Article

The role of sport in community capacity building: An examination of sport for development research and practice

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Abstract

Population health promotion and preventing disease remain important global policy goals. Because of the complex nature of health, and the recognition of the limits of individual-oriented health promotion strategies, recent decades have seen increased interest by public health researchers and practitioners in community-level approaches to health promotion. Increasingly, community-level approaches have been based upon the theoretical concept of community capacity. Community capacity is seen as a critical mechanism for supporting and promoting community-level health and through the sport for development (SFD) model, there is evidence of sport being an important practice for community development. However, little is known about the potential role of sport as a mechanism for building community capacity. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to examine the efficacy of sport to contribute to the process of community capacity building. Using seven established dimensions of community capacity, there is evidence that many SFD practices can effectively facilitate dimensions of community capacity when conducted in intentional, culturally relevant ways. Specifically, sport has demonstrated efficacy in building local skills, knowledge, and resources, increasing social cohesion, facilitating structures and mechanisms for community dialog, leadership development, and encouraging civic participation. More research is needed to understand sport's ability to promote capacity building through collective action, developing value systems that support democracy and inclusion, and encouraging critical reflection. To increase the usefulness of sport to support community health development, SFD principles should be included as part of sport management university curricula. Additionally, practitioners need grounding in community and human development research to support non-sport components of programs. Finally, participatory action research techniques should be used by researchers and practitioners. Sport-based development often generates high interest from residents, funders, and policy makers. By applying principles of community capacity building, sport may be uniquely positioned to enhance sustainable community health development initiatives.

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... However, sport-for-development needs objectivity, research, and evaluation through local development programs (10). Engagement in sport and its outcomes are affected by many different factors including personal interest in sport (11), management in sport organizations (12), availability of programs to encourage engagement in sport (13), top-down approach of governmental authorities to sport, conflict of interests (12), and social factors and data (5). Moreover, the effectiveness of sport in developing health largely depends on its strategic and exclusive use for health development (14). ...
... However, sport-for-development needs objectivity, research, and evaluation through local development programs (10). Engagement in sport and its outcomes are affected by many different factors including personal interest in sport (11), management in sport organizations (12), availability of programs to encourage engagement in sport (13), top-down approach of governmental authorities to sport, conflict of interests (12), and social factors and data (5). Moreover, the effectiveness of sport in developing health largely depends on its strategic and exclusive use for health development (14). ...
... A study reported that the progressively increasing costs of engagement in sport activities and limited access to sport facilities have led to inequities in using sport facilities for health development and promotion in recent decades (13). Therefore, sport activities should be adapted to the immediate environmental conditions and non-traditional approaches (12). Moreover, sport-related values should target health development and sport organizations should accept the responsibility of health promotion instead of merely focusing on competition (15). ...
Article
Background and aims: The consequences of health development with the exercise approach affect the 4 dimensions of physical, mental, economic, and social health. The aim of this study was to present a comprehensive model to determine the contributing factors, strategies, and outcomes of sport-based health development (SBHD). Methods: This qualitative study was conducted through the grounded theory approach. Data were collected through interviews with 24 experts and authorities in health, sports, and health development who were selected through purposive and snowball sampling. Open, axial, and selective coding were used for data analysis. Trustworthiness was ensured through member checking and peer debriefing. Results: Four hundred codes were drawn during open coding and were grouped into 127 subcategories during axial coding and nineteen main categories during selective coding. The nineteen categories were assigned to the five main dimensions of the paradigm model of grounded theory. The causal conditions of SBHD were personal, cultural, and social factors; its contextual conditions were attitudinal and attitudinal factors, media, planning, and legal factors; and its intervening conditions were environmental, infrastructural, interactional, and managerial factors. Its strategies were infrastructural development, attitudinal development, technical development, and support programs and its outcomes were improvement of physical health, financial development, social development, and improvement of mental health. Conclusion: Health and sport managers and authorities need to provide an appropriate context to facilitate engagement in sports among all individuals.
... This will ensure effective, efficient and meaningful participation of local community members in tourism development that will be sustainable. Edwards (2015) denotes the building of capacity within a community to be a critical mechanism for the promoting and supporting development at community level. Such views are further echoed by Aref et al., (2010) who indicate the process to be the undertaking of initiatives that intend to provide members of the community with knowledge and skills that will empower them in making participation in decision making that will see the development of tourism not only bear fruits of an economic, but social and environmental nature, with minimal negative effects to the host destination and its people. ...
... Such views are further echoed by Aref et al., (2010) who indicate the process to be the undertaking of initiatives that intend to provide members of the community with knowledge and skills that will empower them in making participation in decision making that will see the development of tourism not only bear fruits of an economic, but social and environmental nature, with minimal negative effects to the host destination and its people. The capacity of a community within the development sphere can be described as a resource often needed for effective implementation of community development initiative which should enable seamless functioning of the said community (Edwards, 2015). Such a functionality can only be attained through the community's acquisition of requisite skills and know -how that will enable them to act together, provide indigenous resources and ultimately advance the process of development (Labonte and Laverack, 2001;Edwards, 2015). ...
... The capacity of a community within the development sphere can be described as a resource often needed for effective implementation of community development initiative which should enable seamless functioning of the said community (Edwards, 2015). Such a functionality can only be attained through the community's acquisition of requisite skills and know -how that will enable them to act together, provide indigenous resources and ultimately advance the process of development (Labonte and Laverack, 2001;Edwards, 2015). The above mentioned requisites are noted in line with the study done by Sithole et al. (2018) who found that "community participation is an essential condition for tourism development, which can lead to the creation of social capital, which in turn can result in effective community development". ...
Article
This article investigates the importance of capacity building aimed at enhancing community participation in the development of tourism in rural areas. The article was undertaken through the employment of a qualitative research approach, using semi-structured interview, which were then analysed using NVivo system, version 11, thereby producing a comprehensive observation report that allowed for presentation and discussion of the findings. The article found a common narrative indicating a chronic lack of capacity within the village to develop tourism that can sustainably support the livelihood of members of the community.
... Specifically, sport-based YDPs can be a context that promotes positive youth development (PYD) (Holt et al., 2020). The use of sport has been described by many researchers as having the potential to foster citizenship, responsibility, cooperation, leadership skills, social mobility, social cohesion, community integration, and positive peer relationships (Fraser-Thomas et al., 2005;Edwards, 2015;Jones et al., 2017). However, both Spaaij (2009) and Schulenkorf (2017) are critical of the simplistic notion that sport programs inherently lead to positive social, cultural, educational, economic, and health outcomes, a factor that was far too prevalent during the early years of Sport for Development (SFD) scholarship. ...
... While youth sport has always been socially constructed based on societal values, organized youth sport has become increasingly aligned with neoliberal ideologies that value privatization of programs (as opposed to public community programs), and promotes individual talent development, obedience to management, and competitive advantage in getting to the next level as youth sport's primary goals (Wilson and Hayhurst, 2009;Miracle and Rees, 2010). General organized youth sport approaches (e.g., competitive school sport, club sport, travel teams) that focus on competition, sport achievement, or sport development (as opposed to for development) may prioritize specialization and competitiveness at the expense of intentional overall developmental outcomes (Edwards, 2015). Additionally, organized youth sport has become increasingly exclusionary, requiring substantial financial resources, access to transportation, and parental time in order for youth to even participate and youth with lower socioeconomic backgrounds and from racial/ethnic minority groups often face considerable constraints to participation (Kuhn et al., 2021). ...
... Particularly in youth sport designed to promote psychological and social outcomes, it is important that stakeholders, especially adults, are on the same page about the goals of sport (Jones et al., 2018). To emphasize inclusion, cooperation, and socialization while deemphasizing competition and performance may diverge with the value some individuals and organizations place on sport (Edwards, 2015). Thus, conflict may be inherent in these programs if doubts about the sport program's intended purpose are present. ...
Article
Full-text available
Youth Development Programs (YDPs) can serve as effective mechanisms to alleviate social and psychological adversities while enhancing and developing resilience among youth. Recently, more YDPs have incorporated sport within Sport for Development (SFD) models to achieve these goals. Due to the growing Latino population in the US and the wide achievement gap between Latinos and other demographic populations, there is a need to explore programs that may support individual development as well as long-term change with regard to social inequality. There is also a need to better understand the ecological contexts within SFD programs and how these contexts may support underserved youth. Specifically, using an ecological systems perspective, this study seeks to explore the implementation of a sport program by a YDP in order to examine the ecological processes that may support or inhibit the efficacy of sport programs working with underserved youth. Juntos is a YDP that primarily serves Latinx youth and families by assisting youth with graduating high school and pursuing higher education opportunities. Juntos incorporates two annual soccer tournaments (i.e., Kicking it with Juntos and Copa Unidos). A qualitative case study approach was implemented in two counties in North Carolina. Interviews were conducted with tournament participants, county coordinators and planning committee members. Findings found three key themes related to three ecological levels 1. At the Microsystem level, sport was implemented to engage youth and connect to non-sport program outcomes, but divergent perceptions of goals among stakeholders potentially inhibited intentional implementation. At the Mesosystem level, sport provided a mechanism to engage in collaborative relationships and encouraged parental participation. At the Macrosystem level, sport celebrated Latino culture and attempted to address social barriers facing Latinx youth, but some aspects of culture may have created barriers to access for girls. Findings suggested that while the programs emphasized mesosystem engagement, more integration across exosystem and macrosystem levels may be needed for sustainable outcomes.
... First, is it relevant to investigate the methodologies used given the often dangerous and complex settings in which the research takes place? In particular, local settings of SFD projects are often unstable or insecure, and theoretical frameworks rarely address the contextual challenges of sport for social change practices [25][26][27]. The complexity of most SFD contexts require the development of operative research method for direct data extraction [28,29]. ...
... Second, should the research be used to support/reinforce the field practices or criticize and question actions and achievements [30]? Ridde and Dagenais [31] recommended engaging practitioners in a collaborative research, also identified by some SFD researchers to address contextual challenges [25][26][27]32]. In this sense, the conceptual (theory) and operational (practice) understanding of the key actors (e.g., administrators, stakeholders, decision makers, funders, beneficiaries) within SFD projects, allowing researchers to better understand how SFD program operates on the ground, and to form recommendations for the organization to upgrade their own project on the field. ...
... The principles of realistic evaluation were employed as a gateway to collaborate with key actors [31,33,45]. This approach allows researchers to engage participants into the research process taking into account contextual challenges [25][26][27]. With regards to the present study, this approach enabled the research team to conceptualize the SFD program following the components of the LM (i.e., context, initial problem, objectives, activities, results and impacts) and then create direct link for program evaluation. ...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction More work is needed on measuring the impact of Sport for Development (SFD) organization and on the managerial structures and processes for change. The purpose of the current study was to analyze the logic model (LM) of a SFD program in Canada that provides training for high school coaches in low socioeconomic communities in Montreal. Methods Key actors (i.e., coaches, program administrators, school directors, and sport coordinators; N = 22) were interviewed about their perceptions of the different components of the organization’s LM, namely the program’s context, the initial problem it addressed, its needs, objectives, input, output, and impacts. Findings Findings reveal the participants perceived the program as being successful by all key actors. Participants had similar understandings regarding the targeted problem and context, but their views differed regarding their understanding of the program’s activities. In addition, the key actors addressed issues of the structure and impacts of the SFD program and made suggestions to improve the program, including clarifying its objectives, reinforcing internal communication, and building stronger partnerships with the partner schools. Conclusions Findings from the present study provide recommendations to help improve the organization’s LM. In addition, these findings can help researchers and SFD administrators reinforce essential organizational program structures and activities for better management, evaluation, and improved impact on communities.
