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The Bridge -A Transmedia Dialogue between TV, Film and Gaming

Authors:

Abstract

The goal is to discuss the transmedia (TM) relationship in the game-film and game-TV dialogue. First we will analyze previous game-film transi-tions and releases so that a background is set up and further examinations be-come sustained. Secondly, we are to find how exactly works transmedia gaming (TMG) as the main object of study, the video game Quantum Break (QB) sets a new trend, which leads us to take on digital media studies, communication sci-ences, as a framework, to better understand this new "dialogue". Instead of going for narratology or ludology we see this transmedia event of QB as a change in digital media. We start with concepts such as narrative, fic-tion, virtuality, but as the new audience condition is shaped by a TM dialogue, storytelling is marketing-driven, thus turning the public into a search-er/connector. We will explain how changes are leading to a new scenario.
The Bridge - A Transmedia Dialogue between TV, Film
and Gaming
Herlander Elias
University of Beira Interior (UBI), Department of Communication and Arts, Covilhã, Portugal
HerlanderElias248@gmail.com
Abstract. The goal is to discuss the transmedia (TM) relationship in the game-
film and game-TV dialogue. First we will analyze previous game-film transi-
tions and releases so that a background is set up and further examinations be-
come sustained. Secondly, we are to find how exactly works transmedia gaming
(TMG) as the main object of study, the video game Quantum Break (QB) sets a
new trend, which leads us to take on digital media studies, communication sci-
ences, as a framework, to better understand this new “dialogue”.
Instead of going for narratology or ludology we see this transmedia event of
QB as a change in digital media. We start with concepts such as narrative, fic-
tion, virtuality, but as the new audience condition is shaped by a TM dialogue,
storytelling is marketing-driven, thus turning the public into a search-
er/connector. We will explain how changes are leading to a new scenario.
Keywords: bridge, narrative, digital media, Lost, transmedia, videogames,
searchers, interactivity, TV series
1 Introduction and problem
Transmedia (TM) is the ability in media content design of having storytelling, in-
teraction and viewing experience of a narrative unfolding on different media. Trans-
media Gaming (TMG) (Evans, 2011, 94) means this strategy applied to videogames.
Games, TV and films are separate from each other, but as a new game as Quantum
Break (QB) is determined to clear these boundaries, we expect more from game and
TV-film cross-overs. Here is a new dialogue, which in practice means that the public,
sometimes as viewers, or players, will watch and play on screen displays. The core
formula is that the game developer, Remedy, is making “Junction Moments” to bridge
the gap between passive and interactive imagery. Also, it is supposed to be a TV se-
ries where the things we see are useful for the gameplay, and vice-versa.
In this work we do not focus on the approaches of narratology or ludology. Instead
digital media is the core. We see QB as a digital media phenomenon, something new,
asking for a new behavior and setting up new rules. The problem in this research is
“how exactly is this formula new?”, and the hypothesis are:
1. “Is TMG applying the formula used on Lost?”
2. “How does the Lost formula work out once applied to other media?”1
3. Ultimately, “Where does QB innovates, in which features to be more specific?”
1.1 Discussion About The Related Work
Before we discuss how a game as QB sets a new trend we have to remind how a
TV show as Lost (ABC, 2004-2010) managed to revolutionize media2. Lost narrowed
the gap between viewers and users the TV world and the computer world. Narra-
tive was its major asset, which was non-linear and cross-media. It’s like having TV
before and after Lost. As the Web has become a key site for engagement, and narra-
tive devices are built to attract people in TV webcasts, as time goes by, the boundaries
between film, games, Web search, TM and TMG will be more and more blurred.
From domains such as science fiction comes the idea about how all things are com-
ing around “Narrative”. Writer William Gibson assures in the Zero History novel:
“consumers don't buy as much products as they buy narratives" (2010, 21). And in the
same trend, Lunenfeld affirms: “now that the narrative surrounds us, it has become
the new ground" (2011, 58). Of course we know the longer people consume narrative
parts, the deeper will be the connection with the fiction world. Assembling meaning
equals connection to media worlds.
