log CFU/g of E. coli O157:H7 or L. monocytogenes. Each inoculated or uninoculated samples was then dip treated with deionized water (DW; control), TS+DW, and SAcEW at various treatment conditions (temperature, physicochemical properties, and time) to assess the efficacy of each individual treatment. The efficacy of TS+DW or SAcEW was enhanced at 40 °C for 3 min, with an acoustic energy density of 400 W/L for TS+DW and available chlorine concentration of 5 mg/L for SAcEW. At 40 °C for 3 min, combined treatment of thermosonication 400 W/L and SAcEW 5 mg/L (TS+SAcEW) was more effective in reducing microorganisms compared to the individual treatments (SAcEW, SC, SH, and TS+DW) and combined treatments (TS+SC and TS+SH), which significantly (P < 0.05) reduced E. coli O157:H7, L. monocytogenes, TBC, Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonas spp., and YMC by 3.32, 3.11, 3.97, 3.66, 3.62, and >3.24 log CFU/g, respectively. The results suggest that the combined treatment of TS+SAcEW has the potential as a decontamination process in fresh-cut industry. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2015 · Journal of Food Science
  • Source
    • "The methodology was adapted from previous works (Guedes de Pinho P et al. 2009a; Taveira et al. 2009; Fernandes et al. 2009). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In this research, the volatile profile of Actinidia deliciosa (A. Chev) C.F. Liang and A.R. Ferguson var. deliciosa cv. Hayward fresh fruits (pulp) coming from two different training systems, picked at different harvest times were characterized by HS-SPME-GC-IT/MS before and after storage. Forty-seven compounds were identified and distributed by distinct chemical classes (aldehydes, alcohols, ketones, esters, monoterpenes, norisoprenoid and hydrocarbons), with 24 being reported for the first time in this variety. The major volatiles found were: hexanal, (E)-2-hexenal and methylbutyrate. A principal component analysis showed that fruits from pergola training system are very well distinguished from those coming from T-bar training system by their abundance of monoterpenes and norisoprenoids. In general, fruits after storage have higher amounts of esters. All these results were confirmed by sensory analysis, having the T-bar kiwifruits higher notes in “pungent” descriptor, and fruits stored higher values of “ripened fruit odour” and “sweetness”. Keywords Actinidia deliciosa (A. Chev) C.F. Liang and A.R. Ferguson var. deliciosa cv. Hayward–Kiwifruits–Volatile compounds–Training system–Maturation–Storage–HS-SPME-GC-IT/MS–PCA
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2012 · Food and Bioprocess Technology
  • Source
    • "All samples were analysed in triplicate. The results correspond to mean ± standard deviation of three determinations, usually used for SPME analysis (Fernandes et al., 2009), and standard deviation values obtained are lower than 10% of the mean. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Aroma is one of the essential parameters for the evaluation of fruit quality, with volatile components being determinant for this characteristic. During this work, the volatile profile of fresh fruits (pulp and peel) and leaves of Portuguese Ficus carica L. white (“Pingo de Mel” and “Branca Tradicional”) and dark (“Borrasota Tradicional”, “Verbera Preta” and “Preta Tradicional”) varieties were characterised by HS-SPME/GC–IT-MS.Fifty-nine compounds were identified and distributed by distinct chemical classes (aldehydes, alcohols, ketones, esters, monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, norisoprenoids), with 39 being reported for the first time in this species. Principal component analysis of semi-quantitative data showed that pulps and peels are distinguished from leaves by their abundance of monoterpenes and aldehydes. All varieties presented a similar volatile profile, although some differences between white and dark varieties were noticed.This is the first study comparing volatile composition of several materials from F. carica. In addition, no previous study involved the above mentioned varieties.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2010 · Food Chemistry
Show more