... The success of every nation rally around the youths who should not only be furnished with some level of knowledge and skills but also need to acquire a considerable amount of physical fitness. Recent researches have examined the importance of voluntary participation in physical activities which includes several health benefits and management of sports organisations (Edwards, 2015) [16] . Sports are also effective in acquiring and increasing knowledge and resources, developing local skills, increasing social solidarity, facilitating structures and mechanisms for community discourse, building leadership qualities and encouraging mass participation (Edwards, 2015) [16] . ...
... The success of every nation rally around the youths who should not only be furnished with some level of knowledge and skills but also need to acquire a considerable amount of physical fitness. Recent researches have examined the importance of voluntary participation in physical activities which includes several health benefits and management of sports organisations (Edwards, 2015) [16] . Sports are also effective in acquiring and increasing knowledge and resources, developing local skills, increasing social solidarity, facilitating structures and mechanisms for community discourse, building leadership qualities and encouraging mass participation (Edwards, 2015) [16] . ...
... Recent researches have examined the importance of voluntary participation in physical activities which includes several health benefits and management of sports organisations (Edwards, 2015) [16] . Sports are also effective in acquiring and increasing knowledge and resources, developing local skills, increasing social solidarity, facilitating structures and mechanisms for community discourse, building leadership qualities and encouraging mass participation (Edwards, 2015) [16] . Other scholarly works have identified the physical, health, psychological and mental benefits of participating in sports among children (Khan et al., 2012;Findlay & Coplan, 2008) [18,26] . ...
Article
Full-text available
Barriers and motives to participate in sports have been examined among marginalised groups in numerous pieces of literature. However, barriers and motives for sports participation among children in Muslim communities are least researched within the childhood and sports literature. The purpose of this study was to examine the primary evidence on barriers and motivators to voluntary sports participation that are faced by children in Muslim communities and to then consider how those barriers might best be addressed and how-to nature their motives in sports participation. A purposively sampled Muslim youths aged (9-15) years were selected to contribute to the discourse by the use of a questionnaire. Descriptive statistics and T-tests were used to identify the barriers and the motives and to find the differences based on gender. The results revealed that personal barriers were the most potent barrier with family barriers, cultural barriers, social barriers and psychological barriers all impact participation in sports. In terms of motives, positive attitudes and positive influences were identified as motivators for the youths. Notwithstanding, boys were found to perceive more barriers but were more motivated to participate in sports than girls. It is recommended that families and other stakeholders should assist to remove barriers to improve participation among children in Muslim societies in developing countries.
... Community capacity building (CCB) is about strengthening these capabilities and empowering communities (Ghaderi et al., 2018). While Marlier et al. (2014) examined sport as an output of capacity building in urban communities, Edwards (2015) noted a lack of research on the role of sport as a mechanism for CCB and proposed a seven-part framework to help address this gap. In the only empirical application of Edwards (2015) framework to date, explored how community sport organisations (CSOs) contribute to CCB. ...
... While Marlier et al. (2014) examined sport as an output of capacity building in urban communities, Edwards (2015) noted a lack of research on the role of sport as a mechanism for CCB and proposed a seven-part framework to help address this gap. In the only empirical application of Edwards (2015) framework to date, explored how community sport organisations (CSOs) contribute to CCB. The potential role commercial sector sport organisations can play in CCB, however, was left unclear. ...
... Using two UK-based surf parks as examples of commercial sport organisations, this study addresses the research question, how can a commercial sector sport organisation contribute to community capacity building? In so doing, this research responds to Edwards (2015) call for more empirical work exploring the links between sport and CCB. This work's commercial sport focus also complements the non-profit focus of -the only other empirical application of Edwards' CCB framework. ...
Article
Full-text available
Commercial sector sport organisations increasingly lead innovation in sport delivery and consumption. Despite this, the ways in which sport contributes to community capacity building and sport-for-development has only ever been considered from public and third sector perspectives. Using a qualitative dual case study approach in the commercial surf park context, this research examined how commercial sport organisations can contribute to community capacity building. The findings demonstrate how partnerships among commercial, public and third sector actors encouraged mutual organisational capacity building among partners, facilitated diverse inter-community ties and capacity building outcomes in the wider community. Recognising the role commercial sport actors can play in community capacity building, and equally, the potential utility of lifestyle sports in sport-for-development, engenders a more inclusive, holistic understanding of sport-for development. The findings support the contention that effective community capacity building through sport requires sport actors to align more with less-traditional partners not ordinarily considered part of the recognised sport system.
... The present study is the result of a collaborative research designed to improve the logic model (LM) of an SFD organization in Montreal called Pour 3 Points, by using various key actors perceptions. projects are often unstable or insecure, and theoretical frameworks rarely address the contextual challenges of sport for social change practices (Coalter, 2007;Edwards, 2015;Schulenkorf, 2012). The complexity of most SFD contexts require the development of operative research method for direct data extraction (Gadais, Webb, & Garcia, 2017). ...
... Second, should the research be used to support/reinforce the field practices or criticize and question actions and achievements (Gadais, 2019)? Ridde and Dagenais (2012) recommended engaging practitioners in a collaborative research, also identified by some SFD researchers to address contextual challenges (Coalter, 2007;Edwards, 2015;Peachey, Cohen, Shin, & Fusaro, 2018;Schulenkorf, 2012). In this sense, the conceptual (theory) and operational (practice) understanding of the key actors (e.g., administrators, stakeholders, decision makers, funders, beneficiaries) within SFD projects, allowing researchers to better understand how SFD program operates on the ground, and to form recommendations for the organization to upgrade their own project on the field. ...
... The principles of realistic evaluation were employed as a gateway to collaborate with key actors (Blamey & Mackenzie, 2007;Ridde & Dagenais, 2012). This approach allows researchers to engage participants into the research process taking into account contextual challenges (Coalter, 2007;Edwards, 2015;Schulenkorf, 2012). With regards to the present study, this approach enabled the research team to conceptualize the SFD program following the components of the LM (i.e., context, initial problem, objectives, activities, results and impacts) and then create direct link for program evaluation. ...
Preprint
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Introduction: More work is needed on measuring the impact of Sport for Development (SFD) organization and on the managerial structures and processes for change. The purpose of the current study was to analyze the logic model (LM) of a SFD program in Canada that provides training for high school coaches in low socioeconomic communities in Montreal. Methods: Key actors (i.e., coaches, program administrators, school directors, and sport coordinators; N=22) were interviewed about their perceptions of the different components of the organization’s LM, namely the program’s context, the initial problem it addressed, its needs, objectives, input, output, and impacts. Findings: Findings reveal the participants perceived the program as being successful by all key actors. Participants had similar understandings regarding the targeted problem and context, but their views differed regarding their understanding of the program’s activities. In addition, the key actors made suggestions to improve the program, including clarifying its objectives, reinforcing internal communication, and building stronger partnerships with the partner schools. Conclusions: Findings from the present study provide recommendations to help improve the organization’s LM. In addition, these findings can help researchers and SFD administrators reinforce essential organizational program structures and activities for better management, evaluation, and improved impact on communities.
... Regional and community sport organizations function as social pillars in our communities as they serve as the central providers of sport and recreation and as social hubs and meeting places for children, parents, athletes, spectators, and community members more broadly (Robertson et al. 2018;Spaaij 2013;Trussell 2020;Waardenburg 2016). In this way, sport offers a central gathering place for participants and their families with benefits that far exceed those associated with physical participation in sport (Edwards 2015;Eime et al. 2013;Mair 2009;Tonts 2005). Interactions in and around sport can create and sustain meaningful personal, social, and cultural experiences that can build community connectivity (Edwards 2015;Spaaij 2013), influence community relationships (Sharpe 2006;Trussell 2020), enhance civic engagement (Donovan et al. 2004;Kay and Bradbury 2009;Nichols et al. 2014), and foster a sense of community (Warner et al. 2012;Wendel et al. 2009). ...
... In this way, sport offers a central gathering place for participants and their families with benefits that far exceed those associated with physical participation in sport (Edwards 2015;Eime et al. 2013;Mair 2009;Tonts 2005). Interactions in and around sport can create and sustain meaningful personal, social, and cultural experiences that can build community connectivity (Edwards 2015;Spaaij 2013), influence community relationships (Sharpe 2006;Trussell 2020), enhance civic engagement (Donovan et al. 2004;Kay and Bradbury 2009;Nichols et al. 2014), and foster a sense of community (Warner et al. 2012;Wendel et al. 2009). Edwards (2015) advances that "the community level [in particular] may provide the best context for this connectivity to occur…with sport programs potentially providing individuals with greater access to social support than involvement in other types of community voluntary organizations" (p. ...
... Interactions in and around sport can create and sustain meaningful personal, social, and cultural experiences that can build community connectivity (Edwards 2015;Spaaij 2013), influence community relationships (Sharpe 2006;Trussell 2020), enhance civic engagement (Donovan et al. 2004;Kay and Bradbury 2009;Nichols et al. 2014), and foster a sense of community (Warner et al. 2012;Wendel et al. 2009). Edwards (2015) advances that "the community level [in particular] may provide the best context for this connectivity to occur…with sport programs potentially providing individuals with greater access to social support than involvement in other types of community voluntary organizations" (p. 11). ...
Article
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Alcohol sponsorship of sport in New Zealand, especially rugby, has a long history, but in recent times government-resourced reviews together with public health agencies, activists, and academics have proposed a ban of alcohol sponsorship of sport to help reduce alcohol-related harm. Responses to a proposed ban from a number of diverse sectors, including the alcohol industry and sport organizations, have ranged from ambiguous to resistant. Yet, the conditions for implementing a ban are poorly understood and there has been no change to state-regulated sponsorship policy to date. These widely publicized debates serve as a hotbed for discussions with provincial rugby union managers to consider the economic risks as well as the social connections between rugby clubs and cultural and civic life. In this paper, we address important new questions that query how the alcohol sponsorship debate plays out at a micro-level and the extent to which regional rugby unions may constitute a special case in terms of resistance to and the potential effects of regulation. The discussion expands the debate by drawing attention to the perceived positive effects of alcohol sponsorship as an enabler for addressing other social issues at a micro-level.
... Additionally, other researchers (e.g., Shapiro and Martin, 2014) have reported participation in physical activity fosters growth and development of friendships outside of these settings. Furthermore, Edwards (2015) pointed out that physical activity could allow consolidation of the abilities required for social co-existence and for increasing social cohesion. ...
... Therefore, the present research aimed to fill this gap by evaluating the effectiveness of organized physical activity on school behavior, psychological, and sensorimotor coordination among different groups of adolescents: adolescents with physical disabilities (Ds), adolescents with conduct disorders (CDs), and participants who had not shown signs of conduct disorders or disabilities (as a control group; Cs). On the basis of the literature (Heaven et al., 2008;Johnson, 2009;Rockhill et al., 2009;Dahan-Oliel and Shikako-Thomas, 2012;Yazicioglu et al., 2012;Hoolis et al., 2014;Shapiro and Martin, 2014;Edwards, 2015) we hypothesized that: (a) the participants in Ds group will show significantly lower scores of sensorimotor coordination in comparison to other groups, and (b) the participants in Cs group will show higher levels of school behavior in comparison to other groups. We also hypothesized that adolescents participating in organized physical activity will report significantly lower scores of psychoticism, school neuroticism and rebelliousness in comparison to adolescents not taking part in physical activity. ...