But when it comes to post-Lost TV, as Sasaki underlines
"viewers had the option of following only the series on TV, ignoring any oth-
er unique content broadcasted by a different medium. At the same time someone
who was not aware of the TV show could accidentally 'see'/access some of these
extra content leading to the main plot, the ‘big narrative scheme'" (2012, 20).
This means narrative is no longer just content, since it is also part of the media de-
sign, in the sense that the message is medium-shaped. So, as far as narrative works,
extends and splits in different media the audience is kept entertained and spends more
money in all things interconnected with narrative. There is a big narrative being wo-
ven, as Sasakis points too.
2 About References and Issues
The big step forward with Lost is that the show was at the same level as digital
media content. Lost appears in this discussion of TMG because it is the first originally
designed TV series to integrate viewers, searchers and players.
As for the TM, and TMG, the videography we have tested for this research led us
to this results, in terms of distinctive categories: we believe that until some recent TM
products, games, TV and films were spinning off their foundries what we may call
“Fake TM”, meaning that some things were taking place, except true “continuity”. So
1 As Sasaki asked too in 2012.
2 Long before we could think of a game becoming interdependent with TV series, as QB pro-
mises to work with, Lost was the real first TM/TV show to provide content also in gaming, and
setting up Web communities as well.
the categories in which most media we have examined fit in are “Sequentials” and
“Interactive”, being TM a big amount too. However "Total TM" is only achieved in
Quantum Break.
Sequentials are basically games and films establishing a “mention” between them,
in the sense that one refers the other. There is no hybrid universe or direct dependency
in narrative3.
After some time, interactivity becomes a contaminant agent, spreading its logic
everywhere. We see as the first attempt to bridge games and films with The X-Files
(Hyperbole Studios, Fox Interactive, 1999), the game based on Full Motion Video and
classified as an "Interactive Movie". Here the connection is obviously established
with The X-Files: (Carter, C., 1993), the TV series.
More recently, games such as James Bond 007: Blood Stone (2010), make sense if
we watch 007: Skyfall (Mendes, S., 2012) and 007: Quantum of Solace (Forster, M.,
2008) movies. A less known relationship is the one between Ridley Scott's 1982
Blade Runner and the non-linear game (Westwood Studios, 1997) version. Here we
literally play the movie. Avatar (Cameron, J., 2009), the movie, and the game James
Cameron's Avatar are successful (2009) in just connecting. Again, connections, inter-
active ones, are conceived as part of the plan.
Even in Golden Eye (Campbell, M., 1995) Bond film, there was a success coming
from the connection with Goldeneye (1997) game for Nintendo N64. In recent past,
Christopher Nolan's Inception (2010) movie mentions a previous chapter, called In-
ception Animation Prequel The Cobol Job (Kirby, I., 2010), which turns this ani-
mated short itself into TM. Iron man (Favreau, J., 2008) connects with Marvel movies
and spins-off into games in consoles. Long before these strategies, games such as
Medal of Honor: Frontline (2002) tried a straight connection with movies like Saving
Private Ryan (Steven Spielberg, 1998). People want to play movies.
More examples stand in the history of video games, providing versions of homon-
ymous movies, as Predator (McTiernan, J., 1987). The trend then allowed The Run-
ning Man (Glaser, P.M., 1987) to become The Running Man (1989), the game. For
quite some time, interactivity was an add-on to passive imagery. The Terminator
(Cameron, J., 1984) became eight years later The Terminator by Virgin Interactive.
This narrative universe links up with Terminator 2: Judgment Day (Cameron, J.,
1991); and still today, Terminator Salvation (McG, 2011) considers previous releases
as puzzle pieces.
A story with a need to connect with digital environment is for sure Tron (Lis-
berger, S., 1982). What is unfolding now is merely the "Real TM" mode of gaming. It
began in TV series as Lost and 24 (Cochran, R., Surnow, J., Fox, 2001-10), which
3 For instance, The Avengers (Whedon, J., 2012) movie is connected with previous Marvel
movies such as Captain America: The First Avenger (Johnston, J., 2012) and Thor (Branagah,
K., Whedon, J., 2011). The same strategy is identified in Lara Croft: Tomb Raider (West, J.,
2001), which stands side by side with Tomb Raider (1996), the game. Many are the examples,
though we highlight here the link between the Halo game universe and the movie Halo 4: For-
ward Unto Dawn (2012). The X-Files: Fight The Future (Bowman, R., 1998) and X-Files: I
Want to Believe (Carter, C., 2008) were the kind of movies that tried to link books and movies
of The X-Files´ universe.
pioneered the gameplay of episode stories or subplots. Now, TV series like Marvel's
Agents of S.H.I.E.L.D.4 (Whedon, J., ABC, 2013) are establishing a cluster of sense
with the narrative of Thor: The Dark World (Taylor, A., 2013) movie.
