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This liflet presents 4 sucess stories of projects of sustainable reef fisheries that were supported by the Coral Reef InitiativeS for the Pacific (CRISP programme) implemented under the auspices of the Secretariat of the Pacific Community in Noumea.
No-take marine reserves (NTRs) may promote recovery of exploited populations within their boundaries and spillover of fishes to adjacent fishing grounds, thus potentially benefiting the local fisheries. Although some studies have measured spillover by examining gradients of fish abundance and body size across reserve boundaries, there are no such studies to date including information from before reserve establishment, thus seriously limiting interpretation of results. We measured reef fish spillover from a NTR (Itacolomis Reef, Eastern Brazil) by estimating biomass and body size across the reserve boundary before (2001) and after (2002–2005) initiation of protection. Replicate sites were sampled inside and outside the reserve, with unprotected sites included in three distance categories from the reserve boundary: 0–400, 400–800 and 800–1200 m. This latter category generally surpasses the scales over which spillover is expected to influence patterns of fish abundance outside reserves (generally <500 m), particularly for relatively sedentary fishes, thus acting as a control for the reserve effect. Habitat measurements were undertaken at the same sites, from 2003 on. Biomass of Scarustrispinosus, a major fishery resource and the dominant species in terms of biomass (37.4% of total biomass), was lower inside the reserve area before its establishment. During this same period, no individuals of two primary target species, Mycteropercabonaci and Sparisomaaxillare, were recorded inside the reserve. Coral cover was consistently lower inside the reserve from 2003 on. Biomass and body size of M. bonaci, as well as biomass of Ocyuruschrysurus, increased continuously inside the reserve after its establishment, with no similar increases recorded in control sites. Evidences of spillover (i.e. higher biomass inside the reserve and in unprotected sites closer to its boundary) were obtained for M. bonaci, O. chrysurus and S. trispinosus, although this pattern was only marginally significant for O. chrysurus. Despite these positive signs, recovery and spillover of S. trispinosus were probably inhibited by increased poaching from 2003 on. Our results indicate that the NTR at Itacolomis Reef was established a priori on poor quality habitats. Thus, future spatial comparisons between protected and unprotected sites would underestimate changes due to protection. These findings highlight the importance of baseline information and continued monitoring for adequately understanding the effects of NTRs, as well as the need of closer collaboration between natural and social scientists in order to effectively protect high-quality habitats in the long term while accounting for the socio-economic needs of local fishing communities.
The South Pacific has experienced a remarkable proliferation of Marine Managed Areas in the last decade. These protected areas, implemented by over 500 communities spanning 15 independent countries and territories represent a unique global achievement. The approaches being developed at national levels are built on a unique feature of the region, customary tenure and resource access, and make use of, in most cases, existing community strengths in traditional knowledge and governance, combined with a local awareness of the need for action, resulting in what have been most aptly termed Locally Managed Marine Areas (LMMAs). The main driver in most cases, is a community desire to maintain or improve livelihoods, often related to perceived threats to food security or local economic revenue. In the South Pacific, conservation and sustainable use are often seen as inseparable as part of the surviving concepts of traditional environmental stewardship. The extent of this shift towards Community Based Resource Management in Melanesia and Polynesia is unprecedented on a global scale and is the subject of this report. The benefits of LMMAs and community-based resource management are many. Not least, communities anecdotally report rapid and appreciable increases of marine resources within closed areas. There is also now an increasing body of technical literature which seems to confirm these observations and indeed the potential speed at which this may occur, and these increases seem likely to reflect positive impacts on the biodiversity within these areas. Evidence for significant fishery impacts such as increased landings or catch per unit effort is scarcer, possibly reflecting a greater time period required for such impacts to be observable. The success of these community based management approaches comes at a time when the region faces enormous challenges to food security, biodiversity and adaptation to climate change. The population in the South Pacific is projected to double
The application of no-take marine-reserve status to an area is expected to increase spawning-stock biomass of species targeted by fisheries, and to help sustain fish- eries external to the reserve. However, empirical evidence on rates and patterns of increase of density and biomass of target species following closures to fishing, and of decrease when reserve status is removed, remains rare. We have monitored density and biomass of large predatory coral-reef fish (Serranidae (Epinephelinae), Lutjanidae, Lethrinidae, and Car- angidae, as a group) visually in two small no-take marine reserves and at two control (open to fishing) sites in the Philippines from 1983 to 2000. At Sumilon reserve a complex history of management allowed 13 measurements of density and biomass at durations of reserve protection of 23 yr (i.e., fished for 3 years after reserve status removed) to 9 yr. At Apo reserve 13 measurements were taken at durations of protection of 1-18 yr. We recorded 11 significant (P , 0.05) changes in density at the four sites over the 17 years, three declines and eight increases. All three significant declines occurred when reserve protection was removed. Four of the eight significant increases occurred when reserve status was applied. This represents some of the best evidence currently available that application of marine-reserve status causes increases in abundance of target species. Three of the four significant increases in density required 4-6 yr of protection. Significant positive linear correlations of mean density of large predators against years of reserve protection were observed at both reserves. The pattern of increase of mean biomass against years of reserve protection was exponential, with biomass initially increasing more slowly than density. Density and biomass increased by factors of 12.2 and 17.3, respectively, during 18 yr of continuous protection in Apo reserve. At Sumilon Island three bouts of unregulated fishing of 1.5-3 yr duration eliminated density and biomass gains accumulated over 5-9 yr of marine reserve protection.