... Involvement of adolescents in an organized physical activity after school program might be a particularly promising prevention strategy. Hence, to promote school adjustment, teachers should include didactic strategies for sport physical activities to increase the involvement of adolescents with conduct disorders, as well as disabled adolescents, in organized physical activities with help from families as well as the community (Edwards, 2015;Simplican et al., 2015). The adaptation and implementation of organized physical activities grounded within school programs represents one of the most important social desiderata in order to attract adolescents who do not practice any physical activity (Butler-Kort and Hagewann, 2011;Jewett et al., 2014;Nair et al., 2015). ...
Article
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It is now well-established that physical activity has positive effects on both physical and mental health. However, the influence of organized physical activity (i.e., programs controlled and supervised by a trainer) on school adaptive behavior of adolescents with disabilities and/or behavioral disorders remains unclear. School behavior adaptation involves the ability to learn, conform to school norms and manage school activities without major behavior conflicts. A cross-sectional study was conducted to test the differences between organized physical activity and non-organized physical activity in an after school program. Eighty Romanian adolescents were recruited and allocated to three groups: (a) with disabilities [Ds; N = 17, Mage = 14.55 years (SD = 1.16), 12 males and 5 females], (b) with conduct disorders [CDs, N = 21, Mage = 14.52 years (SD = 1.11) 16 males and 5 females], and (c) participants who had not shown signs of conduct disorders or disabilities [as a control group; N = 42, Mage = 14.2 years (SD = 0.46) 20 males and 22 females]. Personality traits, school behavior, and sensorimotor coordination were assessed by using the Eysenck personality questionnaire—junior scale, school in-adaptability questionnaire scale, and Vienna Test System Sport (SMK— sensorimotor coordination test) respectively. Multivariate analysis of variance MANOVA (3 � 3) and discriminant analysis were used to examine differences between the psychological and sensorimotor coordination outcomes across three groups and three types of physical activity context: (a) organized physical activity, (b) non-organized physical activity, and (c) no physical activity. The findings indicate that not participating in an organized physical activity program results in a reduced level of physical mobility and consequently is associated with maladaptive social and psychological outcomes. Thus, we argued that attending in an organized physical activity program is more beneficial for participants with disabilities and/or behavior disorders, due to an increase in the probability of school integration and development of their motor skills. Clearly more research is needed in order to investigate these effects in neurophysiological levels.
... The contemporary sport retains the potential for either positive or negative effects on the community. On the positive side, sport offers a significant opportunity to build community capacity through the interaction of social, organizational, and human capital or resources, increase social cohesion and community-level health, and provide structure for community dialog (Edwards, 2015). Alongside the role of sport in promoting community capacity, sport has been acknowledged as a conduit for urban regeneration and city development by promoting a sport-city brand and a hub for economic and social development (Smith, 2005). ...
... For example, participation in sport increases self-efficacy and self-esteem through greater physical and mental well-being (Kim et al., 2020;Kim & Kim, 2021;Kim et al., 2021b). Such individual outcomes can, in turn, lead to community-level benefits such as increased prosocial behavior, enhanced community health, and reduced crime (Coalter, 2007;Edwards, 2015). Accordingly, there is an interaction effect between individuals and the community via the outcomes of various sport initiatives. ...
Article
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Given the impact of COVID-19 on socioeconomic conditions, community resilience (the adaptive capability in response to adverse events through processing or using community resources) has become an increasingly critical agenda in communities. In the context of resilience, a smart tourism city could be a solution for enhancing community resilience. Thus, it is important to identify available community resources to help people cope with adversity, which can contribute to the overriding goal of a smart tourism city. To do this, we aim to provide empirical evidence on the spatial spillover effects of sport industry clusters as community resilience to advance the building of a resilient smart tourism city. Using spatial econometric modeling with spatial data, we measure the spatial spillover effects of sport industry clusters on community resilience in the United States. The findings reveal the significant spatial spillover effects of sport industry clusters on community resilience within a specific region and across surrounding regions. The findings of this study provide policymakers and practitioners with spatial information on regional sport industry clusters as community resources that are locally bound and specialize in smart tourism and planning to enhance community resilience.
... Past research acknowledged that SFD programs can facilitate a positive environment for human capital development (Lawson 2005). According to Edwards (2015), purpose-built SFD programs can foster knowledge, skills and abilities. Researchers consider that peer-led SFD programs may be useful for community capacity building (Jeanes 2013;Spaaij and Jeanes 2012). ...
... Bryan (2017) identified that individual-level learning efforts in a non-profit organisational context may result in organisational-level capacity building. According to Edwards (2015), SFD programs may lead to capacity building where such programs facilitate and support the development of community and human development components. Although past research clearly indicates that HRD components are critical for the success of any SFD program, not many SFD research projects in the past have used HRD theories to evaluate SFD programs. ...
Article
This article aims to contribute to the application of human resources systems and practices in a sport-for-development program for community development. Using a qualitative research approach, this study collected a series of data over a period of 24 months in a rural community setting in India. This article reveals that inputs such as soccer peer-coaching knowledge and opportunities for training not only develop coaching and playing skills and abilities but also can create a socially cohesive space to foster individual, group and community capacity building for improved sport-for-development program outcomes. Using social movement theory, this article illustrates that soccer peer-coaching knowledge can be an enabler in recruiting, training and incentivising participants and volunteer coaches for social action. This article provides a practical and theoretical understanding of using knowledge, skills and abilities to mobilise individuals and assist in the delivery of a sustainable sport-for-development program in a community setting. Key points 1 Knowledge, skills and ability development were effective in recruitment, training and incentivisation of volunteers. 2 Human resource development systems and practices can be enablers for community development initiatives. 3 Opportunities for regular coaching and training created social space for meaningful social interaction. 4 Human resource development systems and practices can be enablers in sustainable sport-for-development delivery.
... Analyzing Third places, it emerges how sport, defined as micropublic places (Amin, 2002), can generate conditions of social inclusion or exclusion; in fact, it is a tool for social cohesion, making empowerment possible. Furthermore, it can be considered an instrument of social intervention and prevention, especially for people at risk for physical, mental, and social problems; and it is also a place to promote intercultural exchanges and resolve conflicts (Edwards, 2014;Jeanes et al., 2018;Puente-Maxera et al., 2020). In addition, sports can also represent places of marginalization and discrimination towards disabled or those who do not belong to the dominant culture (Jeanes et al., 2018;Shaw, 2019). ...
... An oxymoron that distinguishes many of the situations perceived and captured by the participants: the pomp of some streets is contrasted with the presence of marginalization and poverty embodied in figures such as beggars and homeless people. Furthermore, from the data, in accordance with the literature (Edwards, 2014), even young adults have pointed out how "sporting places" can be places of inclusion, as it regards the interactions between different people, because they facilitate the participation of even the most disadvantaged categories, but participants also point out how these places risk becoming places of exclusion when competitiveness becomes the main aim. The "religious places", moreover, have been defined by young adults as places of inclusion, that allow interactions and meetings between people. ...
Article
In the literature places have been defined as First (home), Second (work and school) and Third places (physical and virtual). The present study aims to analyze the perception of inclusion/exclusion that young adults have of the places that they live. The research was conducted using the Photovoice technique and involved 50 young Italian adults. Results highlight how participants perceive some Second and Third places in most cases as inclusive places, even if they highlight the exclusion dimension for some categories of people. We think that reflecting on inclusive/exclusive places can stimulate greater awareness and sense of belonging, which affect well-being.
... Developing community capacity has been recognised as important when trying to change local communities through sport. Edwards (2015) and Svensson and Levine (2017) have listed seven principles for building community capacity. The first is to develop physical and human resources in terms of access and skills, networks and partnerships, infrastructure and knowledge. ...
... The principles for building community capacity (Edwards, 2015;Svensson and Levine, 2017) are all taken up by FDF in its mission to 'change the world' and its vision of 'all girls in the world getting access to their rights and the opportunity to reach their full potential' by building 'structures and safe places through education, support and inspiration'. The leading principle in public pedagogy as inspiration is to create a shared value system (direction) by reaching out to the masses and raising money through marketing, products and presentations in the civil and company sector. ...
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Sport is a key educational and leadership arena for societal change and today’s sustainability challenges. Sports organisations have the potential to provide, initiate and create processes, situations and spaces for learning, socialisation and meaning making that go beyond traditional schooling and lead community change and capacity building towards sustainable development. This article is located in the research fields of public pedagogy and the intersection of leadership and sport for development, and contributes knowledge about how sports organisations’ public pedagogical practices and leadership support community change towards sustainability. The study is confined to soccer and the non-governmental sports organisation Futebol dá força (Football gives strength). The approach of public pedagogical leadership is developed and used to analyse and reflect on the function of sports organisations’ pedagogical leadership in community change and capacity building towards sustainability.
... Academic research and sports promotion and sports organization efficiency analyses generally focus on four major issues, namely sports for development (SFD) [5][6][7][8], sports organization efficiency management [9][10][11][12][13][14][15], sports and health promotion [5,12,[16][17][18], and public health [19][20][21]. First, the promotion of sports development and activity includes creating integrated models to enhance collaboration and accessibility [5], establishing new models for public governing bodies (PSOs) to understand sports participation [6], managing SFD and healthy lifestyles [7], and comprehensively analyzing theoretical and conceptual advancements in SFD [8]. ...
... Second, the scope and content of studies on the management and efficiency of sports organizations are relatively extensive and include conducting efficiency analyses of sports organization training activities [9], assessing the efficiency of public sports facilities and physical facilities in public spaces [10], examining the impacts of physical facilities for different sports measured through different indexes [11], implementing health promotion and comprehensive capacity-building strategies via sporting organizations [12,13], examining facilities management and sports promotion for participants with disabilities [14], and investigating the organizational capacity and performance of community sports clubs [15]. Third, sports and health promotion has always been a matter of public concern, with relevant research subjects including health promotion and the fund management strategies of sports authorities [12], the promotion of social well-being through sports and health promotion and recreation [5], the examination of sports and health promotion for research development and practice [16], the management of sports and health promotion [17], and the promotion of the dietary health of audiences through sports and mega sports events (e.g., the Olympic games) [18]. Fourth, public health is a focus of many joint efforts between the public and the government. ...
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This study provides a systematic analysis of sports promotion efficiency in 22 administrative districts in Taiwan from 2011 to 2018. We first considered sports behavior and sports information promotion and connected the multiple intermediate products using network DEA, used the public performance and outputs to measure the total efficiency of sports promotion in the 22 administrative districts, and then established the final input-output indicators. The long-term tracking of sports promotion efficiency shows that, while Taipei and Taoyuan experienced upward trends, the other 20 administrative districts saw declining trends. We also used truncated regression to identify 14 environmental variables that affected the efficiency of sports promotion in the 22 administrative districts from 2016 to 2018, with the results showing that funding, satisfaction with life, and average BMI in each administrative district were significant factors, revealing the latest trends in and measurements of governance in terms of government accessibility.