Other situations exist, like the video game Tom Clancy’s Ghost Recon: Future Sol-
dier (Ubisoft, 2012), which release online live-action movies as Tom Clancy’s Ghost
Recon: Future Soldier - Ghost Recon Alpha Official Film (Ubisoft, Little Minx Pro-
duction, Mikros Image, May 5, 2012). Since search culture is a common ground for
the audiences of these media, we see links coming from different media regarding the
same storytelling universes.
Besides 24, Lost remains the best in connecting with gaming. In fact, Lost deliber-
ate releases the TMG Lost: Via Domus (2008). The reference for everyone in TMG
was until today The Matrix (Wachowski, A. & Wachowski, L., 1999)5. Still now, the
industry model of connecting at least two releases is working good. Since the launch
of Assassin’s Creed [AC] (Ubisoft, 2007), every game in the AC universe expands the
memory of the thief and its universe6. A smart case of linking movies to new games
in a successful manner lies in AVP - Aliens vs Predator (2010)7.
Some references from the past and the present share similar positioning, as the
purpose of some releases was since ever to turn watchable images in controllable
images, and otherwise.
Other known releases such as Mirror’s Edge, a PlayStation 3 game, became an
iPhone release too (IronMonkey Studios, EA Mobile, 2010). Beyond that, a Mirror’s
Edge Comic (Wildstorm Productions, Smith, M.D., Pratchett, R., 2009-10) version
came up afterwards. Similar launches came from Disney, by upgrading the Tron uni-
verse8.
By repositioning our discussion here about the game and film dialogue, we may
see in video TM approaches establishing a more direct link. The Lost Experience
(2004) ARG is a TM maneuver too, like Lost: Missing Pieces (Mobisodes/Websodes)
(Bender, J., 2007). The elements we identify are both passive and interactive footage9.
4 Especially episode 8 (directed by Frakes, J., 2013).
5 The movie universe of Morpheus, Neo and Trinity, along with The Matrix Reloaded (Idem,
L., 2003), The Matrix Revolutions (Idem, 2003) and The Animatrix (Chung, P., et al, 2003)
builds up a narrative so big, that only players of Enter The Matrix (2003) and The Matrix: Path
of Neo (2005) were really comprehending what the whole story was all about. Not to mention,
The Matrix Online (2005).
6 Players get to play different history moments in Assassin’s Creed II (Ubisoft Montreal, 2009)
or in Assassin’s Creed IV: Black Flag (Ubisoft, 2013), but everything is related with webmovi-
es [Assassin's Creed: Lineage 1 (26 October, 2009) and Lineage 2 (17 November, 2009)] and
even books (Assassin's Creed: Desmond [comic] (Ubisoft, France-Belgium, 2009).
7 In which players control play any of the primary characters of the famous movies of Aliens or
Predator, and manage to see the story from three points of view.
8 By Tron Legacy Interactive Graphic Novel (Disney Digital Books, ScrollMotion, Stefano, A.,
et al, 2011) and Tron Legacy (Disney Digital Books, 2011), the comic.
9 Some examples seem retro but trigger new TMG events, like the upcoming Half-Life movie,
out of a partnership between J.J. Abrams' Bad Robot Productions and Gabe Newell's Valve
Software, since the fan film Half-Life: Raise The Bar got online (Machinima Prime, 4 October,
2013). The idea came from fans, as it did in the Metal Gear Solid: Philantropy Part 1 and 2
While new narratives are stitched together now, in previous TMG what we had was
more like a parallel narrative. It happens in The Running Man game version of the
movie with the same name (1987). Even though we may witness cases of dialogue
from games to film and otherwise, or from games to other media, we have say that
The Matrix universe stands as pioneer in the TMG scene10. Before The Matrix the
game-film dialogue is not marketing-driven from scratch. There are stories side-by-
side, objects which have resemblance, there are similar universes, but no technologi-
cal homogeneity nor narrative major design. It’s a fragmented mediascape. This is
why we call it “Fake TM”, as every game becomes a comic or a movie, regardless of
which medium meets release in the first place. Stories play out in a disconnected
manner.