On the exposed rocky shores of central Chile there exists a continuous small-scale harvesting of bull-kelp Durvillaea antarctica, by 'mariscadores' (shellfish and algae gatherers). These harvest both fronds and stipes for human consumption. To assess the effects of human activity on D. antarctica populations, the density, standing crop and size structure of the kelp were compared in non- harvested (fenced) and regularly harvested (unfenced) areas. Both coastal mainland and small islands were included in the fenced and unfenced areas. Unfenced islands were expected to receive less human disturbance than unfenced mainland areas, because the islands were less accessible to harvesters. Populations of kelp underwent great fluctuations in abundance throughout the study period Compari- son between harvested and non-harvested areas revealed significant differences in density, biomass and size structure In contrast, no significant differences were found between nearshore islands inside and outside the fenced area. Sources of variation in abundance of populations correspond to recrut- ment, natural mortality and harvesting, especially in harvested mainland areas. Interaction between tune and extent of exploitation is significant when D antarctica biomass is considered. The existence of protected areas (coastal preserves) and of areas of difficult access to mariscadores (refuges or 'buffer- zones') allows the preservation of populations and facilitates re-population of harvested zones.
A major objective of the use of marine reserves in management of coral reef fisheries is protection of a critical spawning stock biomass to ensure recruitment supply to fished areas via larval dispersal. However, very little empirical evidence exists on the rates and patterns of increase of density and biomass of target species following the closure of a coral reef or part of a reef, nor on how quickly any gains potentially useful to fisheries can be lost if reserves are subsequently opened to fishing. This paper presents empirical evidence derived from the visual monitoring of density and biomass of large predatory coral reef fish (Serranidae (Epinephelinae), Lutjanidae, Lethrinidae and Carangidae as a group) in two small marine reserves and at two control sites in the Philippines from 1983 to 1993. At one reserve (Sumilon) a complex history of management allowed seven measurements of density and biomass at durations of reserve protection ranging from -2 (i.e., fished for 2 yr) to 9 yr. At the second reserve (Apo), seven measurements were taken at durations of reserve protection ranging from 1 to 11 yr. Density of large predators provided an excellent indicator of the effects of marine reserve protection and fishing. Density decreased significantly twice when the Sumilon reserve was opened to fishing (1985, 1993), and increased significantly three times following durations of marine reserve protection of 5 yr (Sumilon reserve and nonreserve sites, 1987-1991) and 6 yr (Apo reserve beyond 1988). Density of large predators at the Apo nonreserve site (open to fishing) did not change significantly, remaining low throughout the study. Significant positive linear correlations of mean density of large predators with years of reserve protection were observed at both reserves. The rates of increase were 1.15 and 0.72 fish-1000 m-2·yr-1 at Sumilon and Apo reserves, respectively, with mean density ranges of ≈4-17 fish/1000 m2 (-2 to 9 yr of protection) at Sumilon and 0.5-9.5 fish/1000 m2 (1-11 yr of protection) at Apo. The pattern of increase of mean biomass with years of reserve protection was more curvilinear than that of mean density, particularly at Sumilon, where a slow increase was observed in the first 3-5 yr (reflecting delayed recruitment and a natural delay to the period of maximum individual mass growth), followed by an increasing rate over the next 4 yr. Mean biomass ranges were ≈1.5-18 kg/1000 m2 (-2 to 9 yr of protection) at Sumilon and 1-10.5 kg/ 1000 m2 (1-11 yr of protection) at Apo. At Sumilon reserve, 2 and 1.5 yr of unregulated fishing, respectively, eliminated density and biomass gains accumulated over 5 and 9 yr of marine reserve protection.
The last ten years have seen a growing disillusionment with many conventional fishery management methods, in part, I would suggest, since the managers using them have been unaware of the complexity of the ecosystems they are dealing with. The pendulum seems to be swinging steadily in the direction of spatially-based management tools for fisheries (see e.g. Hilborn & Kennedy 1992; Walters et
al. 1993; Seijo et
al. 1994; Hall 1998; Caddy 1999a), and the Mediterranean is ideally suited for testing and applying such mechanisms from both the geographical aspect, and in terms of its high biodiversity.
Coral reefs are highly productive ecosystems that provide a variety of valuable goods and services, including recreational opportunities. The open-access nature and public good characteristics of coral reefs often result in them being undervalued in decision making related to their use and conservation. In response to this, there now exists a substantial economic valuation literature on coral reefs. For the purposes of conducting a meta-analysis of this literature, we collected 166 coral reef valuation studies, 52 of which provided sufficient information for a statistical meta-analysis, yielding 100 separate value observations in total. Focusing on recreational values, we use US$ per visit as the dependent variable in our meta-analysis. The meta-regression results reveal a number of important factors in explaining variation in coral reef recreational values, notably the area of dive sites and the number of visitors. Different valuation methods are shown to produce widely different values, with the contingent valuation method producing significantly lower value estimates. Using a multi-level modelling approach we also control for authorship effects, which proves to be highly significant in explaining variation in value estimates. We assess the prospects for using this analysis for out-of-sample value transfer, and find average transfer errors of 186%. We conclude that there is a need for further high-quality valuation research on coral reefs.
Fully-protected marine reserves: a guide. WWF Endangered Seas Campaign
C M Roberts
J P Hawkins
Roberts C. M.,Hawkins J. P. (2000). Fully-protected marine reserves: a guide.
WWF Endangered Seas Campaign, 1250 24th Street, NW, Washington, DC 20037,
USA and Environment Department, University of York, York, YO10 5DD, UK.
Main report on Household Income and Expenditure Survey (HIES), 2006. Household Income and Expenditure Survey
Vanuatu National Statistics Office (2008). Main report on Household Income and
Expenditure Survey (HIES), 2006. Household Income and Expenditure Survey,
Vanuatu National Statistics Office.
Email: firstname.lastname@example.org "An MMA can improve the village fisheries yield by 10 to 20%
Nicolas Pascal, Email: email@example.com
"An MMA can improve the village fisheries yield by
10 to 20%... "