... Haslam et al., 2018). Therefore, in addition to delineating the specific social psychological processes underlying the relationships between organizational identification and well-being, our application of the SIA to health and well-being contributes to an understanding of how sport organizations may implement group-or community-level strategies for fostering population well-being (Edwards, 2015). ...
... Thus, policymakers are encouraged to work together with local sport organizations to integrate adherence to government guidance into the organizations' in-group norms, while helping organizations to redefine their boundaries to encompass more residents as in-group members. At that stage, sport organizations will be better placed to implement community-level strategies for fostering population well-being (Edwards, 2015). ...
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During crises, sport organizations are said to play an important social role by facilitating community recovery; however, the literature lacks an overarching theoretical framework to explain how. Drawing on the social identity approach, we argue sport organizations can enhance well-being during crises to the extent that they foster shared identification among current and potential members. The Organizational Identification and Well-being Framework reflects this assertion, illustrating leadership functions to create an organization's in-group identity that satisfies the needs of members in response to a crisis. It further outlines the SPRInT (Social support, Purpose and meaning, Relatedness, In-group norms, and Trust) pathways, which mediate the effect of organizational identification on member well-being. Our framework extends prior work examining organizational-level antecedents of identification with a sport organization by considering how leadership functions may foster organizational identification for individuals both internal and external to the organization. Moreover, it demonstrates how sport organizations may lead shared responses to address community needs and contribute to population well-being.
... Establishing positive peer and adult relationships is not only critical to the development of participants (Holt et al., 2017), but also engaging in authentic bottom-up approaches to program design and management (Coalter, 2013;Schulenkorf, 2012;Skinner et al., 2008). Nevertheless, prioritizing this component alongside other structural elements such as funding, facilities, and partnerships can be difficult (Jones et al., 2018), and often lost in the process is a consideration for whom these relationships are being formed (Coakley, 2011;Edwards, 2015;Hartmann & Kwauk, 2011;Jones et al., 2019). Meaningfully engaging, recruiting, and training youth and community stakeholders can be an arduous task, and many programs actually rely on external staff and volunteers to operate . ...
... As a result, monitoring and evaluation systems tend to be informed by prescriptive program models that, while theoretically informed and well-defined, do not necessarily reflect what development means to youth and communities across different sites and settings (Jeanes & Lindsey, 2014;Levermore, 2011;Lindsey & Gratton, 2012). This is reflected in recent calls for SBYD scholars and practitioners to (re)consider critical pedagogy (Haudenhuyse et al., 2012;Nols et al., 2019), the capabilities approach (Darnell & Dao, 2017;Svensson & Levine, 2017), and their contribution to community capacity building (Edwards, 2015;Jones et al., 2019). ...
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Rationale/purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine a single sport-based youth development program across a variety of contexts and examine programmatic differences and similarities that lead to positive outcomes. Research methods: Through semi-structured interviews, focus groups, and direct observation, we analyzed the program inputs and designs of ten different sites operating within the same sport-based youth development organization. Findings: Programs operating across different environments used a range of strategies to tailor the needs to its community, including changes to program design, recruitment, co-participation, and parental investment. Practical implications: Findings outline potential strategies for sport-based youth development programs to incorporate their community into the program to achieve outcomes. Research contribution: Findings suggest that individual environments are essential to a program design that creates optimal interactions, and that using local approaches can help create an environment that incites true community development rather than singular individual outcomes.
... High-quality sport settings provide youth the opportunity to connect and develop meaningful/impactful relationships with caring adult mentors and a set of peers who share similar interests. Relatedly, sports often function as a setting that nurtures a sense of community where youth can find a valued role or defined "place" within a group that is highly valued by them and their peers, parents, and others that are important to them (Blanchard et al., 2009;Edwards, 2015;Zarrett et al., 2019). These important connections to others and to one's community not only provide youth a strong social support system and opportunities for identity development, but also function to tie/connect youth to other pro-social settings/institutions, such as school, and provide important social networks that can help support the development and achievement of one's academic and career goals (Eccles & Gootman, 2002;Hodge et al., 2013). ...
Technical Report
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The Healing Power of Sport: COVID-19 and Girls’ Participation, Health, and Achievement is one of the first studies to examine ways in which sports participation among girls was impacted during the pandemic and how sport served as a protective factor against some of COVID-19’s negative impacts on behavior, mental health, and academic achievement. These findings underscore the importance of sports participation for girls, highlight the need to invest more so that all girls have access and opportunity, and can serve as a foundation for strategies that meet the needs of girls more holistically, especially those most marginalized. The declines in sport participation triggered by COVID-19 exacerbated the gender and racial inequities documented in our research report, 50 Years of Title IX: We’re Not Done Yet. This could have a profound generational effect unless we acknowledge the need and work to address it. That is why the Women’s Sports Foundation is committed to ensuring that all girls and women have equal access to sports and physical activity and the tremendous life-long benefits they provide, without barriers.
... Sport has been utilised to achieve physical, mental, and social health. (Macdonald et al., 2011;Shephard et al., 1995;Van Bottenburg, 2002) In addition, sporting activities have facilitated inclusion Baidruel Hairiel & Nurazzura, 2019;Kelly, 2015) and profoundly affected mental health (Edwards, 2015). ...
Article
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In every culture, sports are vital. Sport unites people despite physical and cultural divides, promoting them through educational institutions and social platforms. Physical and mental health may be improved by these activities. However, many of these gatherings exclude Muslims. Like other physical cultures, sport has been secularised, a crucial term of Westernization. This affects Muslim sports participation, especially in the 21st century (Industrial Revolution 4.0). The view and knowledge of Maqāṣid Al-Sharī'ah in the context of sport is vital to every practising Muslim because it hasn't been thoroughly addressed. This paper explains the importance of Maqāṣid Al-Sharī'ah in Muslim sports participation. It also addresses the problems practising Muslims confront in sports. We used secondary sources, such as peer-reviewed journals and monographs, to undertake this study. A content analysis determined the different opinions on the themes. We found Muslim scholars abandoned sports and religion research. Maqāṣid Al-Sharī'ah is likewise exceedingly exclusive, according to the discovery. In addition, practising Muslims confront additional barriers when engaging in sports, requiring the conversation and interpretation of sports specialists. Instead of adding primarily to fresh knowledge, this essay can also aid sports and education authorities, especially in most Muslim-populated nations.
... They are built by local stakeholders who understand the community services and who prioritize local experience and knowledge (Giulianotti, 2011(Giulianotti, , 2011. Otherwise, programs that are built by external entities must center local empowerment within their program model, where power is shifted over time to the local community (Edwards, 2015;Schulenkorf, 2012). Likewise, capacity building may also be best conceptualized originating from the embedded community itself, or an entity who centers the individual organization's needs and experiences in the process. ...
Article
Sport-for-development organizations (SFDs) require capacity to meet their goals and sustain their programming. However, capacity building may need to be imagined differently from other nonprofit organizations, given the distinctiveness of the SFD context. Using Millar and Doherty’s (2016) process model of capacity, we analyze the capacity-building process in an SFD context through a network of organizations engaged in a structured capacity-building program, seeking to understand the role that nuances in the context play to enable and/or constrain from the capacity-building process. Data collected from focus groups, individual interviews, field notes and workshop document(s) revealed that existing human resources capacity and passion for the cause both enabled and constrained capacity building. Furthermore, the burden of building capacity for sport and capacity for developing programming problematized the process. This suggests that capacity building in an SFD context is not a one-size-fits-all proposition and that organizations can benefit from tailored capacity-building initiatives that meet individual needs.
... Beyond the potential inclusionary practices that sports programs can offer, researchers have begun to examine whether and how programs can lead to broader inclusion for individuals. These findings have been generally positive if, again, these programs are designed intentionally to meet this inclusionary end (Edwards 2015;Rich et al. 2015). For example, sports programs can improve concepts that are closely related to individual level social inclusion such as increasing social capital, self-reliance, independence, and self-esteem (Curran et al. 2016). ...
Article
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The last ten years in Canada have seen a degree of merger between community mental health services and efforts to end homelessness, in part through the growth of a Housing First model in the homelessness sector. As efforts are made to move individuals experiencing homelessness into permanent housing, one component being explored is how to anchor people into communities while they manage ongoing mental health concerns. Sport has been identified as one potential modality of building social inclusion. In this paper, a mixed methods evaluation is presented on a program intended to increase social inclusion through sports geared towards those living with mental health challenges and/or experiencing homelessness. Results showed that the program was a ‘Refuge’ for people with complex and challenging lives, that participants found a sense of ‘Fellowship’, and discovered ‘New Energy’. It is concluded that community sports programs might offer a promising intervention to move community integration from aspiration to reality.
... Hatta özellikle sporun sosyalleşme sürecindeki etkilerine baktığımızda, kişiler ve toplumlar arasında kardeşlik ve dostluk geliştirip pekiştirmesinin yanında dünya barışına katkı sağladığını da söyleyebiliriz (192). Edwars, (193) (197). ...
Thesis
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Amaç: Bu çalışmanın amacını Suriyeli öğrencilerin ders dışı sportif etkinliklere Türk öğrencilerle birlikte katılmalarının okula bağlanmalarına ve yaşam doyumlarına etkisinin incelenmesi oluşturmaktadır. Materyal ve Metot: Bu çalışmada, ön-test son-test kontrol gruplu tam deneysel desen kullanılmıştır. Çalışma 2021-2022 eğitim-öğretim yılında Gaziantep ilinin İslahiye ilçesinde bulunan bir ortaokulda gerçekleşmiştir. Çalışmada yer alan 136 öğrencinin yarısını deney (n=68), yarısını kontrol (n=68) grubu oluşturmuştur. Deney grubunda yer alana Suriyeli (n=34) ve Türk öğrencilere (n=34) ders dışı egzersiz programı uygulanırken kontrol grubuna herhangi bir müdahalede bulunulmamıştır. Veri toplama aracı olarak “Yaşam Doyum Ölçeği” ve “Okula Bağlanma Ölçeği” kullanılmıştır. Çalışmada elde edilen verilerin analizinde MANCOVA, bağımlı gruplar t testi ve bağımsız gruplar t testi uygulanmıştır. Bulgular: Suriyeli öğrencilerin okula bağlanma ve yaşam doyumları puanlarında diğer gruplara göre genel olarak son test puanlarının daha yüksek olduğu bulunmuştur. Uygulanan müdahale programının özellikle Suriyeli erkek öğrenci gruplarının okula bağlanma ve yaşam doyumu puanlarında önemli bir artışa yol açtığı görülmüştür. Türk öğrencilerde ise deneysel işlem sonrasında anlamlı bir farklılık bulunamamıştır. Sonuç: Bu sonuçlara dayanılarak özellikle etnik köken açısında karma okullarda mülteci öğrencilerin yaşam doyumlarının ve okula olan bağlılıklarının arttırılması, arkadaşlarıyla ve öğretmenleriyle olan ilişkilerinin geliştirilmesi adına ders dışı sportif içerikli etkinliklere katılımlarının sağlanması önemlidir. Anahtar Kelimeler: Mülteci öğrenci, Suriyeli öğrenci, sportif etkinlikler, okula bağlanma, yaşam doyumu
... Preuss (2007) argues, and reinforced by Agha et al. (2012), that if events legacies are to be achieved, local stakeholders must be aware, informed and involved. This guiding framework presents an attempt to explore the impacts of community change through social conditions that impact a range of local and community stakeholders when exploring social event impacts (Edwards, 2015). ...