One thing is to have a big narrative to which we plug into, and interplay works;
while another is to have one fiction world merely emerging in different mediums that
are consumed differently. Total TMG solves this last part.
In 1991 Toffler notices a “multi-channel society” (372), and today, narratives
would not be a consumer product if there would be no multi-channels to go back to,
as he pointed out. For Jenkins in 2006, “convergence” or TM it is something "(...)
integrating multiple texts to create a narrative so large that it cannot be contained
within a single medium" (95). The reason why we make convergence work is because
we own different platforms. We are not into one medium, we are purchasing ranges of
products. As a consequence, audiences can move across media.
Simon Bond is one of the authors noticing TM and marketing strategies as an in-
teresting phenomenon. He says if we "use this knowledge to hone how screen-specific
messages can work in unison in a multiscreen environment for maximum effect. No
marketer has done this yet, but one soon will. And others will follow" (2012, 34). It
means that now we surely are in the “multi”media age. But it has been a potential for
marketing since ever. “Integration” is what makes audiences connect with the me-
dia11.
3 Introducing New Perspectives
The breaking point in TMG is what Lost had already in its TM form: it provided
new entry-points” (Sasaki, 2012, 2) for audiences. Following this, "a transmedia
fictional world is one in which the viewers can lose themselves in a range of different
contexts and in which (….) the relationship between text, viewer and technology
come into play" (Evans, 2011, 39). So contexts, platforms and media types are some-
thing that matters. Storytelling as to work despite the differences of any element. In
movies (Hive Division, Talamini, G., 2009), being the latter both inspired in the MGS game
universe (Kojima, H., Konami).
10 Even with The Matrix comic prequels available in www.whatisthematrix.com (Access in
April, 1999).
11 Researchers as Evans notice too how "Transmedia narratives such as Lost and Heroes
(NBC, 20062010) offered greater integration" (2011, 179).
TMG the challenge is one level above, because TV, film and games are speaking
different engagement codes with the audience.
Usually, games are more studied as sociological issues or according to interface
and programming themes, while TV causes many media studies and audience re-
search to appear under the guidelines of reception of contents. There is a lot of con-
cern about how games are made, and also how TV is understood. For this study of
ours, since the object of study is TMG, more specifically QB, the videogame made by
Remedy aspiring boldly to bridge the gap between both TV and game world, we
choose to face the issue as a matter of digital media study. By examining previous
media releases in terms of games, TV series, and motion pictures, we are able to point
out patterns and connections between fiction domains, platforms and the kind of audi-
ences these elements outline.
Rather than choosing narratology or ludology, we choose to understand the rela-
tionships between elements in order to see how people consume this fiction worlds
(such as Lost is a major example); and secondly we ask “how could a TMG game
establish a new domain?”
New perspectives are to be considered here. We could say, as Paul Magill, that im-
posed cultural authority is replaced by an “offered cultural resource” (2003, 3). And
this resources work with “images”. The media are making images available and we
are their “connectors”. The problem is that these images are no longer just “graphic”.
We live in a "post-image" era. "There is 'no longer any distinction between text and
image, (…) everything is now image'" (Bruce Mau in Lunenfeld, 2011, 55).
In this context, audiences are consuming images, narratives, something big, digital-
ly plastic, crossing any platform. There is a transition from text to context. In Sasaki's
regard, for example, TM narrative is all about "multilayered plots" (2012, 23), which
triggers new things, such as the idea of a media-environment12. As a consequence of
this surrounding, we tend to look for things, we become “searchers" (Lunenfeld,
2011, xv-xvi), a typical condition of the post-television age.
Maybe we should look at TMG and the non-linear narrative plots as a revolution in
interfaces. Usually, a user interface is understood as pertaining to human-computer
interaction (Shedroff, Noessel, 2013, 3). It is still "all parts of a thing that enable its
use" (Idem, Ibidem). And when it comes to TMG, we are on the fringe of TV, books
and film, gaming and cinema, and text and image. This is why we are all "interfacing"
with contents, TV shows, websites, social media, and games with stories that never
end. There is a new interface at question in TMG, especially in QB.
Dealing with TMG is about solving "technological discontinuity”. And the new
model is brought by Lost. Lost stands as a language format and a media system for
TM, not just a TV series. We think TMGs and narratives share the same engagement
type.
What is occurring is that on one side there is passive-unleashed imagery, whereas
active-interactive imagery lies on the other. TMG is becoming a model to make TV-
12 Perhaps we are becoming "prisoners of the nexus" (Baudrillard, 2010, 37), as we are beco-
ming more “viewsers” (Sasaki, 2012, 2). It is getting harder to distinguish the viewer condition
from the user condition, as all things are image, displayed on screens, and digital platforms
surround us.
video-film concepts closer to gaming-VR experiences. It is as if wherever we go,
there is the story, the experience. “Images become a meaningful text in their own
right" (Freedman in Kackman et al, 2011, 207). For the casual consumer each story
makes sense, while for the narrative devotee any part assembles something greater.
This is why Lunenfeld’s idea of the “searchers” makes sense. After all, a fragmented
media landscape, the media types and the new audience behavior trigger "connecting"
events. Having a versatile storytelling enhances flow, continuity and simultaneity in
narrative consumption.
It is true that audiences can now move across media; from television displays to
mobile media (Evans, 2011, 40). We see that new figures are popping out of the new
framework. Searching is becoming a default setting in-between watch and play. These
are emancipated audiences, used to turn on many media simultaneously. According to
one recent Google report, "Search is the most common bridge between devices in this
sequential [or simultaneous] usage" (2012, 3). In effect, a new culture is rising, which
is search culture, "fundamentally, based on conversational interaction and social par-
ticipation, and it is booming" (Spurgeon, 2008, 25). The reason why curious audienc-
es engage with puzzles is that they know and want to play and watch. They don’t
mind at all to search13.
4 Providing Concrete Results
Many game to film or TV dialogues are to be considered as “Fake TM”. One may
distinguish these items, which are "Sequentials" (40 objects), linked between each
other superficially, from those being "Interactive" (53 objects), thus interconnecting
up with fiction items and/or add up interaction agency. The single total TM, and TMG
object, is QB14. Despite this, we had to examine 29 video games, 35 films, 5 TV se-
ries and 2 anime movies. The total amount of videography ascends to 87 objects,
already integrating the 16 TM items exclusively analyzed for this article.
After crossing theory, concepts and the media objects we have set ourselves to re-
view, we expect to understand how before QB separate media have prepared the con-
ditions to make TMG a reality. Besides, we hope to understand the concerns in terms
of narrative design and the digital media concepts to follow in the near future. By
comparing previous game-film dialogues and transmedia products, and crossing it
with the information provided by QB game developers, we conclude that TMG is a
working model for storytelling, digital media and truly making cross-media some-
thing for the masses, though it may begin with niche markets, because gamers and
viewers are purchasing memberships.
Until this point, we come across a question asked by Sasaki, one yet to be an-
swered: "how exactly the TM elements of the Lost formula could be applied in other
13 They are finding meaning in connector interfaces. However with no digitization, searchable
contents and TM strategies would fail.
14 By the time this research was conducted the QB version of the TV series was yet unreleased,
as well as the game; this narrowed the elements necessary to finish this work in a more accurate
way.
cases?” As for now, we know that the reason behind Lost's success is that there was
TV, Web and game audience engagement. Not only looking at games and TV, but to
digital media in a more wider sense, we hope to find in Google Reports, game devel-
oper officials’ and media researchers’ statements as well, how storytelling in a frag-
mented media landscape, media types and trends in audience behavior are triggering
"connector" events. "Big-narrative schemes" may work well, as continuityis on
too.
In present day, these are emancipated audiences, and they are product range own-
ers. They watch, search and play. According to one recent Google report, there is a
new form of interaction, whether in its sequential or simultaneous usage (2012, 3).
In our perspective TM is relying on a new "audience agency" (Evans, 2011, 95).