... sport does not always do this, nor does it necessarily try" (also Doherty and Rich, 2015, p. 131;also Chalip, 2015;Schlesinger and Doherty, 2021). The contribution of organized sport to community development may not be the primary or even overt intention of community sport organizations (Vail, 2007;Edwards, 2015), but nonetheless they are believed, expected, and known to play that role. The Canadian Centre for Ethics in Sport [CCES] (2018) report on Canadians' Attitudes Towards Sport indicates that the large majority of Canadians believe community-level sport can contribute to good health (91%) and can instill character in youth (84%). ...
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This study presents the landscape of private community sport organizations in the City of London, Ontario, Canada based on a profile of organizational features that align conceptually with critical aspects of community development. Features representing the scope—variety of sports offered, program age targets, and other offerings—and operations—nonprofit/commercial sector, open/closed program type, independent/affiliated/franchise status, and shared/exclusive facility use—of community sport organizations were captured from publicly available information about the population of 218 organizations. The location of sport delivery points for each organization was also mapped. The landscape is characterized by a balance of nonprofit and commercial organizations, offering a wide variety of sports, across all ages and City districts, but predominantly offered through closed programming that typically requires an extended financial commitment. Community sport organizations in this city are also most likely to operate independently, and share facilities. These features, and the landscape, are conceptualized as having implications for access, social inclusion, engagement and citizenship, and social capital that are fundamental to community development. Mapping the landscape in this community provides a valuable resource for understanding that potential.
... Epidemiological research further suggests that regular PA can also positively influence individuals' mental and psychosocial status, including improvement of mood (Ströhle, 2009) and a reduction of symptoms related to depression, anxiety, and emotional distress . Finally, from a social perspective, PA has been shown to foster the development of new networks; build local skills, knowledge, and resources; facilitate civic participation and social capital; and improve integration, inclusion and cohesion in community settings (Bailey, 2005;Edwards, 2015;Spaaij, 2012). ...
Article
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Against the background of ever-rising non-communicable disease rates, an area that has received increased attention from sport-for-development practitioners and academics is sport-for-health (SFH). SFH projects attempt to contribute to the development of healthy lifestyle behavior and physically active societies through sport-related programs and interventions. The purpose of this paper was to explore the socio-managerial challenges and opportunities of a netball-based SFH program in Tonga. Based on local focus group and interview data, findings were grouped under five overarching themes: strategic management of volunteer network, sociocultural barriers, public space management, events and tournaments as incentives, and collaboration across local and national sports. In discussing these findings in context, we provide implications for managing culturally sensitive SFH projects in the Pacific region and beyond.
... On a social level, the practice of sport can provide safe spaces and reduce antisocial behavior among children belonging to minority groups (Stodolska et al., 2014). It can also develop citizenship, cooperation, leadership skills, mobility, social cohesion, community integration, and positive peer relationships (Edwards, 2015). In addition, it may encourage prosocial behavior (Carreres Ponsoda et al., 2012) and broaden social horizons by linking participants with various institutional actors (Spaaij, 2012). ...
Article
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This study focused on lessons learned from the Physical Education Curriculum under the reign of Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS). We conducted an unprecedented analysis of ISIS primary school physical education curriculum. The research objective focused on describing and analyzing the context and intentions of the document as well as its content (didactic, pedagogy, learning assessment, among others). We also analyzed the general scientific quality of the curriculum of physical education targeting fitness preparation by the instructor in charge of the education of the youth. In addition, our analysis focused on the philosophical and contextual issues of the manual. Findings revealed an incomplete and a rapidly developed textbook where several essential elements related to pedagogy, didactics, learning, and assessment were missing or inconsistent. The logic of military preparation under the guise of preparing the student’s physical condition was an important finding without being explicitly mentioned. Integration of religious content was present without being affirmed in the content of the lessons. We argue that the ISIS physical education curriculum appears to be committed to an absolutist/theocratic ideological or propaganda program that, among other things, promotes the preparation of the future soldiers of the ISIS army. Recommendations about secularization and the reconstruction of post-ISIS education systems are formulated.
... Within SFD literature, scholars have argued that the voices of participants should be a more central focus of programme development (Collison & Marchesseault, 2018;Darnell, 2007;Giles & Lynch, 2012;Hayhurst, 2009;Kidd, 2008). Additionally, there is a need for better mechanisms to monitor and evaluate programming (Coalter, 2007), and to include local participants in the planning and development stages of SFD ( Edwards, 2015;LeCrom & Dwyer, 2015;Nicholls et al., 2011;Schulenkorf, 2012;Spaaij et al., 2018). Given this, the use of community-based participatory research (CBPR) has grown within the field. ...
Article
With the growth of sport for development (SFD), it is increasingly important to ensure that programmes are intentionally designed to meet the needs of the communities they serve, in a way that helps build community capacity. Still, many programmes have been criticised for not considering the voices of marginalised individuals, specifically youth programme recipients, in the planning and development of SFDprogrammes. Additionally, programmes are developed from a deficit approach where only the needs or negative aspects of the community are being considered in the planning and development of programming. With these issues in mind, the purpose of this study was to assess the usefulness of photovoice as a strategic tool to give youth a voice in SFD needs and asset assessment. Additionally, it examined how practitioners can utilize the outcomes of a needs and asset assessment in planning and implementing SFD programming. The results highlight the assets and challenges that the youth participants identified and the practical use of the assessment from the perspective of programme administrators. The results suggest that photovoice can allow youth programme participants to have a genuine voice in programme development.
... However, more empirical studies are still needed to bridge the gap between the theory and practice (Welty Gadais, 2019) and several scholars have highlighted the need to better assess the efficacy of sports to influence development or peace (Chawansky, 2014). As such, theory-building has been limited in this area, from both the theory-to-practice and practice-to-theory perspectives (Lyras and Welty-Peachey, 2011;Schulenkorf, 2012;Coalter, 2013;Edwards, 2015), even if the authors have proposed milestones to begin to fill this gap (Gadais et al., 2021b). ...
Article
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More research on sport for development and peace (SDP) organizations is needed to better understand their actual contributions to the United Nations (UN) Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Yet, the unstable, restricted, or even risky contexts in which many non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and SDP agencies sometimes operate often leave researchers to face important challenges to develop effective or feasible methods to work with such organizations. This study aimed to address the ontological and epistemological questions about what should be known about a given context in an organization before setting off on fieldwork. We propose a methodology, based on an actantial model (AM), as a method to analyze the nature and context of a project, to assess the actors involved in the project, and to establish if the global cost (i.e., material, temporal, financial, and physical) for conducting fieldwork is realistic and feasible of all the parties involved in the potential project. To illustrate this process, we analyzed the nature and context of an SDP project in Madagascar as the first step for potential collaborative research. As researchers, we do not want to invest time and energy to build up a fully developed field research project with an NGO in a context where it would not be realistic or feasible to conduct such research. Actually in this context, developing a research protocol without an implementation strategy might not only be detrimental to the researchers, but also to the NGO itself, where resources are often limited. Accordingly, the results from this preliminary field research demonstrate that an AM is a relevant analytical tool for obtaining insights about the context, the actors, and their relationships within an NGO. In conclusion, this model might be a useful instrument for conducting an initial analysis for the preliminary identification of the necessary conditions for the construction of a sustainable empirical research partnership with a given SDP project.
... SFD initiatives have gained traction primarily in developing countries to address community health issues [52], but have increasingly been adopted in Western countries (e.g., Australia and Canada) to address the lack of opportunities for physical activity among marginalized populations and especially among women [53]. For rural populations in particular, SFD approaches have "demonstrated efficacy in building local skills, knowledge, and resources, increasing social cohesion, facilitating structures and mechanisms for community dialog, leadership development, and encouraging civic participation", which could lead to increased local capacity to sustain broader sports programs [54] (p. 6). To ensure the efficacy of the SFD approach, sport should be accessible and aligned with community needs, should be adaptable and evolving rather than fixed solely in tradition, and should leverage partnerships between local and outside agencies to promote sustainability [55]. ...
Article
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Background: Rural US communities experience health disparities, including a lower prevalence of physical activity (PA). However, "Positive Deviants"-rural communities with greater PA than their peers-exist. The purpose of this study was to identify the factors that help create physically active rural US communities. Methods: Stakeholder interviews, on-site intercept interviews, and in-person observations were used to form a comparative case study of two rural counties with high PA prevalence (HPAs) and one with low PA prevalence (LPA) from a southern US state, selected based on rurality and adult PA prevalence. Interview transcripts were inductively coded by three readers, resulting in a thematic structure that aligned with a Community Capital Framework, which was then used for deductive coding and analysis. Results: Fifteen stakeholder interviews, nine intercept interviews, and on-site observations were conducted. Human and Organizational Capital differed between the HPAs and LPA, manifesting as Social, Built, Financial, and Political Capital differences and a possible "spiraling-up" or cyclical effect through increasing PA and health (Human Capital), highlighting a potential causal model for future study. Conclusions: Multi-organizational PA coalitions may hold promise for rural PA by directly influencing Human and Organizational Capital in the short term and the other forms of capital in the long term.
... Liminality leads to a stronger sense of community, termed communitas (Chalip, 2006). Building on such ideas, a handful of studies have considered the relationships between social capital, community networks, capacity building, and events (Edwards, 2015;Lyras & Welty Peachey, 2011;Schulenkorf & Edwards, 2012;. ...
Article
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The purpose of this research project is to better understand how one global sport for development agency takes advantage of events to build partnerships. This study demonstrates how the current social context, as theorized in Guy Debord’s Society of the Spectacle, facilitates the implementation of what we label as a “seeing-is-believing” strategy. This strategy allows Special Olympics to capitalize on society’s fascination with events to activate partners. Accordingly, a conceptual model that synthesizes and contrasts the aims of commercial spectator sports and sport for development events is provided. This model demonstrates that events are effective partnership-building arenas because, on one hand, they offer opportunities to efficiently evaluate mission attainment. These opportunities exploit our familiarity with events and the unthreatening passivity of watching. On the other hand, events provide pretexts for getting over the initial awkwardness sometimes associated with interacting with athletes identifying with intellectual disabilities. Theoretical and practical implications of the concepts that make the seeing is believing strategy work will also be provided.
... Grand challenges are frequently global in scale and are complex in nature and can usually only be tackled by coordinating the efforts of a broad array of collaborators (George et al., 2016). The ability of the SfD sector to get people involved is one reason it was selected as the general research field for this study (Edwards, 2015;Giulianotti, 2011) as SfD agencies have a track record of leveraging the global appeal of sport to address social issues (Banda & Gultresa, 2015;Maslic, 2019;Thorpe, 2016). The general acceptance that sport produces positive impacts has contributed to transforming the SfD landscape, from involving only a handful of non-profit organisations and NGOS in the early 2000s, to an industry that currently includes hundreds of agencies worldwide (Svensson & Woods, 2017). ...
Article
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Previous literature establishes links between strategic marketing through sport and corporate social responsibility (CSR). While many corporations will leverage sports to reinforce their product and corporate brands, others will use sports as a channel for their CSR efforts aimed at tackling grand societal challenges – global issues that are so complex that multi-stakeholder partnerships are needed to make a difference. As these partnerships involve corporations, non-profits, governments, and other concerned stakeholders, implementing CSR campaigns involving multi-stakeholder partnership remains challenging. Through in-depth interviews with 14 corporate partners of a global movement that enriches the lives of individuals living with intellectual disabilities through sport, our study proposes a conceptual model that crystallizes how corporate partners are activated by the multi-stakeholder partner – our proposed sport for development Strategic Partnership Activation and Management Matrix provides insights about the importance of the frequency and formality of connection between multi-stakeholder partners. Accordingly, a discussion about how the frequency and formality of connections can contribute to producing greater brand value than traditional strategic marketing through sports is provided.
... On the social level, the practice of sport can provide safe spaces and reduce antisocial behavior among children belonging to minority groups (Stodolska et al., 2014). It can also develop citizenship, cooperation, leadership skills, mobility, social cohesion, community integration, and positive peer relationships (Edwards, 2015). In addition, it may encourage pro-social behavior (Carreres-Ponsoda et al., 2012) and broaden social horizons by linking participants with various institutional actors (Spaaij, 2012). ...
Article
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This article utilizes the theories of social bond and carnal sociology to analyze the role of the eductrainer in the sport-based intervention program DesÉquilibres. Methodologically, an action research study was carried out with three cohorts of adolescents. Our qualitative data collection was based on (a) interviews with 27 adolescents aged 14 to 17 years (cohorts 1 and 3), (b) a focus group of five eductrainers (paired with cohort 1), and (c) observant participation of cohorts 2 and 3. A thematic analysis revealed four principles-of-action constituting the social bond where risk-taking and its staging play an essential role: (a) a risky proposition to create the social bond, (b) recognition of the adult-in-the-making to anchor the social bond, (c) organization of the risky proposition to scaffold the social bond, and (d) physical commitment of the eductrainer to embody the social bond. Research has shown the potential of risk-taking to create and strengthen social bonds in the context of sports-based interventions.
... The prevalence of research examining the potential of managing sport for positive social outcomes has increased dramatically over the past two decades. This trend is evidenced by growing numbers of scholarly publications including review papers (e.g., Edwards, 2015;Schulenkorf et al., 2016) and special issues (e.g., Sherry et al., 2015;Welty Peachey, 2015;Welty Peachy et al., 2019) focused on both the social processes and positive outcomes of managing sport in various contexts. The optimistic perspective here is that sport management scholars are seeking to explore, and address concerning social issues and use sport and related areas of physical activity and recreation as a means to ameliorate social conditions. ...
Article
Within sport management scholarship, discussions of social change are becoming increasingly prevalent yet the underlying theoretical presumptions about social change are poorly (if at all) articulated. In this paper, we examine this shortcoming and challenge scholars to critically consider their social change agenda. We draw from established theories of social change to articulate how the term has been discussed more broadly in academic literature. In particular, we distinguish between individual, organizational, and community or social level changes as well as the nature of the change in question. Second, we employed a critical interpretive synthesis to consider how social change has been addressed within sport management scholarship. In doing so, we identify both where sport management literature has aligned with the broader social change literature as well as where it has not. Finally, we offer future considerations for sport management scholars interrogating social change, that involves a critical consideration of both level and nature of change.
... The study findings also provide support for community-level intervention to promote residents' physical, psychological, social relationships, and environment perception (i.e., dimensions of QOL) (Edwards, 2015;H. Huang & Humphreys, 2012). ...
Article
This study examined serial multiple mediation effects to explain how participating in a recurring local sport event evolves into events support, contributes to community attachment, and affects the quality of life of residents who participated in the event. Using a web-based survey, 486 responses from marathon runners living in the hosting community were used for data analysis. Results confirmed the focal relationship between event satisfaction and resident marathon runners' perception of their quality of life. Further analysis validated the sequential effects of participant satisfaction with the marathon event on supporting the event, developing community attachment, and improving quality of life. The findings suggest that hosting a recurring sport event presents a great opportunity for event organizers to enhance residents' quality of life. Event organizers should maintain the performance of the recurring event to satisfy event participants and may develop partnerships with various organizations to enhance event participants' quality of life. ARTICLE HISTORY KEYWORDS Bottom-up theory of life satisfaction; marathon event satisfaction; community attachment; quality of life; serial multiple mediation model
... For instance, people that practice sport generally experiences lower stress or depressive symptoms compared to those who do not have an active lifestyle (Ruseski, Humphreys, Hallman, Wicker, & Breuer, 2014). At the community level, sport also provides opportunities for social interaction, social capital, and social inclusion enhancement (Edwards, 2015;Gozzoli, D'Angelo, & Confalonieri, 2013;Sanch ez, Gozzoli, & D'Angelo, 2013;Scotto di Luzio, Procentese, & Guillet-Descas, 2019). As reported by Bailey (2008), recreational activities provide participants with a cross-community environment. ...
Article
The participation of immigrants in the host community is recognized in the literature as an important protective factor of integration and well-being. Research suggests that there are psychological and social benefits to community engagement, but also differences among forms of participation. The first aim is to compare levels of Sense of Community and Self-esteem in engaged and not engaged immigrant youth. Within the subgroup of engaged youth, the second and the third aims are to identify the differences in self-esteem, sense of community (aim 2), motivations, and barriers (aim 3), of those engaged in prosocial activities and in recreational ones. Participants are 510 Italian immigrant youth aged from 19 to 29 (M = 23.75, SD = 2.92). ANOVA results show that (1) engaged immigrant youths report higher levels of both Sense of Community and Self-Esteem than not engaged ones; (2) for engaged youth, recreational activities better support these outcomes than prosocial; (3) immigrants youths engaged in prosocial activities reported higher levels of prosocial values than those engaged in recreation activities. These last perceive as barriers the difficulty in the Italian language, not having enough information regarding the volunteer and fear of conflicts more than other groups; those engaged in prosocial activities report health-related problems.
... Critical assessment of the current sport policy landscape is needed to consider how newcomer youth are (or are not) welcomed to participate (Jones et al., 2018). As outlined by Edwards (2015), intentionality is needed when fostering "social capital across unequal groups and structures" (p. 11). ...
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... Games, many of which are predecessors of modern sports [100], have always played a major role in rural life, as historical evidence shows. Today, in most rural communities, sport provides the most important grounds for social interaction [101]; thus, the presence of motivating local sport leaders is essential in rural communities' life [102]. What we can see, however, is that rural regions generally lack competent sporting professionals [103]. ...
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The present study is a synthesizing analysis of international literature on correlations between sustainability, sport, and physical activity. The study of sustainability is considered essential in modern research; its multidisciplinary approach relies on sports science and sports economics as well. There are several aspects of sustainability that are closely associated with health and health preservation; the beneficial effect of exercise on health is also widely known. For the analysis of this complex matter, our current study relied on secondary sources, and besides exploring specialist literature, it also illustrates and analyzes related statistical data. Our results highlight the correlations between living environment and physical activity, the importance of increasing individual commitment towards sustainability and using green spaces for exercising, as well as questions on social and environmental development in relation to physical activity. The study revealed the existence of highly complex links between physical environment, physical activities, and sustainability. The results section of our study provides a brief summary on the possible ways of making people physically active. Increasing physical activity is of paramount importance for achieving the objectives formulated in relation to sustainability.
... In addition, scholars have pointed to the need to challenge sociocultural and divides, whilst also confronting neo-colonial approaches to development (Darnell & Hayhurst, 2011). As such, SFD managers are encouraged to foster environments in which power and responsibility is shared, and eventually shifted towards local organizations and stakeholders to further advance local autonomy and sustainable practice (Edwards, 2015;Schulenkorf, 2010). ...
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The professionalization of sport for development (SFD) has resulted in the evolution of increasingly complex organizational environments. As such, these initiatives are often balancing divergent goals such as financial, sport and community outcomes. However, previous research provides minimal insight into how SFD managers handle such tensions, and frequently oversimplifies the realities of these conflicts. To address this knowledge gap, we aim to explore the experiences of SFD managers employed within Australian National Sporting Organizations engaged in SFD programming across Asia and the Pacific. Adopting a basic qualitative methodology, our findings demonstrate how managers are challenged with complexities, tensions, and resourcing. Drawing upon paradox theory, our results also highlight how managers navigate these challenges, including scaling back programs, collaboration, promoting work, fostering local autonomy, and seeking synergies. Through this study, we build upon theoretical understandings of SFD management roles and paradoxes. Further, we offer practical insight into the challenges and strategies of managing SFD hybrids.
... Nonetheless, the approach is useful for examining the complexities of these spaces. While spatial analysis of sport has varied, a key feature of socio-cultural and political examinations has been the attention on political conditions and the effect of these on interactions/and inactions have on participants' lives and experiences (Bale & Vertinsky, 2004;Davies, 2016;Edwards, 2015;Guschwan, 2017;Kohe & Collison, 2018). Key in this regard has been the interest afforded to notions of community as a central feature of spatial composition. ...
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Proliferation of esport has created a complex landscape of participants, communities, organisations and investors. With alluring lucrative economic, social and political incentives, the crowded esport commons have become a site of rich resource for varied interests, yet also a locale of idea sharing, community production, and collective action. Notwithstanding advantageous outcomes for some stakeholders, esport has also become a space of turbulent tribal relations, exclusion, marginalisation, and inequalities. Such issues precipitate the need for closer examination of esport spaces, relations within these communities, and the underlying ideological and moral conditions thereof. Drawing on spatial theory, and utilising data from 16 semi-structured interviews and 3 focus groups (n = 65) with key esport stakeholders, this research explored current experiences of identity and esport community membership. Our investigation focussed on esport and explored the ideological grounding, current practices and tensions present within esport communities.
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From the earliest recordings of human history, participation in sport, exercise, and physical activity (PA) has been associated with improvements in health and fitness. This relationship has been further defined by years of scientific research showing a clear causal connection between activity and health status (Conrad & White, 2016). Scholars have documented sport’s ability to combat chronic disease and improve mental health, contributing to its overall usefulness as a tool for improved health (Booth et al., 2016; Kujawska et al., 2017; Naikoo & Yaday, 2017; Sallis, 2017).
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Sexual violence in sport is prevalent and represents a serious public health concern. The social-ecological model for health promotion has been used successfully as a framework to identify individual-to-policy level factors aimed at health promotion or disease prevention. The purpose of this review was to examine both published and non-published (publicly available) SVP efforts conducted within the context of sport and make recommendations for future practice. Grey literature search methods were utilized to conduct a review of publicly available documents. This included (a) a comprehensive Google search using unique search terms that would identify SVP efforts within sport settings and (b) a review of the publicly accessible websites identified in the previous step. Following the grey literature search, and using the SVP practices identified in step one, we conducted a supplementary literature search using scientific publication search engines to identify whether the SVP practices identified in step one had associated peer-reviewed publications. Finally, we assessed various characteristics of each SVP practice including the target population, age range of intended participants, and whether the SVP had associated peer review publications. This led to the identification of 35 unique SVP practices: 25 (71%) SVP practices were assigned to the Intrapersonal level, 6 (17%) were assigned to the Interpersonal level, 9 (26%) were assigned to the Organizational level, 3 (9%) were assigned to the Community, and 2 (6%) were assigned to the Policy level. This review uncovered several important findings including a lack of multi-level SVP practices within sport, a lack of SVP practices that target children, minimal programming aimed at specifically preventing perpetration, the need to elevate policy level action, and a lack of peer-reviewed literature. Ultimately findings suggest that sport organizations ought to prioritize sexual violence prevention using national organizations for guidance.