TV wants to engage us as games do. Spurgeon believes also "consumers of these
systems are more actively configured as users" (2008, 6), and this is the background
in which Google states we are multi-screeners (2012, 2). The problem is not about
the new TM or TMG products’ launch we witness here, but the previous TM events
that anticipate QB transmedia dialogues. We label some of the events as “Fake TM”
since most narratives were merely adapted, from TV or motion pictures to games, and
vice-versa. No narrative world was firmly designed, just parts with pre-set links in the
story.
When it comes to QB, it positions itself as true TMG. Not to mention that it sets up
story worlds, characters, multi-stranded plots, and audience-user engagement. In fact,
we may understand, TV programs are becoming an experience. And “narrative” is
that product we are all buying in one way or another (Gibson), because it is designed
to develop storytelling across multiple media in order to provide different ‘entry
points' in the story (Nicoletta Iacobacci [2008] apud Sasaki, 2012, 19-20). Due to this,
perhaps we should talk about “story 2.0” (Gottschal, 2013, 2), as we are not only con-
cerned with linear reading, watching or gameplay. It seems that at Remedy studios
[QB game developer] the future of TMG will be about “connections”; this is why they
speak of “Junction Moment[s]” (Sam Lake in Trussler, 2013, 1)15. The rules applied
by QB seem innovative.
The benefits for TMG are more audience engagement, more Web traffic in search
engines, more ads in TV series streaming sites, and people playing games with friends
and sharing moments in social media. The entire brand narrative of TMG benefits this
machination. As longs as people are looking for ways to get inside the story, this sys-
tem works. On the audience side, the benefits are more engaging stories available.
The problems are such as: narratives will be made of a text-image fusion, media pur-
chase will be exclusively digital and audience experience is entirely controlled in
webcasts, game streams and social media16.
15 Which “lead into the next episode of the show. Immediately the first scene of the show is
affected by the choice you made. It’s very much alternate content depending (…). The idea is
that it will feel relevant to the plot of the show. You’ll learn important things that you’ll need
for the game” (in Futter, 2013).
16 There is also the danger of having audiences to pay for every single bit of the experience in
the name of pursuing the next story chapters or in customization modules of characters, stories
and items. Memberships are an industry “must” to spread even more.
In sum, a new media audience is outlined, being passive optionally whenever par-
ticipation is on pause mode. Cloud computing improved story connection and en-
hanced gameplay videos shared on social media (like in Sony PS4). We have learned
with Sasaki that whenever consumer and spectator are the core of a campaign; or
whenever a consumer performs many roles (viewer, player, reader, Web surfer), a
TMG campaign is more likely to work nicely, because the same person is targeted for
that purpose (2012).
In this sense, the question here is “what is TMG exactly?”. We could advance
something as a “narrative system for bridging gaps in media types”. It is interesting
that Evans notices too that the creation of a ‘platform', becomes central" (2011, 173).
In a strategic point of view, TMG is designed to improve purchase and consumerism,
customer control and audience involvement17. Again, we may call to the discussion
the issue of interfaces”, because TMG is a new interface for viewing and playing. If
Sci-fi interfaces” help create a reality that is coherent, and makes sense for audienc-
es, then “audiences are a class of users" (Shedroff, Noessel, 2013, 310). TMG is defi-
nitely a sci-fi interface. Film becomes somehow playable and games turn out to be
viewed, rendering all of us into user-players.
The central issue is "audience agency" (Evans, 2011, 95), which is a part of TMG.
Like gamers are loyal to games rather than to the hardware, so TV viewers rather
follow shows, than programming. We see new demographics in our time, because
social geography changed. Even human interaction with digital media is altered18.
There is a new dialogue in town, and it is called transmedia.
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13. TOFFLER, A.: Os Novos Poderes. Lisbon, Portugal, Livros do Brasil (1991)
14. TRUSSLER, J.: Quantum Break to Have a “TransmediaApproach to Storytelling. Heres
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(Access in December 18, 2013)
VIDEOGRAPHY
Anime
Animatrix, The (Chung, P., et al, 2003)
Tron: Uprising (Lisberger, S., McBird, B., 2012-)
Films
007: Casino Royale (Campbell, M., 2006)
007: Skyfall (Mendes, S., 2012)
007: Quantum of Solace (Forster, M., 2008)
Avatar (Cameron, J., 2009)
Avengers, The (Whedon, J., 2012)
Blade Runner (Scott, R., 1982)
Captain America: The First Avenger (Johnston, J., 2012)
Golden Eye (Campbell, M., 1995)
Halo 4: Forward Unto Dawn (2012)
Inception (Nolan, C., 2010)
Iron man (Favreau, J., 2008)
Lara Croft: Tomb Raider (West, J., 2001)
Lord of The Rings (Jackson, P., 2001-2003)
Matrix, The (Wachowski, A. & Wachowski, L., 1999)
Matrix Reloaded, The (Wachowski, A. & Wachowski, L., 2003)
Matrix Revolutions, The (Wachowski, A. & Wachowski, L., 2003)
Predator (McTiernan, J., 1987)
Running Man, The (Glaser, P.M., 1987)
Saving Private Ryan (Steven Spielberg, 1998)
Terminator, The (Cameron, J., 1984)
Terminator 2: Judgment Day (Cameron, J., 1991)
Terminator 3: Rise of the Machines (Mostow, J., 2003).
Terminator Salvation (McG, 2011)
Thor (Branagah, K., Whedon, J., 2011)
Thor: The Dark World (Taylor, A., 2013)
Tron (Lisberger, S., 1982)
Tron Legacy (Kosinksy, J., 2010)
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TV Shows
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Videogames
Assassin’s Creed (Ubisoft Montreal, Ubisoft Entertainment, 2007, PS3)
Assassin’s Creed IV: Black Flag (Ubisoft Montreal, Ubisoft Entertainment, 2013, PS3)
Assassin’s Creed II (Ubisoft Montreal, Ubisoft Entertainment, 2009, PS3)
AVP - Aliens vs Predator (Rebellion, Sega of America, 2010, PS3)
Blade Runner (Westwood Studios, Westwood Studios, 1997, PC)
Enter The Matrix (Shiny Entertainment, Atari, Inc., 2003, Xbox)
Goldeneye (Rare, Nintendo America, 1997, N64)
Halo 2 (Bungie Studios/Microsoft, 2004, Xbox)
Half-Life (Valve, Sierra Online, 1998, PC)
Half-Life 2 (Valve, Sierra Entertainment, 2004, PC)
James Bond 007: Blood Stone (Kate Saxon, 2010, PS3)
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Matrix, The: Path of Neo (Shiny Entertainment, Atari, Inc, 2005, PS3)
Medal of Honor: Frontline (Dreamworks Interactive, EA Games, 2002, PS2)
Metal Gear Solid Digital Graphic Novel (Kojima Productions, Konami, 2006, PSP)
Metal Gear Solid II: Sons of Liberty (Kojima Productions, Konami, 2001, PS2)
Metal Gear Solid V: Ground Zeroes (Kojima Productions, Konami, 2014, PS4)
Mirror’s Edge (DICE, Electronic Arts, 2008, PS3)
Red Dead Redemption (Rock Star Sand Diego, Rock Star Games, 2010, PS3)
Running Man, The (Emerald Software, Grandslam, 1989, CBM 64)
Terminator, The (Virgin Interactive, Virgin Interactive, 1993, Sega CD)
Tomb Raider (Core Design, Eidos Interactive, 1996, PS)
Tom Clancy’s Ghost Recon: Future Soldier (Ubisoft Paris, Ubisoft, 2012, PS2)
Tron (Bally, Midway, 1982, Arcade)
Tron: Evolution (Propaganda, Disney Interactive, 2010, PS3)
X-Files, The (Hyperbole Studios, Fox Interactive, 1999, PC)
TRANSMEDIA
. Assassin's Creed: Desmond [comic] (Ubisoft, France-Belgium, 2009)
. Assassin's Creed: Lineage 2 [movie] (17 November, 2009). Available on
www.youtube.com/watch?v=fJXpcuAZb3Q (Access in 1 December, 2013).