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This article reports on a national study commissioned by Tennis Australia to assess the positive role that sport, specifically tennis, has on the lives of LGBT+ people in Australia. It explores specifically the role of tennis in building social solidarity and community capital through leisurely and organised sporting activities. Theoretically, this paper is anchored in the work of Putnam, where we demonstrate how sport promotes and bridges social capital. Scholarship that explores how sport can be a source of celebration and enjoyment for LGBT+ people remains underexplored. To gain comprehensive insights into the perceptions and lived experiences of LGBT+ tennis players, we employed a qualitative research design drawing on the methods of semi-structured interviews, focus groups, and participant observation. In total 27 interviews were conducted, 3 focus groups and over 50 hours of observations at various LGBT+ tennis clubs and tournaments in Sydney, Hobart, Perth and Melbourne. Our paper makes a significant contribution to scholarship by assessing the ways in which sport can advance inclusion efforts for LGBT+ people, and positively impact their lives and overall wellbeing. Our research clearly indicated that those who play tennis reported improvement in their mental and physical health whilst also enhancing their social capital.
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In the extant scholarship, researchers have explored barriers faced by Muslim women while participating in sporting activities; however, there is a relative dearth of literature detailing the lived experiences of Muslim women sport managers trying to deliver sporting activities to vulnerable segments in the Global South. This study aimed to explore the lived experiences of two sport managers belonging to a vulnerable segment from Pakistan. The two sport managers started their football (soccer) league in Gilgit Baltistan, Pakistan. Drawing from the principles of intersectionality, we explored the challenges faced by the sport managers and how they are countering them via using the co-constructed narrative inquiry method. The study findings showed that sport managers faced multiple barriers while endeavouring to deliver sporting activities in the region. Nevertheless, the sport managers are employing the football league to counter various social taboos and empower Gilgit Baltistan’s women.
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Purpose The purpose of this paper is to examine the community recovery efforts undertaken by Houston, Texas, sport organizations following Hurricane Harvey in 2017. Design/methodology/approach Forty-eight media articles, 138 social media posts from Houston athletes and five semi-structured interviews with Houston sport organization executives underwent a content analysis to categorize responses of disaster relief activities. All eleven categories were identified. Three themes emerged from additional analysis: organizations serving as communication hubs, earned trust and internal organizational support. Benchmark examples in key categories are also discussed. Findings This paper provided focused analysis of the reactions of several Houston area sport organizations during the immediate disaster recovery period. Organizations participated in both tangible and emotional recovery efforts. The long-term impacts of these efforts will require additional investigation. The findings of this case study are specific to the relief efforts in Houston, Texas, following Hurricane Harvey in 2017 and may not be generalizable beyond this scope. Practical implications Sport organizations and community leaders can better prepare for future disaster responses by gaining insight into the roles and procedures enacted by the Houston teams following the Hurricane in 2017. Originality/value This study provides a detailed examination of the responses of several Houston sport organizations following Hurricane Harvey, including perspectives from executives inside of the organizations. Utilizing social anchor theory, this paper expands our understanding of the impacts sport organizations may produce in their roles as social anchors during disaster relief and recovery.
Chapter
This chapter will deconstruct the value chain located within the active economy. This value chain includes community input resources (including human, economic, social/structural, built, and natural resources) which generate activities and outputs. The value of the active economy is defined by its impact on a community's economic, human, social, and environmental wellbeing. Herein, the literature associated with the impact of the active economy on the dimensions of community wellbeing is examined.
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This commentary explores a novel approach to building and managing sustainable community-based Sport for Development (SfD) organizations. Specifically, we outline the potential for place-based accelerators to support emerging local leaders in growing their capacity, leadership and social entrepreneurship capabilities, networks, and SfD organizations for sustainability. Place-based SfD accelerators could address concerns with organizational sustainability, local agency, and both individual and organizational capacity, given their innovative approach to leadership development and management, social entrepreneurship, and design thinking. Our intention in this commentary is to stimulate dialogue about the potential for place-based accelerators to support emerging local leaders, thereby leading to more sustainable community-based SfD organizations prepared to meaningfully address local issues and enact transformational social change.
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Community Sport Development Programs (CSDPs) that use an intersectoral capacity building approach have shown potential in reaching individuals in disadvantaged situations. This study has investigated how the application of capacity building principles in disadvantaged communities results in higher sport participation rates in these communities. A multiple case design was used, including six similar disadvantaged communities in Antwerp, Belgium; four communities implemented the CSDP, two communities served as control communities without CSDP. In total, 52 face-to-face interviews were held with sport, social, health, cultural, and youth organizations in these communities. Four key findings were crucial to explain the success of the CSDP according to the principles of capacity building. First, the CSDP appeared to be the missing link between sport organizations on the one hand and health, social, youth, and cultural organizations on the other hand. Second, shifting from a sport-oriented staff to a mix of sport staff, social workers and representatives of people in disadvantaged situations helped increase trust through a participatory approach. Third, CSDPs assisted sport clubs to deal with financial, organizational, and cultural pressures that arose from the influx of new members in disadvantaged situations. Finally, the CSDPs developed well-planned and integrated strategies focusing on reinforcing the existing local organizations already using sport to reach their goals. These capacity building principles were key in attaining higher sport participation for people living in disadvantaged communities.
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This work aims to investigate the key role of local community through volunteerism experience in small-scale sport events and the impact that the community engagement in small sport events can have on the local destination in terms of sustainable tourism. To do this analysis, the authors take into consideration the triple bottom line approach. Given the interdisciplinary character of sustainability, the chapter investigates the relation between small sport events and community, underlining two main aspects: the strategic role of volunteers in terms of community capabilities and the impact that small sport events have on local community in terms of social cohesion and local identity. Small-scale sport events, indeed, strengthen the sense of community and tradition, thus attracting visitors. In the last section of the chapter, an interesting case study and a series of sustainable tourism indicators are illustrated.
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The abstract for this document is available on CSA Illumina.To view the Abstract, click the Abstract button above the document title.
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This paper reports on an in-depth qualitative study of the experience of citizen participation as a leisure pursuit. Participants were involved with a Healthy Communities initiative. Findings indicated citizen participation lead to benefits associated with serious leisure and community building. Five themes reflected benefits citizens identified from their involvement with healthy communities; these were (a) learning and developing new skills, (b) becoming more vocal, (c) balance and renewal, (d) group accomplishment and ability to influence change, and (e) development of community. Participants involved in the visioning process felt greater overall benefit from their participation than those who had not been part of the original visioning exercise. Findings suggest significant implications related to self-determined directions for citizen participation and the rejuvenation of community through leisure.
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In contrast to traditional approaches to research, participatory action research calls for the active involvement of the community - including both the beneficiaries and providers of sport services - in defining research problems, executing interventions, interpreting results, and designing strategies to change existing power structures. The purpose of this paper was to analyze a participatory action research project designed to increase the access of women living below the poverty line and their families to local physical activity services. A framework developed by Green et al. (1995) formed the basis of the analysis. To place the analysis in context, the historical origins and theoretical assumptions underlying participatory action research were addressed. The case of the Women's Action Project demonstrated how the process can result in a more inclusive local sport system and, at the same time, provide a rich setting for examining organizational dynamics including collaborative decision-making, community partnerships, power imbalances, resource control, resistance to change, and nonhierarchical structures.
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Although there has been a rise in calls for participatory forms of research, there is little literature on the challenges of involving research participants in all phases of the research process. Actively involving research participants requires new strategies, new researcher and research-participant roles, and consideration of a number of ethical dilemmas. We analyzed the strategies employed and challenges encountered based on our experiences conducting feminist participatory action research with a marginalized population and a variety of community partners over 3 years. Five phases of the research process were considered including developing the research questions, building trust, collecting data, analyzing data, and communicating the results for action. Our goals were to demonstrate the relevance of a participatory approach to sport management research, while at the same time acknowledging some of the realities of engaging in this type of research.
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The aim of the study was to analyze immigration-related changes in recreational sport participation of Korean and Polish immigrants and to established the role of recreational sport in their adaptation to the new life in United States. Thirty semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with first and one and a half generation immigrants from Korea and Poland residing in metro Chicago and Urbana-Champaign areas. The findings of this study show that the majority of interviewed immigrants experienced low levels of recreational sport participation during the first post-settlement period. The social class and ethnic background of immigrants, however, heavily influenced subsequent changes in their sport participation. The study also determined that the interviewed immigrants followed three distinct paths in the adaptation process. They either (1) acculturated to the culture of the White American mainstream; (2) assimilated to the sub-culture of their own ethnic community; (3) preserved their ethnic values and promoted their ethnic group solidarity. The adaptation path chosen was dependant on immigrants' ethnic group, and their socio-economic status.
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The preservation and advancement of grassroots associations, such as community garden groups, often depend upon an association's ability to leverage a variety of resources situated within itself, that is, among its membership and outsiders whom it can convince to support its cause. With the salience of resource mobilization in mind, this study aimed to understand how the social relationships formed within community garden settings assisted community garden leaders in accessing resources. The findings suggest "leisure episodes" are particularly important to building strong ties, a common source of social capital, and therefore serve as the social lubricant for social capital production.
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AB S T R A C T Capacity building has been a topic in health promotion literature for several years. Similar constructs that preceded it include community development and community empowerment. More recent constructs, notably social capital and social cohesion, make roughly similar claims on the same social space. This space essentially describes elements of peoples' day-today relationships, conditioned and constrained by economic and political practices, that are important determinants of the quality of their lives, and of communities' healthy functioning. In this paper, we discuss capacity building as health promotion means (its instrumental value to other goals) and end (constitutive of the type of human development health promotion espouses). We describe three different uses of the term capacity building and distinguish community capacity indicators from two other types pertinent to health promotion program evaluation: population health indicators, and program-specific indicators. We review seven theoretical and empirical models of community capacity, which provide a total of nine separate capacity domains. A second article in this series takes up issues of community capacity use and measurement in health promotion planning and evaluation.
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While there is literature to suggest that community development is a promising strategy for involving marginalized citizens in local sport and recreation, little research has been done on the actualities of doing this type of work from the perspectives of those engaged in it. Based on our observations and interviews over three years with members of a community‐based project designed to increase the Involvement of women living below the poverty line in local sport and recreation, we identified six key dimensions of community development. These dimensions were highly inter‐related and included: a shared concern about a social problem requiring action, encouraging the active participation of a marginalized group, forming public sector partnerships to pool resources and build political support, adopting collaborative principles of organizing, collectively developing and implementing action plans, and re‐conceptualizing traditional notions of accountability. In this paper, we analyze each dimension by discussing the benefits and challenges encountered from the perspectives of the women on low income and the public sector partners involved in the project. We conclude that while community development is a complex and challenging strategy, it shows considerable promise for including those who are least likely to be involved in the planning and participation of local sport and recreation programs thereby increasing local governments’ ability to meet their mandates of providing access for all citizens.
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“Development” has become both a watchword and a fascination in sporting circles worldwide. Yet sport officials, policy makers, and advocates often have relatively unsophisticated understandings of development and the role of sport therein. This can result in programs and initiatives that are unfocused, ineffective, or even counterproductive. Drawing on critical theory and informed by our own research on sport-based social programs, the authors attempt to impart clarity by distinguishing two different approaches to sport and development: a dominant vision, in which sport essentially reproduces established social relations, and an interventionist approach, in which sport is intended to contribute to more fundamental change and transformation. The authors develop a critique of the former and elaborate on the latter, focusing on normative visions of the social status quo and the role of sport as an educational tool for otherwise disempowered, marginalized young people. The overarching objective is to show that practitioners interested in using sport for development however defined must recognize these theoretical issues and create appropriate programming if their intended outcomes are to be achieved.
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Drawing on the body of knowledge of social impact research, this article offers the rationale, methodology and results of the social impact of the junior component of the Australia-South Africa Sport Development Programme. Academics from different disciplines developed and refined a multidimensional, flexible impact assessment tool for the research that was undertaken in the Northern Province and the Eastern Cape in 1999. The Programme that was fed through the educational system in contexts of poverty was monitored and assessed in relation to individual and core sociological indicators at macro-, meso- and micro-levels. The change that was indicated by the presenters (school teachers), participants (children) and other national and regional stakeholders portrays perceptions and experiences of `social change' in terms of ideology, socialization, empowerment, equity and access to participation and decision-making against the background of material constraints and the manifestations of poverty.
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The building of social capital at community level is explored by assessing the impact of the Australia Africa 2006 Sport Development Programme's Active Community Clubs Initiative as a catalyst of developing networks and active citizenship in the impoverished rural village of Tshabo, in the Easter Cape Province of South Africa. Main paradigms of neo-classical capital theory (Bourdieu), Coleman's rational choice theory, network theory, Putnam's framework of civil engagement and Verweel's multi-level analysis inform the conceptual framework for analysis. Pre- and post-impact assessments utilized interviews (18 major stakeholders) and focus group sessions during three intervals over a 13-month period which included a representative sample of community leaders (n = 13), households (n = 47), volunteer coaches and administrators ( n = 28) and participants who participated in the programme (n = 121). Participation in the Active Community Club's programmes interfaced with other normative social institutional spheres to generate social capital at an individual and community level.
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Over 400 sport for development non-governmental organizations (NGOs) have formed in recent years, operating projects in more than 125 countries globally. These NGOs typically focus on sport participation in countries in the Two-Thirds World, and usually have partnerships with their more established national sports organizations in their home country. Drawing on partnership theory, the purpose of this study was to analyse tensions underpinning partnerships with high performance sport from the perspectives of staff in Swiss and Canadian sport for development NGOs. Qualitative research methods were used, including a content analysis of the two NGO websites along with various organizational documents. Key staff from each NGO were also interviewed. The findings reveal three major tensions that both NGOs encounter. The first is competing values and this was tied to different approaches to sport programme delivery and concerns that NGO programmes are seen as a feeder system for their high performance sport partners. The second tension related to gaining legitimacy. While there were benefits in being associated with the established histories of high performance sport partners, the NGOs wanted to move the sport for development agenda forward independently but found it difficult to do so. Resource dependency was a third tension identified by both NGOs that shaped and were shaped by power imbalances between sport partners. The implications of the findings for sport for development NGOs and ideas for future research are discussed.
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This qualitative study is an exploratory case analysis of First String, a Community Team Inc., a unique grassroots association founded by a small group of African Americans in Champaign, Illinois. The founders established the neighbourhood baseball league to foster a greater sense of community in neighbourhood youth. In an effort to address the lack of research on the formation of grassroots associations, the purpose of the study was to understand how and why First String was formed, and what this experience contributes to leisure studies and theory. The findings revealed the significance of nostalgia as a driving force behind the effort.
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This paper analyses the capacity of youth sport volunteering to contribute to the development of social capital. Following a review of the emergence of social capital as a key theme in UK sport policy, the paper focuses on the ability of a structured sports volunteering programme to equip young people with skills for effective volunteering, and provide opportunities for ‘social connectedness’ through sports volunteer placements. The study uses survey data (n=160) and qualitative interviews (n=10) with young people to examine how the national Step into Sport programme impacts on participants’ personal and skill development, and on their commitment to community involvement. Interviews with education and sport professionals (n=33) provide additional expert perspectives on the programme's impact on participants. Both sets of respondents report strong individual benefits to participants from their involvement, and increased social connectedness in a range of contexts. The paper concludes by considering the implications of the study for claims about the potential contribution of sport to social capital.
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Traditional delivery of sport development programs, especially at the community level, faces particular challenges under neoliberal ideology. While several issues are evident, this paper addresses only the issue of development through sport for disadvantaged communities. It reviews models where sport was employed to develop better community and citizen life outcomes and to deal with social issues previously addressed through “welfare state” processes. These new models flow out of neoliberalist state agendas to assist in fostering social inclusion and in building positive social capital in disadvantaged communities. Examples from England, Scotland, Northern Ireland and Canada are analysed and the implications for the Australian context are discussed. The discussion focuses on best practice success factors such as policy and strategy, partnerships, places and spaces, community/social development, evaluation and monitoring and sustainability. The role of traditional sports clubs and local government in delivering social inclusion programs and the emerging provision of community based sport activities by community/social development organisations is detailed. The implications for sport management, in terms of community development, community sport development and sport policy, are also discussed.
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Many sport organizations face the challenge of declining sport participation. Traditional methods of addressing this challenge such as promotional ads and top-down initiatives that ignore community needs have not succeeded in sustaining sport participation. This action research study assessed the impact of the building tennis communities model, a community development approach based on three key elements: identifying a community champion, developing collaborative partnerships, and delivering quality sport programming. Eighteen communities across Canada were supported by the national sport governing body, Tennis Canada, to participate in the study. Findings demonstrated that communities were able to identify a community champion and deliver quality programs that aimed, to increase and sustain tennis participation; however, partnership building was implemented in a very preliminary and incomplete manner. Recommendations about the benefits of using a community development approach to not only increase sport participation but also develop communities through sport are presented with implications for researchers, policy makers, and practitioners.
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Today sport and all other social institutions (e.g., religion, politics, finance) are confronted with the need to demonstrate that they are worthwhile and responsible. Sport managers should understand what sport's status is and how and why such standing occurred. Difficult decisions, often ethical in nature, will have to be made as members of the sport management societies worldwide strive to continue developing this profession and discipline. These professionals need to decide to what extent they wish to live up to the broad ideals of the programs being promoted by public, semipublic, and private agencies for people of all types and ages. Those involved with professional preparation and scholarly endeavor urgently need a theory and a disciplinary model for administrative or managerial leadership of sport on a gradually improving, sound academic basis. Practitioners need an online service that provides them with scholarly applied findings as they seek to serve in the behaviorally oriented environment of today's world.
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Civil society refers broadly to processes of collective decision-making and action that entail (a) active, uncoerced involvement; (b) trust of one's fellow citizens; (c) responsibility and care for the well-being of others; and (d) social networks featuring many horizontal relationships. There is much evidence that a robust civil society is related to a better quality of life. Unfortunately, there is also evidence that civil society is declining, squeezed by both the market and the state. Because sports and exercise are often focal points for civic engagement, these activities have the potential to become important sites its revitalization. Therefore, a crucial task is the preparation of future physical activity professionals to become change agents who recognize the need for enhancing civil society and are familiar with strategies to help bring this about. Sport sociologists should take the lead in shaping this component of professional preparation.
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This study focuses on the relationship between sport volunteerism and social capital, defined here as a resource that stems from participation in certain social networks. A position generator and a resources generator were used to measure the social capital of respondents. Results from this pilot study survey, exploring several aspects of volunteerism in sport in two Canadian communities (one in Québec, the other in Ontario), show a strong relationship between volunteerism in sport and social capital but do not allow a precise measure of the direction of this relationship. Results also show stronger relationships between sport volunteerism. and social capital when we control for gender, language, and age.
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Throughout sport management’s history, scholars have wrestled with the discipline’s appropriate home within the academy. Sport management programs are often placed within other departments or schools, with one potential home being established parks and recreation management departments. However, one of the most prevalent issues within the parks and recreation academic field is the perceived invasion of sport management into its “nest.” In a recent article in the field’s leading education journal, a prominent scholar suggests that parks and recreation programs housing sport management run the risk of undermining their mission and may ultimately face extinction. The purpose of this paper, therefore, is to offer a response to this article, and examine the position of sport management within traditional parks and recreation departments. We argue that because of the interrelatedness of the disciplines and shared ontological and epistemological roots, fostering collaboration rather than divisiveness would enhan...
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Despite the predominant policy focus on event economic impact, event organisers and host community residents are calling for attention to be paid to the social value of events. Anthropological work on events demonstrates that their celebratory nature engenders a liminoid space that can foster social value, particularly through a sense of communitas. In order to enable and amplify liminality and communitas, event organisers and host community planners should foster social interaction and prompt a feeling of celebration by enabling sociability among event visitors, creating event-related social events, facilitating informal social opportunities, producing ancillary events, and theming widely. The resulting narratives, symbols, meanings, and affect can then be leveraged to address social issues, build networks, and empower community action. These may be furthered when the arts are used to complement sport, and when commercial elements support social leverage. Future research should explore and examine the strategic and tactical bases for social leverage.
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Many sport organizations face the challenge of declining sport participation. Traditional methods of addressing this challenge such as promotional ads and top-down initiatives that ignore community needs have not succeeded in sustaining sport participation. This action research study assessed the impact of the building tennis communities model, a community development approach based on three key elements: identifying a community champion, developing collaborative partnerships, and delivering quality sport programming. Eighteen communities across Canada were supported by the national sport governing body, Tennis Canada, to participate in the study. Findings demonstrated that communities were able to identify a community champion and deliver quality programs that aimed to increase and sustain tennis participation; however, partnership building was implemented in a very preliminary and incomplete manner. Recommendations about the benefits of using a community development approach to not only increase sport participation but also develop communities through sport are presented with implications for researchers, policy makers, and practitioners.
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Starting from the overwhelming welcome that Putnam's (2000) treatise on social capital has received in government circles, we consider its relative merits for examining and understanding the role for leisure in policy strategies. To perform this critique we identify some of the key points from Putnam's work and also illustrate how it has been incorporated into a body of leisure studies literature. This is then extended to a discussion of the methodological and theoretical underpinnings of his approach and its link to civic communitarianism. We suggest that the seduction of the ‘niceness' of Putnam's formulation of social capital not only misses the point of the grimness of some people's lives but it also pays little attention to Bourdieu's point that poorer community groups tend to be at the mercy of forces over which they have little control. We argue that if the poor have become a silent emblem of the ways in which the state has more and more individualised its relationship with its citizens, it is they who also tend to be blamed for their own poverty because it is presumed that they lack social capital. This in turn encourages ‘us' to determine what is appropriate for ‘them'. As a critical response to this situation, we propose that Bourdieu's take on different forms of ‘capital' offers more productive lines for analysis. From there we go on to suggest that it might be profitable to combine Bourdieu's sociology with Sennett's recent interpretation of ‘respect' to formulate a central interpretive role for community leisure practitioners – recast as cultural intermediaries – if poorer community groups are to be better included.
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This paper explores the relationship between sport and social capital by reporting on research that examined the social provisions of individuals’ involvement in sport and non-sport community organisations. Data were collected on levels of involvement in community sport and other third sector organisations, selected demographic variables, and a measure of social support using the Social Provisions Scale (0100, 0105 and 0110). The findings support the contention that social support developed through involvement in sport organisations is stronger than that developed through involvement in non-sport community organisations, but reveal that differences in the type, tenure and intensity of involvement in sport organisations had no significant impact on the strength of support developed.
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