. Assassin's Creed: Lineage 1 [movie] (26 October, 2009). Available on
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vcE8xJkK6t4 (Access in 1 December, 2013)
. Dead Space. Issue 1-6 (Electronic Arts, Johnston, A., Templesmith, B., 2008)
. Inception Animation Prequel The Cobol Job (Kirby, I., 2010)
. Lost: Missing Pieces (Mobisodes/Websodes) (Bender, J., 2007)
. Half-Life: Raise The Bar [film] (Fan film, Machinima Prime, 4 October, 2013). Available on
www.youtube.com/watch?v=YiKcWZHeMG4 (Access in 1 December, 2013)
. Metal Gear Solid: Philantropy Part 2 [film] (Hive Division, Talamini, G., 2009). Available on
www.youtube.com/watch?v=tUctkLjstIw (access in 1 December, 2013)
. Metal Gear Solid: Philantropy Part 1 [film] (Hive Division, Talamini, G., 2009). Available on
www.mgs-philanthropy.net (access in 1 December, 2013)
. Mirror’s Edge (IronMonkey Studios, EA Mobile, 2010, iPhone)
. Mirror’s Edge Comic (Wildstorm Productions, Smith, M.D., Pratchett, R., 2009-10)
. Quantum Break [videogame] (Remedy Entertainment, Microsoft Studios, 2014, Xbox One)
. Tom Clancy’s Ghost Recon: Future Soldier - Ghost Recon Alpha Official Film (Ubisoft, Little
Minx Production, Mikros Image, May 5, 2012). Available in
www.youtube.com/watch?v=le2AeTub3mo (Access in August, 2012)
. Tron Legacy Interactive Graphic Novel (Disney Digital Books, ScrollMotion, Stefano, A., et
al, 2011, Apple iPad)
. Tron Legacy [motion comic] (2011), Dir. Disney Digital Books, Apple iPad, US.
Full-text available
Article
Current trends point at narrative as a way of better doing storytelling, and as a medium in itself to accomplish brand awareness. Works of fiction are empowered by new narratives as they intersect one another through the release of new narrative films, novels, games and TV shows. In the background of today's post-modern reaction to narratives lies the fact of post-modernity declaring the fall of the grand narratives. With no massive narrative to tie ourselves together, we stand vulnerable to narratives provided by films, TV shows, gaming and new novels targeting mass adoption. To better understand this phenomena, we will analyse the Ridley Scott's Alien franchise as a case of study to search for how a story can evolve throughout the years and cross the boundaries of cinema to be present in multiple media. The subject of consistency, gender studies, technology, story world, transmedia storytelling and decentralised information will be the subjects of our analysis. One of the utmost important features we can draw as a conclusion is that the mainstream viewer, or the casual gamer, is no more the rule. These days we are all seekers and searchers, not just passive viewers.
Book
Product Description The early years of the twenty-first century have seen dramatic changes within the television industry. The development of the internet and mobile phone as platforms for content directly linked to television programming has offered a challenge to the television sets status as the sole domestic access point to audio-visual dramatic content. Viewers can engage with television without ever turning a television set on. Whilst there has already been some exploration of these changes, little attention has been paid to the audience and the extent to which these technologies are being integrated into their daily lives. Focusing on a particular period of rapid change and using case studies including Spooks, 24 and Doctor Who, Transmedia Television considers how the television industry has exploited emergent technologies and the extent to which audiences have embraced them. How has television content been transformed by shifts towards multiplatform strategies? What is the appeal of using game formats to lose oneself within a narrative world? How can television, with its ever larger screens and association with domesticity, be reconciled with the small portable, public technology of the mobile phone? What does the shift from television schedules to online downloading mean for our understanding of the television audience? Transmedia Television will consider how the relationship between television and daily life has been altered as a result of the industrys development of emerging new media technologies, and what television now means for its audiences. About the Author Elizabeth Jane Evans is lecturer in Film and Television Studies in the Department of Culture, Film and Media at the University of Nottingham. She has previously published in Media, Culture and Society and Participations.
The (Virgin Interactive, Virgin Interactive
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The: Path of Neo (Shiny Entertainment PS3) Medal of Honor: Frontline (Dreamworks Interactive, EA Games
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Story 2.0: The Surprising Thing About The Next Wave of Narrative Available in www.fastcocreate.com/3020047/ story-20-the-surprising-thing-about-the-next-wave-of-narrative
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